Strait of Magellan

Straits of MagellanMagellan StraitsMagellanicstrait that bears his nameEstrecho de MagellanesMagallanes, Estrecho deMagellanMagellan StraitMagellanes StraitPatagonia Passage
The Strait of Magellan (Estrecho de Magallanes), also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.wikipedia
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Tierra del Fuego

Archipiélago de Tierra del FuegoFuegiansIsla Grande de Tierra del Fuego
The Strait of Magellan (Estrecho de Magallanes), also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south. South of the Tehuelche, across the Strait of Magellan, lived the Selk'nam, who inhabited the majority of the eastern portion of Tierra del Fuego.
Tierra del Fuego (, ; Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.

Chile

🇨🇱ChileanRepublic of Chile
The Strait of Magellan (Estrecho de Magallanes), also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.
In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him (the Strait of Magellan) thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile.

Panama Canal

canalPanamaCanal Zone
Along with the narrow and sometimes treacherous Beagle Channel, these were the only three sea routes between these two oceans until the construction of the Panama Canal.
One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken, the Panama Canal shortcut greatly reduced the time for ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, enabling them to avoid the lengthy, hazardous Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of South America via the Drake Passage or Strait of Magellan.

Ferdinand Magellan

MagellanFernão de MagalhãesFernando de Magallanes
Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães), a Portuguese explorer and navigator in the service of Charles I of Spain, became the first European to navigate the strait in 1520 during his global circumnavigation voyage.
Commanding a fleet of five vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia, passing through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the "peaceful sea" (the modern Pacific Ocean).

Beagle Channel

Beagle, Canal
Along with the narrow and sometimes treacherous Beagle Channel, these were the only three sea routes between these two oceans until the construction of the Panama Canal.
The Beagle Channel, the Straits of Magellan to the north, and the open-ocean Drake Passage to the south are the three navigable passages around South America between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

Selk'nam people

OnaSelk'namSelknam
South of the Tehuelche, across the Strait of Magellan, lived the Selk'nam, who inhabited the majority of the eastern portion of Tierra del Fuego.
Thousands of years ago, they migrated by canoe across the Strait of Magellan.

Pacific Ocean

PacificWestern PacificSouth Pacific
The strait is the most important natural passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships.

Drake Passage

Drake Straitopening of the Drake PassageSea of Hoces
It is considered a difficult route to navigate due to the narrowness of the passage and unpredictable winds and currents, but is shorter and more sheltered than the often stormy Drake Passage.
Drake's only remaining ship, after having passed through the Strait of Magellan, was blown far south in September 1578.

Patagonia

PatagonicArgentine Patagoniafar south
To the east of the Kawésqar lived the Tehuelche, whose territory extended to the north in Patagonia. Fuerte Bulnes was later abandoned, and in 1848 the city of Punta Arenas was founded farther north where the Magellanic forests meets the Patagonian plains.
At first the Antarctic Plate subducted only in the southernmost tip of Patagonia, meaning that the Chile Triple Junction was located near the Strait of Magellan.

Puerto del Hambre

Port FamineCiudad del Rey Don FelipeRey Don Felipe
The first Spanish colony was established in 1584 by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, who founded Nombre de Jesús and Rey Don Felipe on the northern shore of the strait.
Ciudad del Rey Don Felipe, also known as Puerto del Hambre (Port Famine), is a historic settlement site at Buena Bay (locally known as Mansa Bay) on the north shore of the Strait of Magellan approximately 58 km south of Punta Arenas in the Región de Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena, Patagonia, Chile.

Victoria (ship)

VictoriaNao VictoriaLa Victoria
The five ships included La Trinidad (110 tons, crew 55), under the command of Magellan; La San Antonio (120 tons, crew 60) under the command of Juan de Cartagena; La Concepción (90 tons, crew 45) under the command of Gaspar de Quezada (Juan Sebastián Elcano served as boatswain); La Victoria (85 tons, crew 42) under the command of Luis de Mendoza; and La Santiago (75 tons, crew 32), under command of Juan Rodríguez Serrano (João Rodrigues Serrão).
Trinidad, Magellan's flagship, Concepcion, and Santiago were wrecked or scuttled; San Antonio deserted the expedition during the navigation of the Straits of Magellan and returned to Europe on her own.

Nombre de Jesús (Patagonia)

Nombre de Jesús
The first Spanish colony was established in 1584 by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, who founded Nombre de Jesús and Rey Don Felipe on the northern shore of the strait.
Nombre de Jesús was a Spanish town in Patagonia, settled in 1584 by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa in the Magellan Strait.

A Relation of a Voyage

The expedition is described by the young French explorer, engineer and hydrographer François Froger in his A Relation of a Voyage (1699).
Once the fleet had reached the Strait of Magellan, Froger interrupts his narrative and tells the story of the origin and raison d’être of the expedition.

Estêvão Gomes

Estevão GomesEsteban GomezEsteban Gómez
San Antonio, charged to explore Magdalen Sound, failed to return to the fleet, instead sailing back to Spain under Estêvão Gomes who imprisoned the captain Mesquita.
He sailed at the service of Castile in the fleet of Ferdinand Magellan, but deserted the expedition before reaching the Strait of Magellan, and returned to Spain in May 1521.

Punta Arenas

Sandy PointArenasPunta Arenas, Chile
Fuerte Bulnes was later abandoned, and in 1848 the city of Punta Arenas was founded farther north where the Magellanic forests meets the Patagonian plains.
Located on the Brunswick Peninsula north of the Strait of Magellan, Punta Arenas was originally established by the Chilean government in 1848 as a tiny penal colony to assert sovereignty over the Strait.

Juan Sebastián Elcano

Elcanodel CanoCano, Juan Sebastian Del
The five ships included La Trinidad (110 tons, crew 55), under the command of Magellan; La San Antonio (120 tons, crew 60) under the command of Juan de Cartagena; La Concepción (90 tons, crew 45) under the command of Gaspar de Quezada (Juan Sebastián Elcano served as boatswain); La Victoria (85 tons, crew 42) under the command of Luis de Mendoza; and La Santiago (75 tons, crew 32), under command of Juan Rodríguez Serrano (João Rodrigues Serrão).
Elcano participated in a fierce mutiny against Magellan before the convoy discovered the passage through South America, the Strait of Magellan.

Magellanic subpolar forests

MagellanicMagellanic ForestsMagellanic Moorland
Fuerte Bulnes was later abandoned, and in 1848 the city of Punta Arenas was founded farther north where the Magellanic forests meets the Patagonian plains.
The Magellanic ecoregion was covered by glaciers during the last ice age, and the landscape is deeply dissected by fjords, with numerous islands, inlets, and channels, including the Strait of Magellan, which separates Tierra del Fuego from the South American mainland and is the route taken by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan from the South Atlantic to the South Pacific.

Captaincy General of Chile

ChileKingdom of ChileGovernorate of Chile
The Spanish Empire and the Captaincy General of Chile used it as the southern boundary of their territory.
The colony went from being a gold exporter with potential for expanding to the Strait of Magellan to being one of the Spanish Empire's most problematic and poor in natural resources.

HMS Beagle

HMS ''BeagleBeagleBeagle’s
The strait was first carefully explored and thoroughly charted by Phillip Parker King, who commanded the British survey vessel HMS Adventure, and in consort with HMS Beagle spent five years surveying the complex coasts around the strait (1826–1830).
At Port Famine on the Strait of Magellan he locked himself in his cabin for 14 days, then after getting over-excited and talking of preparing for the next cruise, shot himself on 2 August 1828.

Fuerte Bulnes

Fort Bulnes
The first Chilean settlement was Fuerte Bulnes, situated in a forested zone on the north side of the strait.
Fuerte Bulnes is a Chilean fort located by the Strait of Magellan, 62 km south of Punta Arenas.

Thomas Cavendish

CavendishSir Thomas Cavendishcaptured and sacked
These towns suffered severe food shortages, and when the English navigator Sir Thomas Cavendish landed at the site of Rey Don Felipe in 1587, he found only ruins of the settlement.
With his three ships and 123 men he set out from Plymouth, England on 21 July 1586 and reached the Strait of Magellan on 6 January 1587.

Francis Drake

Sir Francis DrakeDrakeDrake, Francis
Other early explorers included Francis Drake (1578).
Drake decided to remain the winter in San Julian before attempting the Strait of Magellan.

Punta Dúngeness

Punta Dungenes
The eastern opening is a wide bay on the border of Chile and Argentina between Punta Dúngeness on the mainland and Cabo del Espíritu Santo (Cape of the Holy Spirit) on Tierra del Fuego, the border as defined in the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina.
Punta Dúngeness is a headland at the eastern entrance of the Strait of Magellan on its north shore, opposite Cabo del Espiritu Santo in Tierra del Fuego.

Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina

Treaty of Peace and Friendship1984 defined borderBeagle Channel Treaty
The eastern opening is a wide bay on the border of Chile and Argentina between Punta Dúngeness on the mainland and Cabo del Espíritu Santo (Cape of the Holy Spirit) on Tierra del Fuego, the border as defined in the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina.
The treaty contains a preamble, a maritime border definition, a comprehensive body of legislation on solving disputes, ship navigation rights and an exact definition of the border through the Straits of Magellan.

Primera Angostura

Primera
Immediately west are Primera Angostura and Segunda Angostura, narrows formed by two terminal moraines of different ages.
Primera Angostura is a sound of the Strait of Magellan in the Chilean region of Magallanes.