Strontium

SrSr 2+ strontium-90Strontium phosphide 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios 89 SrSr linesSr-89strontianstrontium(II)
Strontium is the chemical element with the symbol Sr and atomic number 38.wikipedia
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Alkaline earth metal

alkaline earthalkaline earth metalsgroup 2
An alkaline earth metal, strontium is a soft silver-white yellowish metallic element that is highly chemically reactive.
They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra).

Calcium

CaCa 2+ calcium ions
Strontium has physical and chemical properties similar to those of its two vertical neighbors in the periodic table, calcium and barium.
Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium.

Strontianite

It occurs naturally mainly in the minerals celestine and strontianite, and is mostly mined from these.
Strontianite (SrCO 3 ) is an important raw material for the extraction of strontium.

Celestine (mineral)

celestinecelestitestrontium sulphate
It occurs naturally mainly in the minerals celestine and strontianite, and is mostly mined from these.
Celestine or celestite is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate (SrSO 4 ).

Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry DavyDavySir Humphry Davy, Bt
Strontium was first isolated as a metal in 1808 by Humphry Davy using the then-newly discovered process of electrolysis. The element was eventually isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 by the electrolysis of a mixture containing strontium chloride and mercuric oxide, and announced by him in a lecture to the Royal Society on 30 June 1808.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Strontium is the chemical element with the symbol Sr and atomic number 38.

Strontian

AnaheiltArdnastangAchnalea
Both strontium and strontianite are named after Strontian, a village in Scotland near which the mineral was discovered in 1790 by Adair Crawford and William Cruickshank; it was identified as a new element the next year from its crimson-red flame test color.
In the hills to the north of Strontian lead was mined in the 18th century and in these mines the mineral strontianite was discovered, from which the element strontium was first isolated.

Adair Crawford

Both strontium and strontianite are named after Strontian, a village in Scotland near which the mineral was discovered in 1790 by Adair Crawford and William Cruickshank; it was identified as a new element the next year from its crimson-red flame test color.
Crawford also was involved in the discovery of the element strontium.

Strontium hydroxide

Sr(OH) 2 S
Strontium is intermediate between calcium and barium in its reactivity toward water, with which it reacts on contact to produce strontium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.
Strontium hydroxide, Sr(OH) 2, is a caustic alkali composed of one strontium ion and two hydroxide ions.

Barium

BaBa 2+ barium poisoning
Strontium has physical and chemical properties similar to those of its two vertical neighbors in the periodic table, calcium and barium.
They are denser than the strontium or calcium analogs, except for the halides (see table; zinc is given for comparison).

Strontium nitride

Sr 3 N 2
Strontium metal burns in air to produce both strontium oxide and strontium nitride, but since it does not react with nitrogen below 380 °C, at room temperature, it forms only the oxide spontaneously.
Strontium nitride, Sr 3 N 2, is produced by burning strontium metal in air (resulting in a mixture with strontium oxide) or in nitrogen.

Strontium oxide

SrOstrontiaR
Strontium metal burns in air to produce both strontium oxide and strontium nitride, but since it does not react with nitrogen below 380 °C, at room temperature, it forms only the oxide spontaneously.
Strontium oxide or strontia, SrO, is formed when strontium reacts with oxygen.

Alkali metal

alkali metalsalkaligroup 1
The standard electrode potential for the Sr 2+ /Sr couple is −2.89 V, approximately midway between those of the Ca 2+ /Ca (−2.84 V) and Ba 2+ /Ba (−2.92 V) couples, and close to those of the neighboring alkali metals.
Additionally, the heavy alkaline earth metals calcium, strontium, and barium, as well as the divalent lanthanides europium and ytterbium, are pale yellow, though the colour is much less prominent than it is for caesium.

William Cruickshank (chemist)

William CruickshankW. CruikshankWilliam Cruikshank
Both strontium and strontianite are named after Strontian, a village in Scotland near which the mineral was discovered in 1790 by Adair Crawford and William Cruickshank; it was identified as a new element the next year from its crimson-red flame test color.
It was later isolated by Humphry Davy and is now known as strontium.

Thomas Charles Hope

Thomas HopeProfessor Thomas Charles Hope
Thomas Charles Hope originally named the element strontianite, but the name was soon after shortened to strontium.
He proved the existence of the element strontium, and gave his name to Hope's Experiment, which shows that water reaches its maximum density at 4 C.

Strontium chloride

SrCl 2 chlorideS
The element was eventually isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 by the electrolysis of a mixture containing strontium chloride and mercuric oxide, and announced by him in a lecture to the Royal Society on 30 June 1808.
Strontium chloride (SrCl 2 ) is a salt of strontium and chloride.

Ionic radius

ionic radiiionicradius
Organostrontium compounds tend to be more similar to organoeuropium or organosamarium compounds due to the similar ionic radii of these elements (Sr 2+ 118 pm; Eu 2+ 117 pm; Sm 2+ 122 pm).

Flame test

flamecolored flameflame colours
Both strontium and strontianite are named after Strontian, a village in Scotland near which the mineral was discovered in 1790 by Adair Crawford and William Cruickshank; it was identified as a new element the next year from its crimson-red flame test color.

Nuclear fission product

fission productfission productsfission fragments
While 90 Sr (half-life 28.90 years) has been used similarly, it is also an isotope of concern in fallout from nuclear weapons and nuclear accidents due to its production as a fission product.
Since the nuclei that can readily undergo fission are particularly neutron-rich (e.g. 61% of the nucleons in uranium-235 are neutrons), the initial fission products are often more neutron-rich than stable nuclei of the same mass as the fission product (e.g. stable zirconium-90 is 56% neutrons compared to unstable strontium-90 at 58%).

Yttrium

Y 90 YY-90
Of the unstable isotopes, the primary decay mode of the isotopes lighter than 85 Sr is electron capture or positron emission to isotopes of rubidium, and that of the isotopes heavier than 88 Sr is electron emission to isotopes of yttrium.
Yttrium isotopes with mass numbers at or below 88 decay primarily by positron emission (proton → neutron) to form strontium (Z = 38) isotopes.

Strontium sulfide

SrS
The second stage produces a dark-coloured material containing mostly strontium sulfide.
Strontium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula SrS.

Strontium carbonate

SrCO 3 I
Strontium carbonate and other strontium salts are added to fireworks to give a deep red colour.
Strontium carbonate (SrCO 3 ) is the carbonate salt of strontium that has the appearance of a white or grey powder.

Abundance of elements in Earth's crust

Earth's crustmost abundant element in the Earth's crustat relatively trace concentrations of parts per million each
Strontium commonly occurs in nature, being the 15th most abundant element on Earth (its heavier congener barium being the 14th), estimated to average approximately 360 parts per million in the Earth's crust and is found chiefly as the sulfate mineral celestine (SrSO 4 ) and the carbonate strontianite (SrCO 3 ).

Chernobyl disaster

ChernobylChernobyl accidentChernobyl nuclear disaster
The 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident contaminated about 30,000 km 2 with greater than 10 kBq/m 2 with 90 Sr, which accounts for 5% of the core inventory of 90 Sr.
Particularly dangerous are the highly radioactive fission products, those with high nuclear decay rates that accumulate in the food chain, such as some of the isotopes of iodine, caesium and strontium.

Strontium fluoride

SrF 2 sSStrontium difluoride
90 Sr produces approximately 0.93 watts of heat per gram (it is lower for the form of 90 Sr used in RTGs, which is strontium fluoride).
Strontium fluoride, SrF 2, also called strontium difluoride and strontium(II) fluoride, is a fluoride of strontium.