Striated muscle tissue

Micrograph of HPS stained skeletal striated muscle (fibularis longus).

Cardiac muscle (heart muscle)

- Striated muscle tissue

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Chagas disease

Tropical parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.

Photomicrograph of Giemsa-stained Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes in human blood
An acute Chagas disease infection with swelling of the right eye (Romaña's sign)
Life cycle and transmission of T. cruzi
Triatoma infestans, a common vector of T. cruzi
Large scale anatomy of a heart damaged by chronic Chagas disease
T. cruzi trypomastigotes seen in a blood smear
Bed nets can be used in endemic areas to prevent bites from triatomine bugs.
A bottle of nifurtimox tablets
Epidemiology of Chagas disease circa 2011: red is endemic countries where spread is through vectors; yellow is endemic countries where spread is occasionally through vectors; blue is non-endemic countries where spread is through blood transfusions.
Disability-adjusted life years due to Chagas disease in 2016. Grey indicates no data. Otherwise, colors get increasingly dark red for each order of magnitude increase in DALY burden: 0, white. Up to 1,000 DALYs, yellow. 1,001 to 10,000 DALYs, orange. 10,001 to 100,000 DALYs, light red. Greater than 100,000 DALYs, dark red.
Carlos Chagas, in his laboratory at Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

Early in the course of the disease, T. cruzi is found frequently in the striated muscle fibers of the heart.

Calcium metabolism

Movement and regulation of calcium ions in (via the gut) and out (via the gut and kidneys) of the body, and between body compartments: the blood plasma, the extracellular and intracellular fluids, and bone.

Calcium regulation in the human body.

In skeletal and heart muscle, calcium ions, released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (the endoplasmic reticulum of striated muscles), bind to the troponin C protein present on the actin-containing thin filaments of the myofibrils.

Actin

Family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments in the cytoskeleton, and the thin filaments in muscle fibrils.

Ribbon diagram of G-actin. ADP bound to actin's active site (multi color sticks near center of figure) as well as a complexed calcium dication (green sphere) are highlighted.
Fluorescence micrograph showing F-actin (in green) in rat fibroblasts
A merged stack of confocal images showing actin filaments within a cell. The image has been colour coded in the z axis to show in a 2D image which heights filaments can be found at within cells.
Structure of the C-terminal subdomain of villin, a protein capable of splitting microfilaments
The structure of a sarcomere, the basic morphological and functional unit of the skeletal muscles that contains actin
Diagram of a zonula occludens or tight junction, a structure that joins the epithelium of two cells. Actin is one of the anchoring elements shown in green.
Ribbon model of actin from rabbitmuscle. The four subdomains can be seen, as well as the N and C termini and the position of the ATP bond. The molecule is oriented using the usual convention of placing the - end (pointed end) up and the + end (barbed end) down.
F-actin; surface representation of a repetition of 13 subunits based on Ken Holmes' actin filament model
Ribbon model obtained using the PyMOL programme on crystallographs of the prefoldin proteins found in the archaean Pyrococcus horikoshii. The six supersecondary structures are present in a coiled helix “hanging” from the central beta barrels. These are often compared in the literature to the tentacles of a jellyfish. As far as is visible using electron microscopy, eukariotic prefoldin has a similar structure.
Ribbon model of the apical γ-domain of the chaperonin CCT
Microfilament formation showing the polymerization mechanism for converting G-actin to F-actin; note the hydrolysis of the ATP.
Atomic structure of Arp2/3. Each colour corresponds to a subunit: Arp3, orange; Arp2, sea blue (subunits 1 and 2 are not shown); p40, green; p34, light blue; p20, dark blue; p21, magenta; p16, yellow.
An actin (green) - profilin (blue) complex. The profilin shown belongs to group II, normally present in the kidneys and the brain.
The protein gelsolin, which is a key regulator in the assembly and disassembly of actin.
Principal interactions of structural proteins are at cadherin-based adherens junction. Actin filaments are linked to α-actinin and to the membrane through vinculin. The head domain of vinculin associates to E-cadherin via α-catenin, β-catenin, and γ-catenin. The tail domain of vinculin binds to membrane lipids and to actin filaments.
Structure of MreB, a bacterial protein whose three-dimensional structure resembles that of G-actin
Giant nemaline rods produced by the transfection of a DNA sequence of ACTA1, which is the carrier of a mutation responsible for nemaline myopathy
Position of seven mutations relevant to the various actinopathies related to ACTA1
Cross section of a rat heart that is showing signs of dilated cardiomyopathy
Image taken using confocal microscopy and employing the use of specific antibodies showing actin's cortical network. In the same way that in juvenile dystonia there is an interruption in the structures of the cytoskeleton, in this case it is produced by cytochalasin D.
Western blot for cytoplasmic actin from rat lung and epididymis
Nobel Prize winning physiologist Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt, co-discoverer of actin with Brunó Ferenc Straub
Chemical structure of phalloidin

The X-ray crystallography model of actin that was produced by Kabsch from the striated muscle tissue of rabbits is the most commonly used in structural studies as it was the first to be purified.

Lethal injection

[[File:Map of US lethal injection usage.svg|thumb|250px|Usage of lethal injection for the death penalty by jurisdiction in the United States in 2021

Execution room in the San Quentin State Prison in California
The Control Module of the lethal injection machine formerly installed in the James T. Vaughn Correctional Center, Delaware. On display in the National Museum of Crime & Punishment, Washington, D.C. (2009)

2) Pancuronium bromide: non-depolarizing muscle relaxant, which causes complete, fast, and sustained paralysis of the striated skeletal muscles, including the diaphragm and the rest of the respiratory muscles; this would eventually cause death by asphyxiation.

Trichinosis

Parasitic disease caused by roundworms of the Trichinella type.

Trichinella larvae in pressed bear meat, partially digested with pepsin. The classic coil shape is visible.
Trichinella spiralis larvae in muscle tissue
Animal tissue infected with the parasite that causes the disease trichinosis: Most parasites are shown in cross section, but some randomly appear in long section.
Lifecycle of Trichinella spiralis
Pork sausages eaten raw by consumers caused an outbreak of trichinellosis in 2015 in France.

After one week, the females release new larvae that migrate to voluntarily controlled muscles, where they form cysts.

Myosin

Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.

Part of the myosin II structure. Atoms in the heavy chain are colored pink (on the left-hand side); atoms in the light chains are colored faded-orange and faded-yellow (also on the left-hand side).
Myosin unrooted phylogenetic tree
Sliding filament model of muscle contraction.
Crystal structure of myosin V motor with essential light chain – nucleotide-free
State of myosin VI from PDB 2V26 before the power stroke
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
Phase 4

The term has been extended to include a group of similar ATPases found in the cells of both striated muscle tissue and smooth muscle tissue.