Strabismus

squintcross-eyedheterotropiacrossed eyeslazy eyeDivergence insufficiencyParalytic strabismussquintingstrabismicwall-eyed
Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object.wikipedia
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Amblyopia

lazy eyeamblyopicamblyopia ex anopisa
If present during a large part of childhood, it may result in amblyopia or loss of depth perception. Whereas amblyopia (lazy eye), if minor and detected early, can often be corrected with use of an eye patch on the dominant eye and/or vision therapy, the use of eye patches is unlikely to change the angle of strabismus.
This can occur from poor alignment of the eyes, an eye being irregularly shaped such that focusing is difficult, one eye being more nearsighted or farsighted than the other, or clouding of the lens of an eye.

Exotropia

divergent strabismusexotropesExotropic
Types include esotropia, where the eyes are crossed ("cross eyed"); exotropia, where the eyes diverge ("lazy eyed" or "wall eyed"); and hypertropia where they are vertically misaligned.
Exotropia is a form of strabismus where the eyes are deviated outward.

Hypertropia

Hypotropiahyper- or hypotropiavertical deviation
Types include esotropia, where the eyes are crossed ("cross eyed"); exotropia, where the eyes diverge ("lazy eyed" or "wall eyed"); and hypertropia where they are vertically misaligned.
Hypertropia is a condition of misalignment of the eyes (strabismus), whereby the visual axis of one eye is higher than the fellow fixating eye.

Far-sightedness

hyperopiahyperopichypermetropia
Strabismus can occur due to muscle dysfunction, farsightedness, problems in the brain, trauma or infections.
People may also experience accommodative dysfunction, binocular dysfunction, amblyopia, and strabismus.

Strabismus surgery

surgeryalignment surgerycorrective operations to her eye muscles
This may include the use of glasses and possibly surgery.
Strabismus surgery (also: extraocular muscle surgery, eye muscle surgery, or eye alignment surgery) is surgery on the extraocular muscles to correct strabismus, the misalignment of the eyes.

Diplopia

double visionMonocular diplopiadouble-vision
If onset is during adulthood, it is more likely to result in double vision.
Binocular diplopia is double vision arising as a result of strabismus (in layman's terms "cross-eyed"), the misalignment of the two eyes relative to each other, either esotropia (inward) or exotropia (outward).

Suppression (eye)

suppressioninterocular suppressionignoring one eye
To avoid double vision, the brain may adapt by ignoring one eye.
Suppression of an eye is a subconscious adaptation by a person's brain to eliminate the symptoms of disorders of binocular vision such as strabismus, convergence insufficiency and aniseikonia.

Down syndrome

Down's syndrometrisomy 21Downs Syndrome
Strabismus can be seen in Down syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, cerebral palsy, and Edwards syndrome.
Between 20 and 50% have strabismus, in which the two eyes do not move together.

Eye contact

eye gazeeye-contactavoiding eye contact
Notably, strabismus interferes with normal eye contact, often causing embarrassment, anger, and feelings of awkwardness, thereby affecting social communication in a fundamental way, with a possible negative effect on self esteem.
Strabismus, especially esophoria or exophoria, interferes with normal eye contact: a person whose eyes are not aligned usually makes full eye contact with one eye only, while the orientation of the other eye deviates slightly or more.

Oculomotor nerve palsy

Third nerve palsyoculomotor palsyimpairment of cranial nerve III
An impairment of cranial nerve III causes the associated eye to deviate down and out and may or may not affect the size of the pupil.
The limitations of eye movements resulting from the condition are generally so severe that the affected individual is unable to maintain normal alignment of their eyes when looking straight ahead, leading to strabismus and, as a consequence, double vision (diplopia).

Eye care professional

Eye care professionalsophthalmologistECP
In any case, an eye care professional can conduct various tests, such as cover testing, to determine the full extent of the strabismus.
Orthoptists specialize in diagnosis and management of eye movement and coordination problems, misalignment of the visual axis, convergence and accommodation problems, and conditions such as amblyopia, strabismus, and binocular vision disorders, as outlined by the International Orthoptic Association.

Esotropia

cross-eyedaccommodative esotropiaAlternating esotropia
Types include esotropia, where the eyes are crossed ("cross eyed"); exotropia, where the eyes diverge ("lazy eyed" or "wall eyed"); and hypertropia where they are vertically misaligned.
Esotropia is a form of strabismus in which one or both eyes turns inward.

Extraocular muscles

extraocular muscleeye muscleseye muscle
The extraocular muscles control the position of the eyes.
Certain diseases of the pulleys (heterotopy, instability, and hindrance of the pulleys) cause particular patterns of incomitant strabismus.

Sixth nerve palsy

Sixth (abducent) nerve palsyabducens palsiesabducens palsy
Sixth nerve palsy causes the eyes to deviate inward and has many causes due to the relatively long path of the nerve.
Sixth nerve palsy causes the eyes to deviate inward (see: Pathophysiology of strabismus).

Obstetrical forceps

forcepsforceps deliveryobstetric forceps
Also, if the doctor is not careful, twisting of the baby's neck during forceps delivery can damage cranial nerve VI.

Hirschberg test

Hirschbergs
During an eye examination, a test such as cover testing or the Hirschberg test is used in the diagnosis and measurement of strabismus and its impact on vision.
In the fields of optometry and ophthalmology, the Hirschberg test, also Hirschberg corneal reflex test, is a screening test that can be used to assess whether a person has strabismus (ocular misalignment).

Convergence insufficiency

convergence disorderConvergence Testingcrossed eyes
A subsequent study with participants from the same area monitored people with congenital esotropia for a longer time period; results indicated that people who are esotropic were also more likely to develop mental illness of some sort upon reaching early adulthood, similar to those with constant exotropia, intermittent exotropia, or convergence insufficiency.

Retinal birefringence scanning

retinal birefringence screening
Retinal birefringence scanning can be used for screening of young children for eye misaligments.
By simultaneously measuring the central fixation of both eyes, small- and large-angle strabismus can be detected.

Duane syndrome

Duane retraction syndromeDuane's retraction syndromeDuane's syndrome
Types of incomitant strabismus include: Duane syndrome, horizontal gaze palsy, and congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles.
Duane syndrome is a congenital rare type of strabismus most commonly characterized by the inability of the eye to move outwards.

Cover test

cover-uncover test
During an eye examination, a test such as cover testing or the Hirschberg test is used in the diagnosis and measurement of strabismus and its impact on vision.
The cover test is regarded as an essential examination in investigating strabismus.

Eyepatch

eye patchpatchingEye patching
Whereas amblyopia (lazy eye), if minor and detected early, can often be corrected with use of an eye patch on the dominant eye and/or vision therapy, the use of eye patches is unlikely to change the angle of strabismus.
Eye patching is used in the orthoptic management of children at risk of lazy eye (amblyopia), especially strabismic or anisometropic amblyopia.

Loeys–Dietz syndrome

Loeys-Dietz syndromeLoeys-DietzLoeys-Deitz aortic aneurysm syndrome
Strabismus can be seen in Down syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, cerebral palsy, and Edwards syndrome.

Eye examination

eye exameye testexamination
During an eye examination, a test such as cover testing or the Hirschberg test is used in the diagnosis and measurement of strabismus and its impact on vision.
First, the doctor should visually assess the eyes for deviations that could result from strabismus, extraocular muscle dysfunction, or palsy of the cranial nerves innervating the extraocular muscles.

Retinoblastoma

retinal cancerbilateral retinoblastomaeye cancer
Retinoblastoma may also result in abnormal light reflection from the eye.
Some children with retinoblastoma can develop a squint, commonly referred to as "cross-eyed" or "wall-eyed" (strabismus).

Heterophoria

Phoriacross cover testDecompensated phoria
A latent deviation, or heterophoria (eso-, exo-, hyper-, hypo-, cyclophoria or a combination of these), is only present after binocular vision has been interrupted, typically by covering one eye.
Heterophoria may lead to squint, also known as strabismus.