Storm surge

storm tidetidal surgestorm surgesstorm floodsurgetidestidal surgesstorm-surgetidal wavestorm tides
A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides.wikipedia
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Tropical cyclone

hurricanetropical stormhurricanes
A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides.
Coastal damage may be caused by strong winds and rain, high waves (due to winds), storm surges (due to wind and severe pressure changes), and the potential of spawning tornadoes.

Tide

tidallow tidehigh tide
A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides.
While tides are usually the largest source of short-term sea-level fluctuations, sea levels are also subject to forces such as wind and barometric pressure changes, resulting in storm surges, especially in shallow seas and near coasts.

1970 Bhola cyclone

Bhola cyclonecycloneOperation Burlap
The deadliest storm surge on record was the 1970 Bhola cyclone, which killed up to 500,000 people in the area of the Bay of Bengal.
At least 500,000 people lost their lives in the storm, primarily as a result of the storm surge that flooded much of the low-lying islands of the Ganges Delta.

Cyclone Nargis

Nargis2008 Cyclone Nargis2008 Myanmar cyclone
The deadliest storm surge in the twenty-first century was caused by the Cyclone Nargis, which killed more than 138,000 people in Myanmar in May 2008.
The cyclone made landfall in Myanmar on Friday, 2 May 2008, sending a storm surge 40 kilometres up the densely populated Irrawaddy delta, causing catastrophic destruction and at least 138,373 fatalities.

Saffir–Simpson scale

major hurricaneCategory 5Category 1 hurricane
The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, a Category 4 hurricane that struck Galveston, Texas, drove a devastating surge ashore; between 6,000 and 12,000 lives were lost, making it the deadliest natural disaster ever to strike the United States.
There is some criticism of the SSHWS for not accounting for rain, storm surge, and other important factors, but SSHWS defenders say that part of the goal of SSHWS is to be straightforward and simple to understand.

Typhoon Haiyan

HaiyanTyphoon Haiyan (Yolanda)Typhoon Yolanda
The next deadliest in this century was caused by the Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which killed more than 6,000 people in the central Philippines in 2013 and resulted in economic losses estimated at $14 billion (USD).
On Kayangel in Palau, a high storm surge damaged several houses, while strong winds downed trees.

Tsunami

tsunamistidal waveseaquake
A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides.
Meteotsunamis should not be confused with storm surges, which are local increases in sea level associated with the low barometric pressure of passing tropical cyclones, nor should they be confused with setup, the temporary local raising of sea level caused by strong on-shore winds.

Hurricane Camille

CamilleHurricane Camille Hurricane PartyTropical Storm Camille
Another record storm surge occurred in this same area from Hurricane Camille in 1969, with a storm tide of 24.6 ft (7.5 m), also at Pass Christian.
Camille caused tremendous damage in its wake, and also produced a peak official storm surge of 24 ft. The hurricane flattened nearly everything along the coast of the U.S. state of Mississippi, and caused additional flooding and deaths inland while crossing the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia.

Hurricane Sandy

SandySuperstorm SandySuper Storm Sandy
A storm surge of 14 ft (4.2 m) occurred in New York City during Hurricane Sandy in October 2012.
Its storm surge hit New York City on October 29, flooding streets, tunnels and subway lines and cutting power in and around the city.

Mississippi

MSState of MississippiMiss.
In the United States, one of the greatest recorded storm surges was generated by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which produced a maximum storm surge of more than 25 ft (8 metres) in southern Mississippi, with a storm surge height of 27.8 ft (8.5 m) in Pass Christian.
Both caused nearly total storm surge destruction of structures in and around Gulfport, Biloxi, and Pascagoula.

1900 Galveston hurricane

Hurricane of 1900Galveston Hurricane1900 hurricane
The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, a Category 4 hurricane that struck Galveston, Texas, drove a devastating surge ashore; between 6,000 and 12,000 lives were lost, making it the deadliest natural disaster ever to strike the United States.
The 85 who stayed with the train died when the storm surge overran the tops of the cars.

Hurricane Katrina

KatrinaHurricanes Katrinahurricane
In the United States, one of the greatest recorded storm surges was generated by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which produced a maximum storm surge of more than 25 ft (8 metres) in southern Mississippi, with a storm surge height of 27.8 ft (8.5 m) in Pass Christian.
On August 29, Katrina's storm surge caused 53 breaches to various flood protection structures in and around the greater New Orleans area, submerging 80% of the city.

Fetch (geography)

fetchfetch lengthstrong fetch
The two main meteorological factors contributing to a storm surge are a long fetch of winds spiraling inward toward the storm, and a low-pressure-induced dome of water drawn up under and trailing the storm's center.
Fetch is used in geography and meteorology and its effects are usually associated with sea state and when it reaches shore it is the main factor that creates storm surge which leads to coastal erosion and flooding.

Pass Christian, Mississippi

Pass ChristianPass Christian High School
In the United States, one of the greatest recorded storm surges was generated by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which produced a maximum storm surge of more than 25 ft (8 metres) in southern Mississippi, with a storm surge height of 27.8 ft (8.5 m) in Pass Christian.
The storm surge from Hurricane Katrina that hit Pass Christian was estimated at 8.5 m (27.8 ft), which is the US record high, leveling Pass Christian up to half a mile inland from the shore; estimation of highest storm surges was complicated because high-water markers were also destroyed.

Bay of Bengal

Harkandeasterneastern coast
The deadliest storm surge on record was the 1970 Bhola cyclone, which killed up to 500,000 people in the area of the Bay of Bengal.
Several efforts have been initiated to cope with storm surge.

New York City

New YorkNew York, New YorkNew York City, New York
A storm surge of 14 ft (4.2 m) occurred in New York City during Hurricane Sandy in October 2012.
Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm surge to New York City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels, and subway lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs.

Cyclone Mahina

MahinaMahina Cyclone
The highest storm tide noted in historical accounts was produced by the 1899 Cyclone Mahina, estimated at almost 44 ft (13 metres) at Bathurst Bay, Australia, but research published in 2000 concluded that the majority of this likely was wave run-up because of the steep coastal topography.
A storm surge, reportedly 13 m, swept across Princess Charlotte Bay and then inland about 5 km, destroying anything left of the Bathurst Bay pearling fleet and the settlement.

1993 Storm of the Century

Storm of the Century1993 SuperstormBlizzard of 1993
Extratropical storm surges may be possible further south for the Gulf coast mostly during the wintertime, when extratropical cyclones affect the coast, such as in the 1993 Storm of the Century.
Between Louisiana and Cuba, the hurricane-force winds produced high storm surges across the big bend of Florida which, in combination with scattered tornadoes, killed dozens of people.

Hurricane Rita

RitaTropical Storm RitaHouston mass evacuation
This was first tested for Hurricane Rita in 2005.
In Louisiana, Rita's storm surge inundated low-lying communities along the entire coast, worsening effects caused by Hurricane Katrina less than a month prior, such as topping the hurriedly-repaired Katrina-damaged levees at New Orleans.

Bathurst Bay

The highest storm tide noted in historical accounts was produced by the 1899 Cyclone Mahina, estimated at almost 44 ft (13 metres) at Bathurst Bay, Australia, but research published in 2000 concluded that the majority of this likely was wave run-up because of the steep coastal topography.
The once-abundant forests have not regrown, mainly because of continuing salt damage to the land by the storm surge.

Flood barrier

storm surge barriersurge barrierdry flood-proofed
A prophylactic method introduced after the North Sea Flood of 1953 is the construction of dams and storm-surge barriers (flood barriers).
A flood barrier, surge barrier or storm surge barrier is a specific type of floodgate, designed to prevent a storm surge or spring tide from flooding the protected area behind the barrier.

1919 Florida Keys hurricane

KeysFlorida Keys Hurricane1919
The edge of the Floridian Plateau, where the water depths reach 91 m, lies just 3000 m offshore of Palm Beach; just 7000 m offshore, the depth increases to over 180 m. The 180 m depth contour followed southward from Palm Beach County lies more than 30000 m to the east of the Florida Keys.
A strong storm surge combined with wind-swept waves topped the Havana seawall, flooding areas of the city as far as six blocks inland and prompting the evacuation of homes at risk.

New Orleans

New Orleans, LouisianaNew Orleans, LAOrleans Parish
Overlapping SLOSH basins are defined for the southern and eastern coastline of the continental U.S. Some storm simulations use more than one SLOSH basin; for instance, Hurricane Katrina SLOSH model runs used both the Lake Ponchartrain / New Orleans basin, and the Mississippi Sound basin, for the northern Gulf of Mexico landfall.
By the 1980s and 1990s, scientists observed that extensive, rapid, and ongoing erosion of the marshlands and swamp surrounding New Orleans, especially that related to the Mississippi River – Gulf Outlet Canal, had the unintended result of leaving the city more vulnerable than before to hurricane-induced catastrophic storm surges.

Thames Barrier

London Flood BarrierThames Flood BarrierThames flood preventions
Major storm surge barriers are the Oosterscheldekering and Maeslantkering in the Netherlands, which are part of the Delta Works project; the Thames Barrier protecting London; and the Saint Petersburg Dam in Russia.
The Thames Barrier prevents the floodplain of most of Greater London from being flooded by exceptionally high tides and storm surges moving up from the North Sea.

Coastal flood

coastal floodingCoastal Flood Warningcyclone-generated wave washover
A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides.
Storms, including hurricanes and tropical cyclones, can cause flooding through storm surges which are waves significantly larger than normal.