Stress fracture

hairline fracturestress fracturesstress reactionfractures, stresshairlinehairline crackhairline skull fracturestressstress injuriesstress-fracture
Stress fracture is a fatigue-induced fracture of the bone caused by repeated stress over time.wikipedia
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Vitamin D

DCalciferol1,25 Dihydroxy vitamin D
During exercise that applies more stress to the bones, it may help to increase daily calcium (2,000 mg) and vitamin D (800 IU) intake, depending on the individual.
Athletes who are vitamin D deficient are at an increased risk of stress fractures and/or major breaks, particularly those engaging in contact sports.

Allosaurus

Allosaurus fragilisLabrosaurusCreosaurus
After examining the bones of many kinds of dinosaur the researchers noted that Allosaurus had a significantly greater number of bulges on the shafts of its hand and foot bones than the tyrannosaur Albertosaurus, or the ostrich dinosaurs Ornithomimus and Archaeornithomimus.
In 2001, Bruce Rothschild and others published a study examining evidence for stress fractures and tendon avulsions in theropod dinosaurs and the implications for their behavior.

Albertosaurus

Albertosaurus sarcophagusAlbertosaurus arctunguis(''Albertosaurus sarcophagus
After examining the bones of many kinds of dinosaur the researchers noted that Allosaurus had a significantly greater number of bulges on the shafts of its hand and foot bones than the tyrannosaur Albertosaurus, or the ostrich dinosaurs Ornithomimus and Archaeornithomimus.
In 2001, Bruce Rothschild and others published a study examining evidence for stress fractures and tendon avulsions in theropod dinosaurs and the implications for their behavior.

Archaeornithomimus

Archaeornithomimus asiaticusArchaeornithomimus bissektensisOrnithomimus asiaticus
After examining the bones of many kinds of dinosaur the researchers noted that Allosaurus had a significantly greater number of bulges on the shafts of its hand and foot bones than the tyrannosaur Albertosaurus, or the ostrich dinosaurs Ornithomimus and Archaeornithomimus.
In a 2001 study conducted by Bruce Rothschild and other paleontologists, 229 foot bones referred to Archaeornithomimus were examined for signs of stress fracture, but none were found.

Ornithomimus

Ornithomimus veloxOrnithomimus edmontonicusOrnithomimus tenuis
After examining the bones of many kinds of dinosaur the researchers noted that Allosaurus had a significantly greater number of bulges on the shafts of its hand and foot bones than the tyrannosaur Albertosaurus, or the ostrich dinosaurs Ornithomimus and Archaeornithomimus.
In a 2001 study conducted by Bruce Rothschild and other paleontologists, 178 foot bones referred to Ornithomimus were examined for signs of stress fracture, but none were found.

Bone

cortical bonebone tissuecancellous bone
Stress fractures can be described as very small slivers or cracks in the bone; and are sometimes referred to as "hairline fractures."

Tibia

shinshin boneshinbone
Stress fractures most frequently occur in weight-bearing bones, such as the tibia (bone of the lower leg), metatarsals, and navicular bones (bones of the foot).

Navicular bone

navicularboat-likenavicula
Stress fractures most frequently occur in weight-bearing bones, such as the tibia (bone of the lower leg), metatarsals, and navicular bones (bones of the foot).

Weight-bearing

weight bearingbear weightNon Weight Bearing
They most commonly present as pain with weight bearing that increases with activity.

Osteoblast

osteoblastsosteogenesisosteoblastic
It occurs from repeated traumas, none of which is sufficient to cause a sudden break, but which, when added together, overwhelm the osteoblasts that remodel the bone.

Muscle fatigue

fatiguemuscular fatigueenervation
Muscle fatigue can also play a role in the occurrence of stress fractures.

Shock absorber

shock absorbersdampersdamper
Muscles and bones serve as shock absorbers.

X-ray

X-raysX raysoft X-ray
X-rays usually do not show evidence of new stress fractures, but can be used approximately three weeks after onset of pain when the bone begins to remodel.

CT scan

computed tomographyCTCT scans
A CT scan, MRI, or 3-phase bone scan may be more effective for early diagnosis.

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRIMRI scanmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
A CT scan, MRI, or 3-phase bone scan may be more effective for early diagnosis.

Bone scintigraphy

bone scanbone scans3-phase bone scan
A CT scan, MRI, or 3-phase bone scan may be more effective for early diagnosis.

Calcium

CaCa 2+ calcium ions
During exercise that applies more stress to the bones, it may help to increase daily calcium (2,000 mg) and vitamin D (800 IU) intake, depending on the individual.

Walking boot

moon boot
Complete rest and a stirrup leg brace or walking boot are usually used for a period of four to eight weeks, although periods of rest of twelve weeks or more are not uncommon for more severe stress fractures.

Physical therapy

physiotherapyphysiotherapistphysical therapist
Rehabilitation usually includes muscle strength training to help dissipate the forces transmitted to the bones.

Surgery

surgicalsurgeonsurgical procedure
With severe stress fractures (see "prognosis"), surgery may be needed for proper healing.

Percutaneous pinning

pinning
The procedure may involve pinning the fracture site, and rehabilitation can take up to six months.

Metatarsal bones

metatarsalmetatarsusmetatarsals
Stress fractures most frequently occur in weight-bearing bones, such as the tibia (bone of the lower leg), metatarsals, and navicular bones (bones of the foot).

Relative energy deficiency in sport

female athlete triadFemale athlete triad syndromeRED-S
The female athlete triad also can put women at risk as disordered eating and osteoporosis can cause the bones to be severely weakened.

Paleontology

paleontologistpalaeontologistpalaeontology
In 2001, Bruce Rothschild and other paleontologists published a study examining evidence for stress fractures in theropod dinosaurs and analyzed the implications such injuries would have for reconstructing their behavior.

Theropoda

theropodtheropodsTheropoda indet.
In 2001, Bruce Rothschild and other paleontologists published a study examining evidence for stress fractures in theropod dinosaurs and analyzed the implications such injuries would have for reconstructing their behavior.