String quartet

string quartetsquartetstring ensemblestringsquartetsString Quartet No. 1 string quartetschamber music ensembleorchestral stringsOxford String Quartette
A string quartet refers to a musical ensemble consisting of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or to a musical composition written to be performed by such a group.wikipedia
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Musical ensemble

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A string quartet refers to a musical ensemble consisting of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or to a musical composition written to be performed by such a group.
In classical music, trios or quartets either blend the sounds of musical instrument families (such as piano, strings, and wind instruments) or group together instruments from the same instrument family, such as string ensembles (e.g., string quartet) or wind ensembles (e.g., wind quintet).

Cello

cellistvioloncellocellos
A string quartet refers to a musical ensemble consisting of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or to a musical composition written to be performed by such a group.
The cello often plays the bass part, both in chamber music such as string quartets and the orchestra's string section, where the cello may be reinforced an octave lower by the double basses.

Viola

violistviolaselectric viola
A string quartet refers to a musical ensemble consisting of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or to a musical composition written to be performed by such a group.
The viola often plays the "inner voices" in string quartets and symphonic writing, and it is more likely than the first violin to play accompaniment parts.

Joseph Haydn

HaydnFranz Joseph HaydnJ. Haydn
The string quartet was developed into its present form by the Austrian composer Joseph Haydn, whose works in the 1750s established the ensemble as a group of four more-or-less equal partners.
His contributions to musical form have earned him the epithets "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet".

Classical period (music)

ClassicalClassical periodClassical era
String quartet composition flourished in the Classical era: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert each wrote several.
The main kinds of instrumental music were the sonata, trio, string quartet, symphony (performed by an orchestra) and the solo concerto, which featured a virtuoso solo performer playing a solo work for violin, piano, flute, or another instrument, accompanied by an orchestra.

Ludwig van Beethoven

BeethovenLudwig von BeethovenBeethoven, Ludwig van
String quartet composition flourished in the Classical era: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert each wrote several.
During his life, he composed nine symphonies; five piano concertos; one violin concerto; thirty-two piano sonatas; sixteen string quartets; two masses; and the opera Fidelio.

Dmitri Shostakovich

ShostakovichDmitry ShostakovichDimitri Shostakovich
If there was a slight lull in the pace of string quartet composition through the later nineteenth century, then it received a resurgence in the 20th Century with the Second Viennese School, Béla Bartók, Dmitri Shostakovich, Milton Babbitt and Elliott Carter producing highly regarded examples of the genre. In the modern era, the string quartet played a key role in the development of Arnold Schoenberg (who was the first to add a soprano in his String Quartet No. 2), Béla Bartók, and Dmitri Shostakovich especially.
His chamber output includes 15 string quartets, a piano quintet, two piano trios, and two pieces for string octet.

Sonata form

sonata-allegro formsonata-allegrodevelopment
The standard structure for a string quartet as established in the Classical era is four movements, with the first movement in Sonata form, Allegro, in the tonic key; a slow movement, in a related key and a Minuet and Trio follow; and the fourth movement is often in Rondo form or Sonata rondo form, in the tonic key.
After its establishment, the sonata form became the most common form in the first movement of works entitled "sonata", as well as other long works of classical music, including the symphony, concerto, string quartet, and so on.

Antonín Dvořák

DvořákDvorakAntonin Dvorak
Many Romantic and early-twentieth-century composers composed string quartets, including Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms, Antonín Dvořák, Leoš Janáček and Claude Debussy.
In 1862, Dvořák had begun composing his first string quartet.

String orchestra

stringsstringstring ensemble
David Wyn Jones cites the widespread practice of four players, one to a part, playing works written for string orchestra, such as divertimenti and serenades, there being no separate (fifth) contrabass part in string scoring before the 19th century.
Some of these works are problematic when it comes to deciding whether they are for orchestra or string quartet.

String Quartets, Op. 20 (Haydn)

20String Quartets, Op. 20Haydn's Op. 20 No. 1
The convincing realizations of the progressive aims of the Op.20 set of 1772, in particular, makes them the first major peak in the history of the string quartet.
The six string quartets opus 20 by Joseph Haydn are among the works that earned Haydn the sobriquet "the father of the string quartet".

Violin

violinsfiddleviolinist
A string quartet refers to a musical ensemble consisting of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or to a musical composition written to be performed by such a group.
When violinists are playing in a string quartet or a string orchestra, the strings typically "sweeten" their tuning to suit the key they are playing in.

String Quartet No. 14 (Beethoven)

String Quartet No. 14C sharp minor Quartet, Op. 131String Quartet in C sharp Minor
Schubert's last musical wish was to hear Beethoven's Quartet in C minor, Op. 131, which he did on 14 November 1828, just five days before his death.
It is the last-composed of a trio of string quartets, written in the order Opp.

Classical music

classicalWestern classical musicEuropean classical music
The string quartet is one of the most prominent chamber ensembles in classical music, most major composers from the mid 18th century onwards having written string quartets.
During the Classical era, the stringed instruments used in orchestra and chamber music such as string quartets were standardized as the four instruments which form the string section of the orchestra: the violin, viola, cello, and double bass.

Ignaz Pleyel

PleyelIgnace PleyelIgnace Joseph Pleyel
That Haydn's string quartets were already "classics" that defined the genre by 1801 can be judged by Ignaz Pleyel's publication in Paris of a "complete" series that year, and the quartet's evolution as vehicle for public performance can be judged by Pleyel's ten-volume set of miniature scores intended for hearers rather than players, early examples of ths genre of music publishing.
Among his early publications was a set of six string quartets, his Opus 1.

Late string quartets (Beethoven)

late string quartetslate quartetsThe Late Quartets
Substantial modifications to the typical structure were already achieved in Beethoven's later quartets, and despite some notable examples to the contrary, composers writing in the twentieth century increasingly abandoned this structure.

Naxos Quartets

Naxos QuartetNaxos Quartet No. 7Naxos Quartet No.9
During his tenure as Master of the Queen's Music, Peter Maxwell Davies produced a set of ten entitled the Naxos Quartets (to a commission from Naxos Records) from 2001–2007.
The Naxos Quartets are a series of ten string quartets by the English composer Peter Maxwell Davies.

String Quartets (Mendelssohn)

Mendelssohn's six string quartetsstring quartets
Mendelssohn's six string quartets span the full range of his career, from 1828 to 1847; Schumann's three string quartets were all written in 1842 and dedicated to Mendelssohn, whose quartets Schumann had been studying in preparation, along with those of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
Felix Mendelssohn wrote six numbered string quartets, all published during his lifetime:

Divertimento

divertimentiCassatioDivertimezzo
As Ludwig Finscher notes, they draw stylistically on the Austrian divertimento tradition.
Even more unusual is his six movement string trio, the Divertimento in E-flat, K. 563, which is a serious work belonging with his string quartets and quintets.

String quintet

String Quintetsviola quintetdouble bass quintet
As an extension to the string quartet (two violins, a viola, and a cello), a string quintet includes a fifth string instrument, usually a second viola (a so-called "viola quintet") or a second cello (a "cello quintet"), or occasionally a double bass.

Leoš Janáček

JanáčekJanacekLeoš Janácek
Many Romantic and early-twentieth-century composers composed string quartets, including Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms, Antonín Dvořák, Leoš Janáček and Claude Debussy.
Janáček's chamber music, while not especially voluminous, includes works which are widely considered twentieth-century classics, particularly his two string quartets: Quartet No. 1, "The Kreutzer Sonata" inspired by the Tolstoy novel, and the Quartet No. 2, "Intimate Letters".

String Quartets (Schoenberg)

Second String QuartetString Quartet No. 2String Quartet No. 1
In the modern era, the string quartet played a key role in the development of Arnold Schoenberg (who was the first to add a soprano in his String Quartet No. 2), Béla Bartók, and Dmitri Shostakovich especially.
The Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg published four string quartets, distributed over his lifetime: '''String Quartet No.

Franz Schubert

SchubertFranz Peter SchubertSchubert’s
String quartet composition flourished in the Classical era: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert each wrote several.
667), which is scored for piano, violin, viola, cello, and double bass, whereas conventional piano quintets are scored for piano and string quartet.

Piano quintet

quintetQuintet for Piano and Stringsquintets
In classical music, a piano quintet is a work of chamber music written for piano and four other instruments, most commonly a string quartet (i.e., two violins, viola, and cello).

Chamber music

chamberchamber ensemblechamber works
The string quartet is one of the most prominent chamber ensembles in classical music, most major composers from the mid 18th century onwards having written string quartets.