Strychnine

strychnine poisoningstrychnine sulfate
Strychnine (also or ) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.wikipedia
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Strychnine poisoning

poisoned with strychninestrychninepoisoning
Strychnine, when inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the eyes or mouth, causes poisoning which results in muscular convulsions and eventually death through asphyxia.
For this reason, strychnine poisoning is often portrayed in literature and film, such as the murder mysteries written by Agatha Christie.

Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticides
Strychnine (also or ) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
These include the pyrethroids, rotenoids, nicotinoids, and a fourth group that includes strychnine and scilliroside.

Alkaloid

alkaloidspurine alkaloidalkaloid biosynthesis
Strychnine (also or ) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents. Strychnine is a terpene indole alkaloid belonging to the Strychnos family of Corynanthe alkaloids, and it is derived from tryptamine and secologanin.
For example, atropine is isolated from the plant Atropa belladonna; strychnine is obtained from the seed of the Strychnine tree (Strychnos nux-vomica L.).

Strychnos

Strychnos nux-vomica
Strychnine is a terpene indole alkaloid belonging to the Strychnos family of Corynanthe alkaloids, and it is derived from tryptamine and secologanin.
Among these alkaloids are the well-known and virulent poisons strychnine and curare.

Strychnine total synthesis

Kuehne Strychnine total synthesisShibasaki total synthesisstrychnine
The molecule has since received continuing wide attention in the years since for the challenges to synthetic organic strategy and tactics presented by its complexity; its synthesis has been targeted and its stereocontrolled preparation independently achieved by more than a dozen research groups since the first success (see main strychnine total synthesis article).
Strychnine total synthesis in chemistry describes the total synthesis of the complex biomolecule strychnine.

Wieland-Gumlich aldehyde

Stereospecific reduction of the endocyclic double bond by NADPH and hydroxylation provides the Wieland-Gumlich aldehyde, which was first isolated by Heimberger and Scott in 1973, although previously synthesized by Wieland and Gumlich in 1932.
The so-called Wieland-Gumlich aldehyde (6) is an indoline derived by chemical degradation from strychnine.

Strychnos nux-vomica

nux vomicastrychnine treeNux-vomica
The most common source is from the seeds of the Strychnos nux-vomica tree.
It is a major source of the highly poisonous, intensely bitter alkaloids strychnine and brucine derived from the seeds inside the tree's round, green to orange fruit.

Robert Burns Woodward

R. B. WoodwardR.B. WoodwardRobert B. Woodward
An early synthetic chemist targeting strychnine, R.B. Woodward, quoted the chemist who determined its structure through chemical decomposition and related physical studies as saying that "for its molecular size it is the most complex organic substance known" (attributed to Sir Robert Robinson).
During the late 1940s, Woodward synthesized many complex natural products including quinine, cholesterol, cortisone, strychnine, lysergic acid, reserpine, chlorophyll, cephalosporin, and colchicine.

Glycine receptor

glycineglycine receptorsGlyR
Strychnine is a neurotoxin which acts as an antagonist of glycine and acetylcholine receptors.
The receptor can be activated by a range of simple amino acids including glycine, β-alanine and taurine, and can be selectively blocked by the high-affinity competitive antagonist strychnine.

Rodenticide

rat poisonrodenticidesanticoagulant rat poison
Strychnine is also used as a rodenticide, but is not specific to such unwanted pests and may kill other small animals.
During World War II, they came into use in United States because of shortage of strychnine due to the Japanese occupation of the territories where the strychnine tree is grown.

Drugstore beetle

biscuit weevilStegobium paniceumdrug store beetle
The drugstore beetle has a symbiotic gut yeast that allows it to digest pure strychnine.
This is from its preference of dried herbs and plant material sometimes used as drugs; e.g. drugstore beetles have been known to feed on strychnine, a highly toxic herbal extract.

Glycine

GlyGglycinate
In the presence of an inhibitory neurotransmitter, such as glycine, a greater quantity of excitatory neurotransmitters must bind to receptors before there will be an action potential generated.
Strychnine is a strong antagonist at ionotropic glycine receptors, whereas bicuculline is a weak one.

Indole

indolicindolindoles
Strychnine is a terpene indole alkaloid belonging to the Strychnos family of Corynanthe alkaloids, and it is derived from tryptamine and secologanin.
For example, Padwa et al. have developed this Diels-Alder reaction to form advanced strychnine intermediates.

Median lethal dose

LD 50 LC 50 LD50
The LD 50 -values for strychnine in animals are listed below in table 1.

Risus sardonicus

rictus grinsardonic grinrictus
As strychnine poisoning progresses, tachycardia (rapid heart beat), hypertension (high blood pressure), tachypnea (rapid breathing), cyanosis (blue discoloration), diaphoresis (sweating), water-electrolyte imbalance, leukocytosis (high number of white blood cells), trismus (lockjaw), risus sardonicus (spasm of the facial muscles), and opisthotonus (dramatic spasm of the back muscles, causing arching of the back and neck) can occur.
It can also be caused by poisoning with strychnine or Wilson's disease.

Brucine

brucin
In some Strychnos plants a 9,10-dimethoxy derivative of strychnine, the alkaloid brucine, is also present.
Brucine, an alkaloid closely related to strychnine, is most commonly found in the Strychnos nux-vomica tree.

Epileptic seizure

seizureseizuresepileptic seizures
If a lower dose is ingested, other symptoms begin to develop, including seizures, cramping, stiffness, hypervigilance, and agitation.
Other possible conditions that can mimic a seizure include: decerebrate posturing, psychogenic seizures, tetanus, dystonia, migraine headaches, and strychnine poisoning.

Curare

curariformcurarizingwourali
Accordingly, George Harley (1829–1896) showed in 1850 that curare (wourali) was effective for the treatment of tetanus and strychnine poisoning.
George Harley (1829–1896) showed in 1850 that curare (wourali) was effective for the treatment of tetanus and strychnine poisoning.

An Evening Wasted with Tom Lehrer

Poisoning Pigeons In The ParkThe Masochism TangoClementine" (Tom Lehrer song)
"Poisoning Pigeons in the Park"
The lyrics refer to controlling pigeons with strychnine-treated corn.

Convulsant

convulsantspro-convulsantproconvulsant
Strychnine was popularly used as an athletic performance enhancer and recreational stimulant in the late 19th century and early 20th century, due to its convulsant effects.
Others such as strychnine and tetramethylenedisulfotetramine are used as poisons for exterminating pests.

Avicide

Avicide
Commonly used avicides include strychnine, DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, Starlicide) and CPTH (3-chloro-p-toluidine, the free base of Starlicide), and Avitrol (4-aminopyridine).

Neurotransmitter

neurotransmittersexcitatory neurotransmitterneurotransmitter system
An impulse is triggered at one end of a nerve cell by the binding of neurotransmitters to the receptors.

Tannic acid

tannicgallotannic acidE181
Treatment of strychnine poisoning involves oral administration of activated charcoal which adsorbs strychnine within the digestive tract; unabsorbed strychnine is removed from the stomach by gastric lavage, along with tannic acid or potassium permanganate solutions to oxidize strychnine.
In conjunction with magnesium and sometimes activated charcoal, tannic acid was once used as a treatment for many toxic substances, such as strychnine, mushroom, and ptomaine poisonings in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Joseph Bienaimé Caventou

CaventouCaventou, Joseph BienaimeJoseph B. Caventou
Strychnine was first discovered by French chemists Joseph Bienaimé Caventou and Pierre-Joseph Pelletier in 1818 in the Saint-Ignatius' bean.

George Harley

Accordingly, George Harley (1829–1896) showed in 1850 that curare (wourali) was effective for the treatment of tetanus and strychnine poisoning.
In toxicology, Harley made researches into the action of strychnine, and on Calabar bean; and in 1864 read a paper to the British Association poisoned arrows.