Stunted growth

stuntingstuntedchildhood stuntingdelayedgrowth retardationgrowth stuntingstunted fetusstunts growth
Stunted growth is a reduced growth rate in human development.wikipedia
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Human height

heightgrowth spurtstature
Stunted growth is a reduced growth rate in human development.
Malnutrition including chronic undernutrition and acute malnutrition is known to have caused stunted growth in various populations.

Sanitation

sanitaryunsanitarypublic sanitation
Living in an environment where many people defecate in the open due to lack of sanitation, is an important cause of stunted growth in children, for example in India.
For example, diarrhea, a main cause of malnutrition and stunted growth in children, can be reduced through sanitation.

Helminthiasis

helminthiaseshelminth infectionsintestinal worm infections
It is a primary manifestation of malnutrition (or more precisely undernutrition) and recurrent infections, such as diarrhea and helminthiasis, in early childhood and even before birth, due to malnutrition during fetal development brought on by a malnourished mother.
Helminthiasis may cause chronic illness through malnutrition including vitamin deficiencies, stunted growth, anemia, and protein-energy malnutrition.

Malnutrition in children

childhood malnutritionmalnutritionchildren
The causes for stunting are principally very similar if not the same as the causes for malnutrition in children.
Even after recovering from severe malnutrition, children often remain stunted for the rest of their lives.

Malnutrition

malnourishednutritional deficienciesmalnourishment
It is a primary manifestation of malnutrition (or more precisely undernutrition) and recurrent infections, such as diarrhea and helminthiasis, in early childhood and even before birth, due to malnutrition during fetal development brought on by a malnourished mother.
An additional 165 million children were estimated to have stunted growth from malnutrition in 2013.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
It is a primary manifestation of malnutrition (or more precisely undernutrition) and recurrent infections, such as diarrhea and helminthiasis, in early childhood and even before birth, due to malnutrition during fetal development brought on by a malnourished mother.
Other long term problems that can result include stunted growth and poor intellectual development.

Environmental enteropathy

The evidence that a condition called environmental enteropathy also stunts children is not conclusively available yet, although the link is plausible and several studies are underway on this topic.
Environmental enteropathy is believed to result in chronic malnutrition and subsequent growth stunting (low height-for-age measurement) as well as other child development deficits.

Open defecation

defecate in the openOpen Defecation Freedefecating in the open
Living in an environment where many people defecate in the open due to lack of sanitation, is an important cause of stunted growth in children, for example in India.
It can also lead to malnutrition and stunted growth among children.

Failure to thrive

growth failurepoor growthfailed to thrive
"Wasting" refers to a deceleration in stature more than 2 standard deviations from median weight-for-height, whereas "stunting" is a drop of more than 2 standard deviations from the median height-for-age.

Development of the human body

growthdevelopmentalhuman development
Stunted growth is a reduced growth rate in human development.

Childhood

childchild well-beingChildren
It is a primary manifestation of malnutrition (or more precisely undernutrition) and recurrent infections, such as diarrhea and helminthiasis, in early childhood and even before birth, due to malnutrition during fetal development brought on by a malnourished mother.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
The definition of stunting according to the World Health Organization (WHO) is for the "height for age" value to be less than two standard deviations of the WHO Child Growth Standards median. Growth stunting is identified by comparing measurements of children's heights to the World Health Organization 2006 growth reference population: children who fall below the fifth percentile of the reference population in height for age are defined as stunted, regardless of the reason.

Breastfeeding

breast feedingbreastfeedbreast-feeding
Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six months of life and complementary feeding of nutritious food alongside breastfeeding for children aged six months to 2-years-old.

Body mass index

BMIbody mass index (BMI)body-mass index
Low maternal BMI predisposes the fetus to poor growth leading to intrauterine growth retardation, which is strongly associated with low birth weight and size.

WASH

water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)water and sanitationWater, Sanitation and Hygiene
Since diarrhoea is closely linked with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), this is a good indicator for the connection between WASH and stunted growth.

Toilet

toiletslavatorylavatories
To what extent improvements in drinking water safety, toilet use and good handwashing practices contribute to reduce stunting depends on the how bad these practices were prior to interventions.

Hand washing

handwashinghand hygienewashing hands
To what extent improvements in drinking water safety, toilet use and good handwashing practices contribute to reduce stunting depends on the how bad these practices were prior to interventions.

Percentile

percentiles50th percentile85th percentile speed
Growth stunting is identified by comparing measurements of children's heights to the World Health Organization 2006 growth reference population: children who fall below the fifth percentile of the reference population in height for age are defined as stunted, regardless of the reason.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
The fact that an individual child falls below the fifth percentile for height for age on a growth reference curve may reflect normal variation in growth within a population: the individual child may be short simply because both parents carried genes for shortness and not because of inadequate nutrition.

Institute of Development Studies

Institute of Development Studies (IDS) IDS - Institute of Development StudiesIDS

Water and Sanitation Program

World Bank Water & Sanitation Program
The Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank has investigated links between lack of sanitation and stunting in Vietnam and Lao PDR.

World Bank

The World BankIBRDWorld Bank Group
The Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank has investigated links between lack of sanitation and stunting in Vietnam and Lao PDR.

The Lancet

LancetLancet OncologyThe Lancet Oncology
The Lancet has published two comprehensive series on maternal and child nutrition, in 2008 and 2013.