Stormwater

storm waterstormwater managementcontrolsmanage stormwatermany contaminants in concentrations above the drinking water standardsMunicipal separate storm sewer systemsrainfallstorm water managementstorm water runoffstorm-water
Stormwater, also spelled storm water, is water that originates from precipitation events, including snow and ice melt.wikipedia
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Surface runoff

runoffagricultural runoffrun-off
Stormwater can soak into the soil (infiltrate), be stored on the land surface in ponds and puddles, evaporate, or runoff.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flow over the Earth's surface.

Urban runoff

runoffstormwater runoffletting it flow into the sewers
Consequently, these high concentrations of urban runoff result in high levels of pollutants discharged from storm sewers to surface waters.
During rain storms and other precipitation events, these surfaces carry polluted stormwater to storm drains, instead of allowing the water to percolate through soil.

Water pollution

pollutionpollutedwater
In developed environments, unmanaged stormwater can create two major issues: one related to the volume and timing of runoff (flooding) and the other related to potential contaminants the water is carrying (water pollution).
Nutrient runoff in storm water from "sheet flow" over an agricultural field or a forest are also cited as examples of non-point source pollution.

Best management practice for water pollution

best management practicesbest management practicebest management practices (BMPs)
... Highway-runoff contaminants of particular interest throughout the United States include deicers, nutrients, metals, industrial/urban-organic chemicals, sediment, and agricultural chemicals from industrial, commercial, residential, agricultural, and highway sources.” In addition to the problem of chemical contaminants in stormwater, this USGS report also identifies problems of physical habitat disturbance that Best Management Practices (BMPs) do not eliminate, “Some of the most substantial biological changes caused by development are directly or indirectly related to altered hydrology. The term Best Management Practice (BMP) or stormwater control measure (SCM) is often used to refer to both structural or engineered control devices and systems (e.g. retention ponds) to treat or store polluted stormwater, as well as operational or procedural practices (e.g. street sweeping).
Historically the term has referred to auxiliary pollution controls in the fields of industrial wastewater control and municipal sewage control, while in stormwater management (both urban and rural) and wetland management, BMPs may refer to a principal control or treatment technique as well.

Parking lot

car parkparking areaparking lots
With less vegetation and more impervious surfaces (parking lots, roads, buildings, compacted soil), developed areas allow less rain to infiltrate into the ground, and more runoff is generated than in the undeveloped condition.
However, most larger municipalities now require construction of stormwater management facilities for new lots.

Flood

floodingfloodsflood control
In developed environments, unmanaged stormwater can create two major issues: one related to the volume and timing of runoff (flooding) and the other related to potential contaminants the water is carrying (water pollution).
Aside from potential overflow of rivers and lakes, snowmelt, stormwater or water released from damaged water mains may accumulate on property and in public rights-of-way, seep through building walls and floors, or backup into buildings through sewer pipes, toilets and sinks.

Retention basin

retention pondflood retention basinretention
The term Best Management Practice (BMP) or stormwater control measure (SCM) is often used to refer to both structural or engineered control devices and systems (e.g. retention ponds) to treat or store polluted stormwater, as well as operational or procedural practices (e.g. street sweeping).
It is used to manage stormwater runoff to prevent flooding and downstream erosion, and improve water quality in an adjacent river, stream, lake or bay.

Green infrastructure

green spacesustainable infrastructureblue-green infrastructure
IWM is often associated with green infrastructure when considered in the design process.
The main components of this approach include stormwater management, climate adaptation, less heat stress, more biodiversity, food production, better air quality, sustainable energy production, clean water and healthy soils, as well as the more anthropocentric functions such as increased quality of life through recreation and providing shade and shelter in and around towns and cities.

Constructed wetland

constructed wetlandsartificial wetlandwetlands
A constructed wetland (CW) is an artificial wetland to treat municipal or industrial wastewater, greywater or stormwater runoff.

Stormwater fee

stormwater user fees
A stormwater fee is a charge imposed on real estate owners for pollution in stormwater drainage from impervious surface runoff.

Low-impact development (U.S. and Canada)

low impact developmentlow-impact developmentLow-impact development (Canada/US)
Also known as low impact development (LID) in the United States, or Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) in Australia, IWM has the potential to improve runoff quality, reduce the risk and impact of flooding and deliver an additional water resource to augment potable supply.
Low-impact development (LID) is a term used in Canada and the United States to describe a land planning and engineering design approach to manage stormwater runoff as part of green infrastructure.

Water-sensitive urban design

Water Sensitive Urban DesignWater-Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD)WSUD
Also known as low impact development (LID) in the United States, or Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) in Australia, IWM has the potential to improve runoff quality, reduce the risk and impact of flooding and deliver an additional water resource to augment potable supply.
Water-sensitive urban design (WSUD) is a land planning and engineering design approach which integrates the urban water cycle, including stormwater, groundwater and wastewater management and water supply, into urban design to minimise environmental degradation and improve aesthetic and recreational appeal.

Bioswale

bioswalesswalesBioretention Swales
The most popular is to incorporate land-based solutions to reduce stormwater runoff through the use of retention ponds, bioswales, infiltration trenches, sustainable pavements (such as permeable paving), and others noted above.
Bioswales, or other types of biofilters, can be created around the edges of parking lots to capture and treat stormwater runoff before releasing it to the watershed or storm sewer.

Bioretention

bio retention gardenBioretention basinsBioretention systems
IWM offers several techniques, including stormwater harvest (to reduce the amount of water that can cause flooding), infiltration (to restore the natural recharge of groundwater), biofiltration or bioretention (e.g., rain gardens), to store and treat runoff and release it at a controlled rate to reduce impact on streams and wetland treatments (to store and control runoff rates and provide habitat in urban areas).
Bioretention is the process in which contaminants and sedimentation are removed from stormwater runoff.

Infiltration basin

infiltrationartificial recharge pondsinfiltrate
IWM offers several techniques, including stormwater harvest (to reduce the amount of water that can cause flooding), infiltration (to restore the natural recharge of groundwater), biofiltration or bioretention (e.g., rain gardens), to store and treat runoff and release it at a controlled rate to reduce impact on streams and wetland treatments (to store and control runoff rates and provide habitat in urban areas).
An infiltration basin (also known as a recharge basin or in some areas, a sump or percolation pond ), is a type of device that is used to manage stormwater runoff, prevent flooding and downstream erosion, and improve water quality in an adjacent river, stream, lake or bay.

Injection well

underground injectiondisposal drillingdisposal wells
For Class V stormwater injection wells the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reports ''“the contaminants that have been observed above drinking water standards or health advisory limits in storm water drainage well injectate are aluminum, antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chloride, chromium, color, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, nitrate, pH, selenium, TDS, turbidity, zinc, benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phtlalate, chlordane, dichloromethane, fecal coliforms, methyl-tertbutyl- ether, pentachlorophenol, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene.” The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reports “Many of the contaminants normally associated with runoff from the Nation's highways have the potential for biological effects.
These hybrid stormwater management systems, called recharge wells, have the advantage of aquifer recharge and instantaneous supply of potable water at the same time.

Wastewater

waste watermunicipal wastewaterwastewater treatment facility
Point source discharges, which originate mostly from municipal wastewater (sewage) and industrial wastewater discharges, have been regulated since enactment of the CWA in 1972.
Wastewater is "used water from any combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff or stormwater, and any sewer inflow or sewer infiltration".

Permeable paving

permeable pavementsPorous Asphalt Concreteporous pavement
The most popular is to incorporate land-based solutions to reduce stormwater runoff through the use of retention ponds, bioswales, infiltration trenches, sustainable pavements (such as permeable paving), and others noted above.
Unlike traditional impervious paving materials, permeable paving systems allow stormwater to percolate and infiltrate through the pavement and into the aggregate layers and/or soil below.

First flush

first foul flushfoul flushinitial flow
A first flush is the initial runoff of a rainstorm.

Rain garden

rain gardensRaingardenraingardens
IWM offers several techniques, including stormwater harvest (to reduce the amount of water that can cause flooding), infiltration (to restore the natural recharge of groundwater), biofiltration or bioretention (e.g., rain gardens), to store and treat runoff and release it at a controlled rate to reduce impact on streams and wetland treatments (to store and control runoff rates and provide habitat in urban areas).
Rain gardens, also called bioretention facilities, are one of a variety of practices designed to treat polluted stormwater runoff.

Storm drain

storm sewerstormwater drainstorm sewers
Urban flooding is the inundation of land or property in a built-up environment caused by stormwater overwhelming the capacity of drainage systems, such as storm sewers.
There are two main types of stormwater drain (highway drain or road gully in the UK) inlets: side inlets and grated inlets.

Sewage

raw sewagedomestic sewagedrainage system
Point source discharges, which originate mostly from municipal wastewater (sewage) and industrial wastewater discharges, have been regulated since enactment of the CWA in 1972.
Current approaches to sewage management may include handling surface runoff separately from sewage, handling greywater separately from blackwater (flush toilets), and coping better with abnormal events (such as peaks stormwater volumes from extreme weather).

United States Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Protection AgencyEPAU.S. Environmental Protection Agency
For Class V stormwater injection wells the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reports ''“the contaminants that have been observed above drinking water standards or health advisory limits in storm water drainage well injectate are aluminum, antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chloride, chromium, color, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, nitrate, pH, selenium, TDS, turbidity, zinc, benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phtlalate, chlordane, dichloromethane, fecal coliforms, methyl-tertbutyl- ether, pentachlorophenol, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene.” The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reports “Many of the contaminants normally associated with runoff from the Nation's highways have the potential for biological effects. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with regulating stormwater pursuant to the Clean Water Act (CWA).

Clean Water Act

Federal Water Pollution Control ActNational Pollutant Discharge Elimination SystemNPDES
In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with regulating stormwater pursuant to the Clean Water Act (CWA).
Stormwater runoff from industrial sources, municipal storm drains, and other sources were not specifically addressed in the 1972 law.