Streptococcus

streptococcistreptococcalstreptococcal infectionbeta-hemolyticBeta-hemolytic streptococcigroup A streptococcusstreptococcal bacteriastreptococcal infectionsStreptococcus gallolyticusβ-hemolytic streptococci
Streptococcus is a genus of gram-positive coccus (plural cocci) or spherical bacteria that belongs to the family Streptococcaceae, within the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria), in the phylum Firmicutes.wikipedia
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Staphylococcus

staphylococcistaphylococcalstaph
(Contrast with that of staphylococci, which divide along multiple axes, thereby generating irregular, grape-like clusters of cells.)
The name was coined in 1880 by Scottish surgeon and bacteriologist Alexander Ogston (1844-1929), following the pattern established five years earlier with the naming of Streptococcus.

Enterococcus

enterococcienterococcalEnterococcus faecium
In 1984, many bacteria formerly grouped in the genus Streptococcus were separated out into the genera Enterococcus and Lactococcus.
Enterococci are gram-positive cocci that often occur in pairs (diplococci) or short chains, and are difficult to distinguish from streptococci on physical characteristics alone.

Lactic acid bacteria

Lactobacillaleslactic acid bacteriumlactic acid
Streptococcus is a genus of gram-positive coccus (plural cocci) or spherical bacteria that belongs to the family Streptococcaceae, within the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria), in the phylum Firmicutes.
The genera that comprise the LAB are at its core Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus, as well as the more peripheral Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Oenococcus, Sporolactobacillus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Weissella; these belong to the order Lactobacillales.

Erysipelas

St. Anthony's fireChronic recurrent erysipelaserisipela
In addition to streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), certain Streptococcus species are responsible for many cases of pink eye, meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections).
It is an infection of the upper dermis and superficial lymphatics, usually caused by beta-hemolytic group A Streptococcus bacteria on scratches or otherwise infected areas.

Streptococcus agalactiae

Group B StreptococcusS. agalactiaegroup B streptococci
S. agalactiae, or group B Streptococcus, GBS, causes pneumonia and meningitis in newborns and the elderly, with occasional systemic bacteremia.
Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as group B streptococcus or GBS) is a gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) with a tendency to form chains (as reflected by the genus name Streptococcus).

Hemolysis (microbiology)

alpha-hemolytichemolysishemolytic
Species of Streptococcus are classified based on their hemolytic properties. * The viridans streptococci are a large group of commensal bacteria that are either alpha-hemolytic, producing a green coloration on blood agar plates (hence the name "viridans", from Latin vĭrĭdis, green), or nonhemolytic.
This is particularly useful in classifying streptococcal species.

Rebecca Lancefield

LancefieldRebecca C. Lancefield
This system of classification was developed by Rebecca Lancefield, a scientist at Rockefeller University.
Lancefield is best known for her serological classification of ß-hemolytic streptococcal bacteria, Lancefield grouping, which is based on the carbohydrate composition of bacterial antigens found on their cell walls.

Cellulitis

pelvic cellulitisAnaerobic cellulitisbacterial skin infection
The bacteria most commonly involved are streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus.

Streptococcus pneumoniae

pneumococcusS. pneumoniaepneumococcal
*S. pneumoniae (sometimes called pneumococcus), is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia and occasional etiology of otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis, and peritonitis.
Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.

Streptococcus anginosus

S. anginosusS. anginosus group.
They are also known as Streptococcus anginosus (according to the Lancefield classification system) or as members of the S. milleri group (according to the European system).
Streptococcus anginosus is a species of Streptococcus.

Facultative anaerobic organism

facultatively anaerobicfacultative anaerobefacultative anaerobic
Most streptococci are oxidase-negative and catalase-negative, and many are facultative anaerobes (capable of growth both aerobically and anaerobically).
Some examples of facultatively anaerobic bacteria are Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria spp.

Lancefield grouping

LancefieldLancefield classificationLancefield classification system
Beta-hemolytic streptococci are further classified by Lancefield grouping, a serotype classification (that is, describing specific carbohydrates present on the bacterial cell wall).
The system, created by Rebecca Lancefield, was historically used to organize the various members of the family Streptococcaceae, which includes the genera Lactococcus and Streptococcus, but now is largely superfluous due to explosive growth in the number of streptococcal species identified since the 1970s.

Viridans streptococci

Streptococcus viridansviridansStreptococcus'' viridans
* The viridans streptococci are a large group of commensal bacteria that are either alpha-hemolytic, producing a green coloration on blood agar plates (hence the name "viridans", from Latin vĭrĭdis, green), or nonhemolytic.
The viridans streptococci are a large group of commensal streptococcal Gram-positive bacteria species that are α-hemolytic, producing a green coloration on blood agar plates (hence the name "viridans", from Latin "vĭrĭdis", green).

Conjunctivitis

pink eyepinkeyeblepharoconjunctivitis
In addition to streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), certain Streptococcus species are responsible for many cases of pink eye, meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections).
Common bacteria responsible for nonacute bacterial conjunctivitis are Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus species.

Group A streptococcal infection

group A streptococciGroup Ascarlet fever
Group A S. pyogenes is the causative agent in a wide range of group A streptococcal infections (GAS).
pyogenes'' is a beta-hemolytic species of Gram positive bacteria that is responsible for a wide range of both invasive and noninvasive infections.

Streptococcus mutans

S. mutansmutans streptococcibacteria
pyogenes groups, respectively, while the causative agent of dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, is basal to the Streptococcus'' group.
It is part of the "streptococci" (plural, non-italic lowercase), an informal general name for all species in the genus Streptococcus.The microbe was first described by J Kilian Clarke in 1924.

Lactococcus

lactococci
In 1984, many bacteria formerly grouped in the genus Streptococcus were separated out into the genera Enterococcus and Lactococcus.
They can be used in single-strain starter cultures, or in mixed-strain cultures with other lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Streptococcus.

Streptococcal pharyngitis

strep throatstrepstreptococcal throat infection
In addition to streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), certain Streptococcus species are responsible for many cases of pink eye, meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections).
Other bacteria such as non–group A β-hemolytic streptococci and fusobacterium may also cause pharyngitis.

Streptococcus mitis

S. mitisS. mitis group.
pneumoniae and S. mitis''.
Streptococcus mitis, previously known as Streptococcus mitior, is a mesophilic alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus that inhabits the human mouth.

Salivary microbiome

This genus has been found to be part of the salivary microbiome.
Porphyromonas, Solobacterium, Haemophilus, Corynebacterium, Cellulosimicrobium, Streptococcus and Campylobacter are some of the genera found in the saliva.

Bacteremia

bacteraemiatoxemiatoxaemia
S. agalactiae, or group B Streptococcus, GBS, causes pneumonia and meningitis in newborns and the elderly, with occasional systemic bacteremia. The diseases that may be caused include streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing fasciitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
There are many different types of streptococcal species that can cause bacteremia.

Firmicutes

FirmicuteendobacteriaFirmacutes
Streptococcus is a genus of gram-positive coccus (plural cocci) or spherical bacteria that belongs to the family Streptococcaceae, within the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria), in the phylum Firmicutes.

Streptococcus zooepidemicus

S. equi subsp. zooepidemicusS. zooepidemicus
equi, which causes strangles in horses, and S. zooepidemicus—S.
Streptococcus zooepidemicus is a Lancefield group C streptococcus that was first isolated in 1934 by P. R. Edwards, and named Animal pyogens A. It’s a mucosal commensal and opportunistic pathogen that infects several animals and humans, but most commonly isolated from the uterus of Mares.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
(Contrast with that of staphylococci, which divide along multiple axes, thereby generating irregular, grape-like clusters of cells.)
The capsule may be polysaccharide as in pneumococci, meningococci or polypeptide as Bacillus anthracis or hyaluronic acid as in streptococci.

Enterococcus faecalis

Streptococcus faecalisE. faecalisStreptococcus fecalis
For example, Streptococcus faecalis is now Enterococcus faecalis.
Enterococcus faecalis – formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system – is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals.