Structural unemployment

skills gapstructuralmajor skills shortageskills mismatchstructurally unemployedworkforce skills gap
Structural unemployment is a form of unemployment caused by a mismatch between the skills that workers in the economy can offer, and the skills demanded of workers by employers (also known as the skills gap).wikipedia
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Economics

economiceconomisteconomic theory
Structural unemployment is one of several major categories of unemployment distinguished by economists, including frictional unemployment, cyclical unemployment, involuntary unemployment, and classical unemployment.
Structural unemployment covers a variety of possible causes of unemployment including a mismatch between workers' skills and the skills required for open jobs.

Frictional unemployment

search unemployment
Structural unemployment is one of several major categories of unemployment distinguished by economists, including frictional unemployment, cyclical unemployment, involuntary unemployment, and classical unemployment.
A longer term form of frictional unemployment is structural unemployment which is very similar.

Unemployment

unemployedunemployment ratejob creation
Structural unemployment is one of several major categories of unemployment distinguished by economists, including frictional unemployment, cyclical unemployment, involuntary unemployment, and classical unemployment. Structural unemployment is a form of unemployment caused by a mismatch between the skills that workers in the economy can offer, and the skills demanded of workers by employers (also known as the skills gap). For example, seasonal unemployment often affects farm workers after harvesting is complete, and workers in resort towns after the tourist season ends.
Some of the main types of unemployment include structural unemployment and frictional unemployment, as well as cyclical unemployment, involuntary unemployment, and classical unemployment.

Reserve army of labour

reserve army of laborindustrial reserve armyreserve army of the unemployed
Reserve army of labour
Prior to what Marx regarded as the start of the capitalist era in human history (i.e. before the 16th century), structural unemployment on a mass scale rarely existed, other than that caused by natural disasters and wars.

Natural rate of unemployment

natural ratenatural" rate of unemploymentfull employment
Natural rate of unemployment
Also, his theories gave insights into the causes of a too high natural rate of unemployment (i.e., why unemployment could be structural or classical).

Involuntary unemployment

involuntarily unemployedinvoluntaryunable to work
Structural unemployment is one of several major categories of unemployment distinguished by economists, including frictional unemployment, cyclical unemployment, involuntary unemployment, and classical unemployment.

Discrimination

discriminatoryanti-discriminationdiscriminate
Employers may also reject workers for reasons unrelated to skills or geography, so for example structural unemployment can also result from discrimination.

Farmworker

farmhandfarm workerfarm hand
For example, seasonal unemployment often affects farm workers after harvesting is complete, and workers in resort towns after the tourist season ends.

Resort town

resort cityresortresort communities
For example, seasonal unemployment often affects farm workers after harvesting is complete, and workers in resort towns after the tourist season ends.

Dot-com bubble

dot-com boomdot-com bustdot-com crash
The dot-com bubble caused a temporary spike in demand for information technology workers, which was suddenly reversed in 2000-2001.

Real estate bubble

housing bubbleland boomproperty bubble
Inability to sell a house (for example due to the collapse of a real estate bubble or of the local economy)

Obsolescence

obsoleteobsolescentpassé
Technological obsolescence makes a specific expertise useless. For example, demand for manual typesetters disappeared with digitization of printing plate production.

Productivity

productiveproductivity growtheconomic productivity
Productivity increases reduce the number of workers (with the same or similar skills) needed to satisfy demand.

Mechanised agriculture

mechanical harvestingmechanisation of agriculturemechanization of agriculture
New technology significantly increase productivity, but requires a fewer number of higher-skilled workers. For example, fewer agricultural workers are needed when the work is mechanized; those that remain must be trained to operate equipment. Another common example is the use of industrial robots to automate manufacturing. A study by Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael Osborne found in 2013 that almost half of U.S jobs are at risk of automation.

Industrial robot

industrial robotsindustrial roboticsrobot
New technology significantly increase productivity, but requires a fewer number of higher-skilled workers. For example, fewer agricultural workers are needed when the work is mechanized; those that remain must be trained to operate equipment. Another common example is the use of industrial robots to automate manufacturing. A study by Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael Osborne found in 2013 that almost half of U.S jobs are at risk of automation.

Carl Benedikt Frey

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New technology significantly increase productivity, but requires a fewer number of higher-skilled workers. For example, fewer agricultural workers are needed when the work is mechanized; those that remain must be trained to operate equipment. Another common example is the use of industrial robots to automate manufacturing. A study by Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael Osborne found in 2013 that almost half of U.S jobs are at risk of automation.

Rust Belt

rustbeltmanufacturing stateSteel Belt
Manufacturing jobs in the United States moved from what are now called Rust Belt cities to lower-cost cities in the South and rural areas.

Globalization

globalisationglobalizedglobal
Globalization has caused many manufacturing jobs to move from high-wage to low-wage countries.

Free-trade area

free trade agreementfree trade areafree trade agreements
Free trade agreements can cause jobs to move as competitive advantage changes.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

fall of the Soviet Unioncollapse of the Soviet Uniondissolution of the USSR
Political changes, for example the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Virtuous circle and vicious circle

vicious circlevicious cyclevirtuous circle
Problems with debt may lead to homelessness and a fall into the vicious circle of poverty.

Hysteresis (economics)

hysteresislong-term effects of previous unemploymenthysteresis hypothesis
This theory of persistence in structural unemployment has been referred to as an example of path dependence or "hysteresis."

Narayana Kocherlakota

Narayana Kocherlakota, then president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, said in a 2010 speech that as much as 3 percent of the 9.5 percent unemployment rate at the time could be the result of a mismatch.

Marginal revenue productivity theory of wages

marginal productivity theorymarginal revenue product
They assert that because the governmentally imposed minimum wage is higher than some individuals' marginal revenue product in any given job, that those individuals remain unemployed because employers legally cannot pay them what they are "worth."

Intellectual disability

mental retardationintellectually disabledintellectual disabilities
Others believe that in such cases (for example, when a person is intellectually disabled or suffers a debilitating physical condition) it is the responsibility of the state to provide for the citizen in question.