Structuralism (architecture)

Structuralismstructuralistarchitecturestructuralism in architectureStructuralist architecturestructuralistic architecture
Structuralism is a movement in architecture and urban planning evolved around the middle of the 20th century.wikipedia
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Structuralism

structuraliststructuralistsstructural
Structuralism in a general sense is a mode of thought of the 20th century, which originated in linguistics.
The structuralist mode of reasoning has been applied in a diverse range of fields, including anthropology, sociology, psychology, literary criticism, economics and architecture.

Aldo van Eyck

On the one hand, there is the Aesthetics of Number which was formulated by Aldo van Eyck in 1959.
He was one of the most influential protagonists of the architectural movement Structuralism.

Kenzō Tange

Kenzo TangeKenzo Tange AssociatesKenzo Tange International
An influential prototype of this direction is the Yamanashi Culture Chamber in Kofu by Kenzo Tange, completed in 1967.
He said: "It was, I believe, around 1959 or at the beginning of the sixties that I began to think about what I was later to call structuralism", (cited in Plan 2/1982, Amsterdam), a reference to the architectural movement known as Dutch Structuralism.

N. John Habraken

John HabrakenN.J. Habraken
On the other hand, there is the Architecture of Lively Variety (Structure and Infill) which was formulated for user participation in housing by John Habraken in 1961.
The theme "Resident or user participation" has been linked to Structuralism and Open building.

Herman Hertzberger

HertzbergerHerman Herzberger
An actual question was: "Should the Venturis be given this year's RIBA Gold Medal?" Surprisingly enough, the RIBA-committee did not award the Venturis with their postmodernist view, and instead, gave Herman Hertzberger the prize for his structuralist architecture and theoretical contributions.
Hertzberger can be considered, along with Aldo van Eyck, as the influence behind the Dutch structuralist movement of the 1960s and 1970s.

Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne

CIAMCongrès International d'Architecture ModerneCongres Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne
It was a reaction to Rationalism's (CIAM-Functionalism) perceived lifeless expression of urban planning that ignored the identity of the inhabitants and urban forms.
For a reform of CIAM, the group Team 10 was active from 1953 onwards, and two different movements emerged from it: the New Brutalism of the English members (Alison and Peter Smithson) and the Structuralism of the Dutch members (Aldo van Eyck and Jacob B. Bakema).

Team 10

Team XTeam Ten
Various groups with often conflicting views were active in this organization; for example, members with a scientific approach to architecture without aesthetic premises (Rationalists), members who regarded architecture as an art form (Le Corbusier), members who were proponents of high- or low-rise building (Ernst May), members supporting a course of reform after World War II (Team 10), members of the old guard and so on.
Two different movements emerged from Team 10: the New Brutalism of the English members (Alison and Peter Smithson) and the Structuralism of the Dutch members (Aldo van Eyck and Jacob Bakema).

Participatory design

co-designParticipationalongside each other
On the other hand, there is the Architecture of Lively Variety (Structure and Infill) which was formulated for user participation in housing by John Habraken in 1961.

Halen Estate

Halen housing developmentHalen housing estateSiedlung Halen
Located in a wooded area north of the city, the development is an important example of 20th century Modernist architecture (Structuralism), and as such is listed on the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites.

Atelier 5

The company built the Halen housing development (Structuralism) between 1955 and 1962 in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland.

Piet Blom

Piet Blom, Aldo van Eyck, Herman Hertzberger a.o. are representatives of the movement Structuralism.

New Objectivity (architecture)

New ObjectivityNeues BauenNeue Sachlichkeit
It was a reaction to Rationalism's (CIAM-Functionalism) perceived lifeless expression of urban planning that ignored the identity of the inhabitants and urban forms. Various groups with often conflicting views were active in this organization; for example, members with a scientific approach to architecture without aesthetic premises (Rationalists), members who regarded architecture as an art form (Le Corbusier), members who were proponents of high- or low-rise building (Ernst May), members supporting a course of reform after World War II (Team 10), members of the old guard and so on.

Paradigm

paradigmsparadigmaticscientific paradigm
"Structuralism is a theoretical paradigm emphasizing that elements of culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure."

Simon Blackburn

Blackburn, SimonBlackburnBlackburn, S.
Alternately, as summarized by philosopher Simon Blackburn, ''"Structuralism is the belief that phenomena of human life are not intelligible except through their interrelations. These relations constitute a structure, and behind local variations in the surface phenomena there are constant laws of abstract culture."''

Charles Jencks

Jencks AwardJencks, CharlesMaggie Keswick,
In architecture its position was undermined by the increasing popularity of postmodern architecture promoted by publications by authors such as Charles Jencks, Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown.

Robert Venturi

Venturi, Scott Brown and AssociatesVenturiVenturi Scott Brown
An actual question was: "Should the Venturis be given this year's RIBA Gold Medal?" Surprisingly enough, the RIBA-committee did not award the Venturis with their postmodernist view, and instead, gave Herman Hertzberger the prize for his structuralist architecture and theoretical contributions. In architecture its position was undermined by the increasing popularity of postmodern architecture promoted by publications by authors such as Charles Jencks, Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown.

Denise Scott Brown

Scott BrownDenise Scott-BrownScott-Brown
In architecture its position was undermined by the increasing popularity of postmodern architecture promoted by publications by authors such as Charles Jencks, Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown.

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
The theoretical concepts of structuralism in architecture were developed mainly in Europe and Japan, with important contributions of the US and Canada.

Japan

JPNJapaneseJP
The theoretical concepts of structuralism in architecture were developed mainly in Europe and Japan, with important contributions of the US and Canada.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
The theoretical concepts of structuralism in architecture were developed mainly in Europe and Japan, with important contributions of the US and Canada.

Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
The theoretical concepts of structuralism in architecture were developed mainly in Europe and Japan, with important contributions of the US and Canada.

London

London, EnglandLondon, United KingdomLondon, UK
A few months after publishing this book, the RIBA Institute in London discussed the new candidates for the RIBA Gold Medal in 2012.

Traditionalist School (architecture)

Traditionalist SchoolDelft Schooltraditionalist
The comment of the former RIBA president Jack Pringle was: "The Royal Gold Medal, Britain's most prestigious award, should go to an architect that has taken us forward, not backwards." Today, postmodern architecture can be compared, to some degree with the architectural movement, Traditionalismus, in Europe.

Claude Lévi-Strauss

Lévi-StraussClaude Levi-StraussLevi-Strauss
The anthropologist, Claude Lévi-Strauss, remarked: "I do not believe that we can still speak of one structuralism. There were a lot of movements that claimed to be structuralist." This diversity can also be found in architecture.

Kōfu

KofuKōfu, YamanashiKofu, Yamanashi
An influential prototype of this direction is the Yamanashi Culture Chamber in Kofu by Kenzo Tange, completed in 1967.