Strait of Magellan

Straits of MagellanMagellan StraitMagellan StraitsEstrecho de MagallanesMagellanic StraitsMagellanicMagellanic Straitstrait that bears his nameEstrecho de MagellanesMagallanes, Estrecho de
The Strait of Magellan (Estrecho de Magallanes), also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.wikipedia
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Tierra del Fuego

FirelandArchipiélago de Tierra del FuegoFuegians
The Strait of Magellan (Estrecho de Magallanes), also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south. To the south of the Tehuelche across the strait lived the Selk'nam, who inhabited the majority of the eastern portion of Tierra del Fuego.
Tierra del Fuego (, ; Spanish for "Land of Fire", formerly also Fireland in English) is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.

Chile

Republic of ChileChileanCHI
The Strait of Magellan (Estrecho de Magallanes), also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.
In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him (the Strait of Magellan) thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile.

Ferdinand Magellan

MagellanFernão de MagalhãesFernando de Magallanes
Ferdinand Magellan's original name for the strait was Estrecho de Todos los Santos ("Strait of All Saints"). Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer and navigator in the service of Charles V, became the first European to navigate the strait in 1520 during his global circumnavigation voyage.
Despite a series of storms and mutinies, they made it through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the "peaceful sea" (the modern Pacific Ocean).

Panama Canal

canalPanamaCanal Zone
Along with the Beagle Channel and the Northwest Passage, the strait was one of the only sea routes between the Atlantic and Pacific before the construction of the Panama Canal.
One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken, the Panama Canal shortcut greatly reduced the time for ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, enabling them to avoid the lengthy, hazardous Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of South America via the Drake Passage or Strait of Magellan and the even less popular route through the Arctic Archipelago and the Bering Strait.

Magellan's circumnavigation

Armada de Moluccacircumnavigationfirst circumnavigation
Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer and navigator in the service of Charles V, became the first European to navigate the strait in 1520 during his global circumnavigation voyage.
Magellan left Spain on 20 September 1519, sailed across the Atlantic, and discovered the strait that now bears his name, allowing him to pass through the southern tip of South America into the Pacific Ocean (which he named).

Tehuelche people

TehuelcheTehuelchesAonikenk
To the east of the Kawésqar were the Tehuelche, whose territory extended to the north in Patagonia.
The majority of experts agree that the Chubut river separated the two largest subdivisions: the “Southern Tehuelche” and “Northern Tehuelche.” The first subdivision stretched towards the south to the Strait of Magellan, whereas the second group extended towards the north to the Colorado River (Argentina) and Rio Negro (Argentina).

Pacific Ocean

PacificSouth PacificWestern Pacific
The strait is considered the most important natural passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships.

Selk'nam people

Selk'namSelknamOna
To the south of the Tehuelche across the strait lived the Selk'nam, who inhabited the majority of the eastern portion of Tierra del Fuego.
Thousands of years ago, they migrated by canoe across the Strait of Magellan.

Beagle Channel

Beagle, Canal
Along with the Beagle Channel and the Northwest Passage, the strait was one of the only sea routes between the Atlantic and Pacific before the construction of the Panama Canal.
The Beagle Channel, the Straits of Magellan to the north, and the open-ocean Drake Passage to the south are the three navigable passages around South America between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

Drake Passage

Drake's PassageDrake StraitMar de Hoces
The strait is shorter and more sheltered than the Drake Passage, the often stormy open sea route around Cape Horn, which is beset by frequent gale-force winds and icebergs.
Drake's only remaining ship, after having passed through the Strait of Magellan, was blown far south in September 1578.

Puerto del Hambre

Port FamineRey Don FelipeCiudad del Rey Don Felipe
That winter, it became known as Puerto del Hambre, or "Port Famine"—most of the settlers were killed by cold or starvation.
Ciudad del Rey Don Felipe, also known as Puerto del Hambre (Port Famine), is a historic settlement site at Buena Bay (locally known as Mansa Bay) on the north shore of the Strait of Magellan approximately 58 km south of Punta Arenas in the Región de Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena, Patagonia, Chile.

Cape Horn

HornCabo de Hornosthe Horn
The strait is shorter and more sheltered than the Drake Passage, the often stormy open sea route around Cape Horn, which is beset by frequent gale-force winds and icebergs.
The Strait of Magellan, between the mainland and Tierra del Fuego, is a major—although narrow—passage, which was in use for trade well before the Horn was discovered.

Patagonia

PatagonianChilean PatagoniaArgentine Patagonia
To the east of the Kawésqar were the Tehuelche, whose territory extended to the north in Patagonia.
At first, the Antarctic Plate subducted only in the southernmost tip of Patagonia, meaning that the Chile Triple Junction was located near the Strait of Magellan.

Victoria (ship)

VictoriaNao VictoriaLa Victoria
The five ships included La Trinidad (110 tons, 55 crew members), under the command of Magellan; La San Antonio (120 tons, 60 crew members) under the command of Juan de Cartagena; La Concepción (90 tons, 45 crew members) under the command of Gaspar de Quezada (Juan Sebastián Elcano served as boatswain); La Victoria (85 tons, 42 crew members) under the command of Luis de Mendoza; and La Santiago (75 tons, 32 crew members), under command of Juan Rodríguez Serrano (João Rodrigues Serrão).
Trinidad, Magellan's flagship, Concepcion, and Santiago were wrecked or scuttled; San Antonio deserted the expedition during the navigation of the Straits of Magellan and returned to Europe on her own.

Nombre de Jesús (Patagonia)

Nombre de Jesús
In 1584, Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa founded two colonies in the strait: Nombre de Jesús and Ciudad del Rey Don Felipe.
Nombre de Jesús was a Spanish town in Patagonia, settled in 1584 by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa in the Magellan Strait.

Juan de Cartagena

The five ships included La Trinidad (110 tons, 55 crew members), under the command of Magellan; La San Antonio (120 tons, 60 crew members) under the command of Juan de Cartagena; La Concepción (90 tons, 45 crew members) under the command of Gaspar de Quezada (Juan Sebastián Elcano served as boatswain); La Victoria (85 tons, 42 crew members) under the command of Luis de Mendoza; and La Santiago (75 tons, 32 crew members), under command of Juan Rodríguez Serrano (João Rodrigues Serrão).
Following a failed mutiny attempt of which Cartagena was the principal organizer, Magellan marooned Cartagena on a remote island in Patagonia in 1520, before continuing on to the Strait of Magellan.

Estêvão Gomes

Esteban GómezEstevão GomesEsteban Gomez
San Antonio, charged to explore Magdalen Sound, failed to return to the fleet, instead sailing back to Spain under Estêvão Gomes, who imprisoned the captain Mesquita.
He sailed at the service of Castile (Spain) in the fleet of Ferdinand Magellan, but deserted the expedition when they had reached the Strait of Magellan, and returned to Spain in May 1521.

A Relation of a Voyage

The expedition is described by the French explorer, engineer, and hydrographer François Froger in his A Relation of a Voyage (1699).
Once the fleet reaches the Strait of Magellan, Froger interrupts his narrative and tells the story of the origin and purpose of the expedition.

Juan Sebastián Elcano

ElcanoJuan Sebastian Elcanodel Cano
The five ships included La Trinidad (110 tons, 55 crew members), under the command of Magellan; La San Antonio (120 tons, 60 crew members) under the command of Juan de Cartagena; La Concepción (90 tons, 45 crew members) under the command of Gaspar de Quezada (Juan Sebastián Elcano served as boatswain); La Victoria (85 tons, 42 crew members) under the command of Luis de Mendoza; and La Santiago (75 tons, 32 crew members), under command of Juan Rodríguez Serrano (João Rodrigues Serrão).
Elcano participated in a fierce mutiny against Magellan before the convoy discovered the passage through South America, the Strait of Magellan.

Juan Ladrillero

Juan Fernández LadrilleroJuan Ladrilleros
In October 1557, Governor García Hurtado de Mendoza sent out another exploratory squad of 70 men under the command of Juan Ladrillero.
He was the first to navigate the Strait of Magellan from its western entrance to its eastern and back again.

Captaincy General of Chile

ChileKingdom of ChileGeneral Captaincy of Chile
The Spanish Empire and the Captaincy General of Chile used it as the southern boundary of their territory.
The colony went from being a gold exporter with potential for expanding to the Strait of Magellan to being one of the Spanish Empire's most problematic and poor in natural resources.

Thomas Cavendish

CavendishSir Thomas Cavendishcaptured and sacked
When Sir Thomas Cavendish landed at the site of Rey Don Felipe in 1587, he found only ruins of the settlement.
With his three ships and 123 men he set out from Plymouth, England on 21 July 1586 and reached the Strait of Magellan on 6 January 1587.

Manuel Bulnes

Manuel Bulnes Prieto
President Manuel Bulnes ordered this expedition after consulting the Chilean libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, who feared an occupation by Great Britain or France.
Regarding the nation's strategic goals, Bulnes founded Fuerte Bulnes in 1843 in order to establish and enforce sovereignty over the Magellan Straits.

Punta Arenas

Punta Arenas, ChileSandy PointMagallanes
In 1848, Punta Arenas was founded farther north, where the Magellanic forests meet the Patagonian plains.
Located on the Brunswick Peninsula north of the Strait of Magellan, Punta Arenas was originally established by the Chilean government in 1848 as a tiny penal colony to assert sovereignty over the Strait.

Francis Drake

Sir Francis DrakeDrakeDrake, Francis
Twenty years later, English navigator Francis Drake crossed the strait, creating fear among Pacific coast inhabitants that an attack was imminent.
Drake decided to remain the winter in San Julian before attempting the Strait of Magellan.