Streptococcus pneumoniae

pneumococcusS. pneumoniaepneumococcalpneumococciInvasive pneumococcal diseasepneumococcal diseasepneumococcal infectionsDiplococcus pneumoniaeDiplococcus pneumoniae'' G41Penumococcal
Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.wikipedia
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Pneumonia

bronchopneumoniabronchial pneumoniaNecrotizing pneumonia
pneumoniae'' was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the late 19th century, and is the subject of many humoral immunity studies. The organism also causes many types of pneumococcal infections other than pneumonia.
Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with rusty colored sputum.

Pneumococcal infection

pneumococcal meningitispneumococcaldrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
The organism also causes many types of pneumococcal infections other than pneumonia.
A pneumococcal infection is an infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is also called the pneumococcus.

Hemolysis (microbiology)

alpha-hemolytichemolysishemolytic
Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus. S. pneumoniae can be differentiated from the viridans streptococci, some of which are also alpha-hemolytic, using an optochin test, as ''S.
Streptococcus pneumoniae and a group of oral streptococci (Streptococcus viridans or viridans streptococci) display alpha hemolysis.

Streptococcus

streptococcistreptococcalstreptococcal infection
Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.
*S. pneumoniae (sometimes called pneumococcus), is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia and occasional etiology of otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis, and peritonitis.

Immunodeficiency

immunocompromisedimmune deficiencyimmunodeficient
However, in susceptible individuals with weaker immune systems, such as the elderly and young children, the bacterium may become pathogenic and spread to other locations to cause disease.

Community-acquired pneumonia

community acquired pneumoniacommunity-acquired bacterial pneumoniaCommunity-acquired
S. pneumoniae is the main cause of community acquired pneumonia and meningitis in children and the elderly, and of sepsis in those infected with HIV.
Over 100 microorganisms can cause CAP, with most cases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Pathogenic bacteria

bacterial infectionbacterial infectionsbacterial
As a significant human pathogenic bacterium ''S.
The pathogenic bacteria able to carry out natural genetic transformation (of those listed in the table) are Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae.

Neonatal infection

infectionsbacterial infectioninfection
It can be a cause of neonatal infections.
Other bacterial pathogens include Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Viridans streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Optochin

S. pneumoniae can be differentiated from the viridans streptococci, some of which are also alpha-hemolytic, using an optochin test, as ''S.
That is the main reason it is now used in bacteriology for the differentiation of Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is optochin-sensitive, from the other, resistant alpha-hemolytic streptococci, sometimes called the viridans streptococci because of the green colouration on blood agar around colonies.

Meningitis

spinal meningitisbacterial meningitiscerebral meningitis
S. pneumoniae is the main cause of community acquired pneumonia and meningitis in children and the elderly, and of sepsis in those infected with HIV. These invasive pneumococcal diseases include bronchitis, rhinitis, acute sinusitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, meningitis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, peritonitis, pericarditis, cellulitis, and brain abscess.
A latex agglutination test may be positive in meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli and group B streptococci; its routine use is not encouraged as it rarely leads to changes in treatment, but it may be used if other tests are not diagnostic.

Rhinitis

coryzaseasonal allergic rhinitisrhinitis, allergic, perennial
These invasive pneumococcal diseases include bronchitis, rhinitis, acute sinusitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, meningitis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, peritonitis, pericarditis, cellulitis, and brain abscess.
Rhinitis is commonly caused by a viral or bacterial infection, including the common cold, which is caused by Rhinoviruses, Coronaviruses, and influenza viruses, others caused by adenoviruses, human parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, enteroviruses other than rhinoviruses, metapneumovirus, and measles virus, or bacterial sinusitis, which is commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

Viridans streptococci

Streptococcus viridansviridansStreptococcus'' viridans
S. pneumoniae can be differentiated from the viridans streptococci, some of which are also alpha-hemolytic, using an optochin test, as ''S.
Viridans streptococci can be differentiated from Streptococcus pneumoniae using an optochin test, as viridans streptococci are optochin-resistant; they also lack either the polysaccharide-based capsule typical of ''S.

Diplococcus

diplococci
They are usually found in pairs (diplococci) and do not form spores and are nonmotile.
Examples of gram-negative diplococci are Neisseria spp., Moraxella catarrhalis, and Acinetobacter spp. Examples of gram-positive diplococci are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterococcus spp.

Otitis media

middle ear infectionear infectionsotorrhea
These invasive pneumococcal diseases include bronchitis, rhinitis, acute sinusitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, meningitis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, peritonitis, pericarditis, cellulitis, and brain abscess.
The most common bacteria isolated from the middle ear in AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus.

Frederick Griffith

Fred GriffithGriffith phenomenon
In 1928, Frederick Griffith demonstrated transformation of life turning harmless pneumococcus into a lethal form by co-inoculating the live pneumococci into a mouse along with heat-killed virulent pneumococci.
He showed that Streptococcus pneumoniae, implicated in many cases of lobar pneumonia, could transform from one strain into a different strain.

Transformation (genetics)

transformationtransformedgenetic transformation
In 1928, Frederick Griffith demonstrated transformation of life turning harmless pneumococcus into a lethal form by co-inoculating the live pneumococci into a mouse along with heat-killed virulent pneumococci.
However, he discovered that a non-virulent strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae could be made virulent after being exposed to heat-killed virulent strains.

Sinusitis

sinus infectionrhinosinusitischronic sinusitis
These invasive pneumococcal diseases include bronchitis, rhinitis, acute sinusitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, meningitis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, peritonitis, pericarditis, cellulitis, and brain abscess.
If the infection is of bacterial origin, the most common three causative agents are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

Conjunctivitis

pink eyepinkeyeblepharoconjunctivitis
These invasive pneumococcal diseases include bronchitis, rhinitis, acute sinusitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, meningitis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, peritonitis, pericarditis, cellulitis, and brain abscess.
The most common causes of acute bacterial conjunctivitis are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae.

Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positiveGram positivegram-positive bacterium
Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.
Transformation among gram-positive bacteria has been studied in medically important species such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sanguinis and in gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis.

Pericarditis

Chronic adhesive pericarditisChronic constrictive pericarditisinflammation around the heart
These invasive pneumococcal diseases include bronchitis, rhinitis, acute sinusitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, meningitis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, peritonitis, pericarditis, cellulitis, and brain abscess.
Pneumococcus or tuberculous pericarditis are the most common bacterial forms.

Septic arthritis

infectious arthritisjoint infectionjoint infections
These invasive pneumococcal diseases include bronchitis, rhinitis, acute sinusitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, meningitis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, peritonitis, pericarditis, cellulitis, and brain abscess.

Coccus

coccicoccoidspherical
The encapsulated, Gram-positive, coccoid bacteria have a distinctive morphology on Gram stain, lancet-shaped diplococci.

Sputum

expectorationmucushuman sputum
The organism was termed Diplococcus pneumoniae from 1920 because of its characteristic appearance in Gram-stained sputum.
Microbiological sputum samples are used to look for infections, such as Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae.

Pathogen

pathogenspathogenicpathogenicity
However, in susceptible individuals with weaker immune systems, such as the elderly and young children, the bacterium may become pathogenic and spread to other locations to cause disease.
Examples of bacterial pathogens capable of natural transformation are Helicobacter pylori, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Maclyn McCarty

Macyln McCarty
In 1944, Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty demonstrated that the transforming factor in Griffith's experiment was not protein, as was widely believed at the time, but DNA.
Prior to this discovery, the 1920s had been marked by a medley of disparate observations on Streptococcus pneumoniae that seemed to involve an exchange of receptors among diverse bacteria either grown together in liquid media or exposed to various kinds of extracts and supernatants.