Stroke

ischemic strokestrokescerebrovascular accidenthemorrhagic strokebrain strokeparalytic strokebrain hemorrhageischaemic strokecerebral vascular accidentstroke symptoms
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.wikipedia
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Brain ischemia

cerebral ischemiacerebral ischaemiaischemic stroke
There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding.
This leads to poor oxygen supply or cerebral hypoxia and thus to the death of brain tissue or cerebral infarction / ischemic stroke.

Pneumonia

bronchopneumoniabronchial pneumoniaNecrotizing pneumonia
Long-term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control.
Risk factors include cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, and a weak immune system.

Transient ischemic attack

transient ischaemic attacktransient ischemic attacksmini-stroke
If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke.
TIAs have the same underlying mechanism as ischemic strokes.

Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics
Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, a previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation.
Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

subarachnoid haemorrhagesubarachnoidsubarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic
A hemorrhagic stroke may also be associated with a severe headache. A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by either bleeding directly into the brain or into the space between the brain's membranes.
It is a form of stroke and comprises about 5 percent of all strokes.

Aspirin

acetylsalicylic acidBufferinASA
Prevention includes decreasing risk factors, as well as possibly aspirin, statins, surgery to open up the arteries to the brain in those with problematic narrowing, and warfarin in those with atrial fibrillation.
Aspirin is also used long-term to help prevent further heart attacks, ischaemic strokes, and blood clots in people at high risk.

Stroke recovery

stroke rehabilitationrehabilitationrecovery
Treatment to try to recover lost function is called stroke rehabilitation and ideally takes place in a stroke unit; however, these are not available in much of the world.
The primary goals of stroke management are to reduce brain injury and promote maximum patient recovery.

Warfarin

CoumadinAthrombinAthrombin-K
Prevention includes decreasing risk factors, as well as possibly aspirin, statins, surgery to open up the arteries to the brain in those with problematic narrowing, and warfarin in those with atrial fibrillation.
It is commonly used to treat blood clots such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and to prevent stroke in people who have atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease or artificial heart valves.

Carotid endarterectomy

carotid endarterectomiesendarterectomy, carotidsurgery to open up the arteries to the brain
Prevention includes decreasing risk factors, as well as possibly aspirin, statins, surgery to open up the arteries to the brain in those with problematic narrowing, and warfarin in those with atrial fibrillation.
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure performed by vascular surgeons used to reduce the risk of stroke by correcting stenosis (narrowing) in the common carotid artery or internal carotid artery.

Cerebral circulation

cerebral blood flowblood flow to the braincerebral vasculature
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Since the brain is very vulnerable to compromises in its blood supply, the cerebral circulatory system has many safeguards including autoregulation of the blood vessels and the failure of these safeguards can result in a stroke.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
The TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification is based on clinical symptoms as well as results of further investigations; on this basis, a stroke is classified as being due to (1) thrombosis or embolism due to atherosclerosis of a large artery, (2) an embolism originating in the heart, (3) complete blockage of a small blood vessel, (4) other determined cause, (5) undetermined cause (two possible causes, no cause identified, or incomplete investigation).
When severe, it can result in coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, or kidney problems, depending on which arteries are affected.

Cocaine

cokecocaine traffickingcrack
Users of stimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine are at a high risk for ischemic strokes.
Its use also increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, and sudden cardiac death.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
The TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification is based on clinical symptoms as well as results of further investigations; on this basis, a stroke is classified as being due to (1) thrombosis or embolism due to atherosclerosis of a large artery, (2) an embolism originating in the heart, (3) complete blockage of a small blood vessel, (4) other determined cause, (5) undetermined cause (two possible causes, no cause identified, or incomplete investigation).
Of these more than three quarters are a result of coronary artery disease and stroke.

Intracranial hemorrhage

intracranial bleedingintracranial haemorrhageintracranial hematoma
There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding.
It can result from physical trauma (as occurs in head injury) or nontraumatic causes (as occurs in hemorrhagic stroke) such as a ruptured aneurysm.

Intracerebral hemorrhage

cerebral hemorrhagebrain hemorrhagecerebral haemorrhage
A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by either bleeding directly into the brain or into the space between the brain's membranes.
Other conditions that may present similarly include ischemic stroke.

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

cerebral venous thrombosisdural sinus thrombosissagittal sinus thrombosis
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis leads to stroke due to locally increased venous pressure, which exceeds the pressure generated by the arteries.
Symptoms may include headache, abnormal vision, any of the symptoms of stroke such as weakness of the face and limbs on one side of the body, and seizures.

Stimulant

stimulantspsychostimulantpsychostimulants
Users of stimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine are at a high risk for ischemic strokes.
When these changes become pathological, they are called arrhythmia, hypertension, and hyperthermia, and may lead to rhabdomyolysis, stroke, cardiac arrest, or seizures.

Intraparenchymal hemorrhage

intraparenchymal bleedbrain tissue
8-13% of all strokes and results from a wide spectrum of disorders.

CT scan

computed tomographyCTCT scans
Diagnosis is typically based on a physical exam and supported by medical imaging such as a CT scan or MRI scan.
CT scans may be used to diagnose headache when neuroimaging is indicated and MRI is not available, or in emergency settings when hemorrhage, stroke, or traumatic brain injury are suspected.

Hypercholesterolemia

high cholesterolhigh blood cholesterolhypercholesterolaemia
Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, a previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation.
A blockage of an artery supplying the brain can cause a stroke.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, a previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation.

Urinary incontinence

incontinenceurinarycontinence
Long-term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control.
Both women and men can become incontinent from neurologic injury, congenital defects, strokes, multiple sclerosis, and physical problems associated with aging.

Expressive aphasia

Broca's aphasiamotor aphasianon-fluent aphasia
Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, dizziness, or loss of vision to one side.
The most common cause of expressive aphasia is stroke.

Aphasia

aphasicdysphasiaaphasics
Speech and language therapy is appropriate for people with the speech production disorders: dysarthria and apraxia of speech, aphasia, cognitive-communication impairments, and problems with swallowing.
This damage is typically caused by a cerebral vascular accident (stroke), or head trauma; however, these are not the only possible causes.

Stroke Association

The Stroke AssociationResolution Run
A mnemonic to remember the warning signs of stroke is FAST (facial droop, arm weakness, speech difficulty, and time to call emergency services), as advocated by the Department of Health (United Kingdom) and the Stroke Association, the American Stroke Association, the National Stroke Association (US), the Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen (LAPSS) and the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS).
It works to prevent stroke, and to support everyone touched by stroke, fund research, and campaign for the rights of stroke survivors of all ages.