Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressemotional stressstressesenvironmental stressesgeneral adaptation syndromestressfulemotional distressphysiological stressadversity
Stress, either physiological or biological, is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.wikipedia
1,019 Related Articles

Cortisol

stress hormonestress hormoneshydrocortisone
The second major physiological stress, the HPA axis regulates the release of cortisol, which influences many bodily functions such as metabolic, psychological and immunological functions. ACTH may then stimulate the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol.
It is released with a diurnal cycle and its release is increased in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration.

Stressor

stressorsenvironmental and genetic stressorsenvironmental stresses
Stress, either physiological or biological, is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.

Effects of stress on memory

Chronic stress can lead to memory losscortisol inhibits memory retrievalimpairs memory
Through these mechanisms, stress can alter memory functions, reward, immune function, metabolism and susceptibility to diseases.
During times of stress, the body reacts by secreting stress hormones into the bloodstream.

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

CRHcorticotropin releasing hormoneCRF
The axis involves the release of corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin from the hypothalamus which stimulates the pituitary to secrete ACTH. Neurons in the hypothalamus, particularly the paraventricular nucleus, release vasopressin and corticotropin releasing hormone, which travel through the hypophysial portal vessel where they travel to and bind to the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor on the anterior pituitary gland.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin; corticotropin may also be spelled corticotrophin) is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response.

Allostatic load

allostaticallostatic overloadallostatic stress load
See allostatic load for further discussion of the biological process by which chronic stress may affect the body.
Allostatic load is "the wear and tear on the body" which accumulates as an individual is exposed to repeated or chronic stress.

Holmes and Rahe stress scale

Holmes-Rahe Stress ScaleSocial Readjustment Rating Scale
The Holmes and Rahe stress scale was developed as a method of assessing the risk of disease from life changes.
The Holmes and Rahe stress scale is a list of 43 stressful life events that can contribute to illness.

Hans Selye

János SelyeSelyeDr Hans Selye
The ambiguity in defining this phenomenon was first recognized by Hans Selye (1907–1982) in 1926.
Charlotte Gerson considers him the first to demonstrate the existence of biological stress.

Fight-or-flight response

stress responsefight or flightfight-or-flight
The sympathoadrenal medullary (SAM) axis may activate the fight-or-flight response through the sympathetic nervous system, which dedicates energy to more relevant bodily systems to acute adaptation to stress, while the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to homeostasis.
This response is recognised as the first stage of the general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms.

Bruce McEwen

Bruce S. McEwen
neuroscientists such as Bruce McEwen and Jaap Koolhaas believe that stress, based on years of empirical research, "should be restricted to conditions where an environmental demand exceeds the natural regulatory capacity of an organism".
His current research focuses on glucocorticoids, stress and neuronal degeneration.

Stria terminalis

bed nucleus of the stria terminalisterminal striabed nuclei of the stria terminalis
The SAM and HPA axes are regulated by several brain regions, including the limbic system, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, and stria terminalis.
It is thought to act as a relay site within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and regulate its activity in response to acute stress.

Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus

paraventricular nucleusparaventricular hypothalamic nucleusparaventricular
Neurons in the hypothalamus, particularly the paraventricular nucleus, release vasopressin and corticotropin releasing hormone, which travel through the hypophysial portal vessel where they travel to and bind to the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor on the anterior pituitary gland.
It is a group of neurons that can be activated by physiological changes including stress.

Hypercholesterolemia

high cholesterolhigh blood cholesterolhypercholesterolaemia
Specifically, acute and chronic stress have been shown to raise serum lipids and are associated with clinical coronary events.
Environmental factors include weight, diet, and stress.

Hypothalamus

hypothalamicanterior hypothalamushypothalamic hormones
The axis involves the release of corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin from the hypothalamus which stimulates the pituitary to secrete ACTH. The SAM and HPA axes are regulated by several brain regions, including the limbic system, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, and stria terminalis.

Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor

corticotropin releasing hormone receptorCRF receptorCRF receptors
Neurons in the hypothalamus, particularly the paraventricular nucleus, release vasopressin and corticotropin releasing hormone, which travel through the hypophysial portal vessel where they travel to and bind to the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor on the anterior pituitary gland.
CRHRs are important mediators in the stress response.

Alcoholism

alcoholicalcoholicsalcohol
Chronic stress has also been shown to impair developmental growth in children by lowering the pituitary gland's production of growth hormone, as in children associated with a home environment involving serious marital discord, alcoholism, or child abuse.
High stress levels and anxiety, as well as alcohol's inexpensive cost and easy accessibility, increase the risk.

Aggression

aggressiveaggressivenessaggressive behavior
Aggressive behavior has also been associated with abnormalities in these systems.
Abnormalities in these systems also are known to be induced by stress, either severe, acute stress or chronic low-grade stress

Sympathetic nervous system

sympatheticsympathetic nervesympathetic nerves
The sympathoadrenal medullary (SAM) axis may activate the fight-or-flight response through the sympathetic nervous system, which dedicates energy to more relevant bodily systems to acute adaptation to stress, while the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to homeostasis.
Reaction to stress—as in the flight-or-fight response—is thought to counteract the parasympathetic system, which generally works to promote maintenance of the body at rest.

Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal gland
ACTH may then stimulate the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol.
The medulla produces the catecholamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline, which function to produce a rapid response throughout the body in stress situations.

Endocrine system

endocrineendocrinologicalendocrine organ
Upon immediate disruption of either psychological or physical equilibrium the body responds by stimulating the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems.
Hormones are used to communicate between organs and tissues for physiological regulation and behavioral activities, such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood.

Catecholamine

catecholaminescatecholamine synthesiscatecholamine systems
Stress, either severe, acute stress or chronic low-grade stress may induce abnormalities in three principal regulatory systems in the body: serotonin systems, catecholamine systems, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis.
High catecholamine levels in blood are associated with stress, which can be induced from psychological reactions or environmental stressors such as elevated sound levels, intense light, or low blood sugar levels.

Eustress

Positive stress
Selye published in year 1975 a model dividing stress into eustress and distress.
Selye created the term as a subgroup of stress to differentiate the wide variety of stressors and manifestations of stress.

Distress (medicine)

distressemotional distressdistressed
Selye published in year 1975 a model dividing stress into eustress and distress.
In medicine, distress is an aversive state in which a person is unable to completely adapt to stressors and their resulting stress and shows maladaptive behaviors.

Locus coeruleus

locus ceruleuslocus coereuleuslocus coeruleus-noradrenergic system
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus ) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.

Stress management

stress reductionanti-stressTransactional model of stress and coping
Responses to stress include adaptation, psychological coping such as stress management, anxiety, and depression.

Social defeat

social defeat stress
In real life situations, animals (including humans) have to cope with stresses generated within their own species, during their interactions with conspecifics, especially due to recurrent struggles over the control of limited resources, mates and social positions (Bjorkqvist, 2001; Rohde, 2001; Allen & Badcock, 2003).