A report on Sturm und Drang

A silhouette of the theatre director Abel Seyler
Johann Georg Hamann
Johann Anton Leisewitz

Proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that occurred between the late 1760s and early 1780s.

- Sturm und Drang
A silhouette of the theatre director Abel Seyler

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Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog, 1818

Romanticism

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Artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

Artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog, 1818
Eugène Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1827, taking its Orientalist subject from a play by Lord Byron
Philipp Otto Runge, The Morning, 1808
William Blake, The Little Girl Found, from Songs of Innocence and Experience, 1794
John William Waterhouse, The Lady of Shalott, 1888, after a poem by Tennyson; like many Victorian paintings, romantic but not Romantic.
Henry Wallis, The Death of Chatterton 1856, by suicide at 17 in 1770
Title page of Volume III of Des Knaben Wunderhorn, 1808
William Wordsworth (pictured) and Samuel Taylor Coleridge helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature in 1798 with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads
Portrait of Lord Byron by Thomas Phillips, . The Byronic hero first reached the wider public in Byron's semi-autobiographical epic narrative poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (1812–1818).
Robert Burns in Alexander Nasmyth's portrait of 1787
Raeburn's portrait of Walter Scott in 1822
The "battle of Hernani" was fought nightly at the theatre in 1830
Adam Mickiewicz on the Ayu-Dag, by Walenty Wańkowicz, 1828
Juliusz Słowacki, a Polish poet considered one of the "Three National Bards" of Polish literature—a major figure in the Polish Romantic period, and the father of modern Polish drama.
El escritor José de Espronceda, portrait by Antonio María Esquivel (c. 1845) (Museo del Prado, Madrid)
Portuguese poet, novelist, politician and playwright Almeida Garrett (1799–1854)
Italian poet Isabella di Morra, sometimes cited as a precursor of Romantic poets
A print exemplifying the contrast between neoclassical vs. romantic styles of landscape and architecture (or the "Grecian" and the "Gothic" as they are termed here), 1816
Dennis Malone Carter, Decatur Boarding the Tripolitan Gunboat, 1878. Romanticist vision of the Battle of Tripoli, during the First Barbary War. It represents the moment when the American war hero Stephen Decatur was fighting hand-to-hand against the Muslim pirate captain.
Thomas Cole, The Course of Empire: The Savage State (1 of 5), 1836
Thomas Jones, The Bard, 1774, a prophetic combination of Romanticism and nationalism by the Welsh artist
Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, Ossian receiving the Ghosts of the French Heroes (1800–02), Musée national de Malmaison et Bois-Préau, Château de Malmaison
Cavalier gaulois by Antoine-Augustin Préault, Pont d'Iéna, Paris
Ludwig van Beethoven, painted by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Portrait of Niccolò Paganini, 1819
Frédéric Chopin in 1838 by Eugène Delacroix
Akseli Gallen-Kallela, The Forging of the Sampo, 1893. An artist from Finland deriving inspiration from the Finnish "national epic", the Kalevala
Egide Charles Gustave Wappers, Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, 1834, Musée d'Art Ancien, Brussels. A romantic vision by a Belgian painter.
Hans Gude, Fra Hardanger, 1847. Example of Norwegian romantic nationalism.
The November Uprising (1830–31), in the Kingdom of Poland, against the Russian Empire
Hameau de la Reine, Palace of Versailles (1783–1785)
Royal Pavilion in Brighton by John Nash (1815–1823)
Cologne Cathedral (1840–80)
Grand Staircase of the Paris Opera by Charles Garnier (1861–75)
Basilica of Sacré-Cœur by Paul Abadie (1875–1914)
George Stubbs, A Lion Attacking a Horse (1770), oil on canvas, 38 in. x 49 1/2in., Yale Center for British Art
Henry Fuseli, 1781, The Nightmare, a classical artist whose themes often anticipate the Romantic
Francisco Goya, The Third of May 1808, 1814
Théodore Géricault, The Raft of the Medusa, 1819
Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830
J. M. W. Turner, The Fighting Téméraire tugged to her last Berth to be broken up, 1839
Thomas Cole, Childhood (1842), one of the four scenes in The Voyage of Life
Thomas Cole, ''The Voyage of Life
William Blake, Albion Rose, 1794–95
Louis Janmot, from his series The Poem of the Soul, before 1854
Felix Mendelssohn, 1839
Robert Schumann, 1839
Franz Liszt, 1847
Daniel Auber, c. 1868
Hector Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850
Giovanni Boldini, Portrait of Giuseppe Verdi, 1886
Richard Wagner, c. 1870s
Giacomo Meyerbeer, 1847
Gustav Mahler, 1896
Joseph Vernet, 1759, Shipwreck; the 18th-century "sublime"
Joseph Wright, 1774, Cave at evening, Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, Massachusetts
Philip James de Loutherbourg, Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801, a key location of the English Industrial Revolution
Théodore Géricault, The Charging Chasseur, c. 1812
Ingres, The Death of Leonardo da Vinci, 1818, one of his Troubadour style works
Eugène Delacroix, Collision of Moorish Horsemen, 1843–44
Eugène Delacroix, The Bride of Abydos, 1857, after the poem by Byron
Joseph Anton Koch, Waterfalls at Subiaco, 1812–1813, a "classical" landscape to art historians
James Ward, 1814–1815, Gordale Scar
John Constable, 1821, The Hay Wain, one of Constable's large "six footers"
J. C. Dahl, 1826, Eruption of Vesuvius, by Friedrich's closest follower
William Blake, c. 1824–27, The Wood of the Self-Murderers: The Harpies and the Suicides, Tate
Karl Bryullov, The Last Day of Pompeii, 1833, The State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia
Isaac Levitan, Pacific, 1898, State Russian Museum, St.Petersburg
J. M. W. Turner, The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons (1835), Philadelphia Museum of Art
Hans Gude, Winter Afternoon, 1847, National Gallery of Norway, Oslo
Ivan Aivazovsky, 1850, The Ninth Wave, Russian Museum, St. Petersburg
John Martin, 1852, The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, Laing Art Gallery
Frederic Edwin Church, 1860, Twilight in the Wilderness, Cleveland Museum of Art
Albert Bierstadt, 1863, The Rocky Mountains, Lander's Peak

Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were also proximate factors since many of the early Romantics were cultural revolutionaries and sympathetic to the revolution.

Goethe in 1828, by Joseph Karl Stieler

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

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German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, and critic.

German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, and critic.

Goethe in 1828, by Joseph Karl Stieler
Goethe's birthplace in Frankfurt (Großer Hirschgraben)
Anna Katharina (Käthchen) Schönkopf
Goethe in c. 1775
Goethe, age 38, painted by Angelica Kauffman 1787
A Goethe watercolour depicting a liberty pole at the border to the short-lived Republic of Mainz, created under influence of the French Revolution and destroyed in the Siege of Mainz in which Goethe participated
Goethe, by Luise Seidler (Weimar 1811)
Ulrike von Levetzow
Goethe and Ulrike, sculpture by Heinrich Drake in Marienbad
Coffins of Goethe and Schiller, Weimar vault
First edition of The Sorrows of Young Werther
1876 'Faust' by Goethe, decorated by Rudolf Seitz, large German edition 51x38cm
Goethe–Schiller Monument, Weimar (1857)
Goethe in the Roman Campagna (1786) by Tischbein
Goethe in 1810. Gerhard von Kügelgen
Light spectrum, from Theory of Colours. Goethe observed that with a prism, colour arises at light-dark edges, and the spectrum occurs where these coloured edges overlap.
Goethe on a 1999 German stamp
Portrait of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe by Ferdinand Jagemann, 1806
Statue dedicated to Goethe in Chicago's Lincoln Park (1913)
Second Goetheanum
Mendelssohn plays to Goethe, 1830: painting by Moritz Oppenheim, 1864
Goethe memorial in front of the Alte Handelsbörse, Leipzig
Schiller, Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt, and Goethe in Jena, c. 1797

Goethe was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement.

Portrait of Schiller by Ludovike Simanowiz (1794)

Friedrich Schiller

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German playwright, poet, and philosopher.

German playwright, poet, and philosopher.

Portrait of Schiller by Ludovike Simanowiz (1794)
Portrait of Friedrich Schiller by Gerhard von Kügelgen
Medal by to his 100th Death Anniversary, after a sculpture of 1794 by Dannecker, Vienna 1905, obverse
Lithograph portrait from 1905, captioned "Friedrich von Schiller" in recognition of his 1802 ennoblement
Germany's oldest Schiller memorial (1839) on Schillerplatz, Stuttgart
Kleinere prosaische Schriften. 1 (1792)
Goethe–Schiller Monument (1857), Weimar
Schiller on his deathbed – drawing by the portraitist Ferdinand Jagemann, 1805
French-occupied German stamp depicting Schiller
Monument on Schillerplatz in Vienna
Bronze-Plaque-Medal of Schiller's laureate head by the Austrian artist Otto Hofner

The Robbers (Die Räuber): The language of The Robbers is highly emotional, and the depiction of physical violence in the play marks it as a quintessential work of Germany's Romantic Sturm und Drang movement. The Robbers is considered by critics like Peter Brooks to be the first European melodrama. The play pits two brothers against each other in alternating scenes, as one quests for money and power, while the other attempts to create revolutionary anarchy in the Bohemian Forest. The play strongly criticises the hypocrisies of class and religion, and the economic inequities of German society; it also conducts a complicated inquiry into the nature of evil. Schiller was inspired by the play Julius of Taranto by Johann Anton Leisewitz.

Herder by Anton Graff, 1785

Johann Gottfried Herder

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German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.

German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.

Herder by Anton Graff, 1785
The Johann Gottfried Herder statue in Weimar in front of the church St. Peter und Paul
Herder

He is associated with the Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, and Weimar Classicism.

A silhouette of Abel Seyler

Abel Seyler

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Swiss-born theatre director and former merchant banker, who was regarded as one of the great theatre principals of 18th century Europe.

Swiss-born theatre director and former merchant banker, who was regarded as one of the great theatre principals of 18th century Europe.

A silhouette of Abel Seyler
His birthplace Liestal in Switzerland (1780)
Heinrich Carl von Schimmelmann, Seyler's business associate who became a Danish statesman
His second wife Friederike Sophie Seyler, Germany's most famous actress of the late 18th century, painted by Anton Graff
Seyler's long-time collaborator, the actor Konrad Ekhof, regarded as Germany's finest actor of the 18th century
Duchess Anna Amalia, noted patron of the arts, who invited Seyler and his company to her court in 1771
Seyler Company actress Esther Charlotte Brandes as Ariadne in Ariadne auf Naxos
The courtier Wolfgang Heribert von Dalberg, Seyler's collaborator during the Mannheim years
His wife Sophie Seyler's opera Huon and Amanda (or Oberon), a primary influence on the plot and characters of The Magic Flute
His son, the banker L.E. Seyler; in contrast to his father he became a highly respected banker

He was "the leading patron of German theatre" in his lifetime, and is credited with introducing Shakespeare to a German language audience, and with promoting the concept of a national theatre in the tradition of Ludvig Holberg, the Sturm und Drang playwrights, and German opera.

Johann Anton Leisewitz

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His wife Sophie Seyler

Johann Anton Leisewitz (born 9 May 1752 in Hanover, died 10 September 1806 in Braunschweig) was a German lawyer and dramatic poet, and a central figure of the Sturm und Drang era.

An example of a French salon

Age of Enlightenment

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Intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries with global influences and effects.

Intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries with global influences and effects.

An example of a French salon
The most famous work by Nicholas de Condorcet, Esquisse d'un tableau historique des progres de l'esprit humain, 1795. With the publication of this book, the development of the Age of Enlightenment is considered generally ended.
René Descartes
German philosopher Immanuel Kant
Cesare Beccaria, father of classical criminal theory (1738–1794)
English philosopher John Locke argued that the authority of government stems from a social contract based on natural rights. According to Locke, the authority of government was limited and required the consent of the governed.
The Marquis of Pombal, as the head of the government of Portugal, implemented sweeping socio-economic reforms (abolished slavery, significantly weakened the Inquisition, created the basis for secular public schools and restructured the tax system)
Denmark's minister Johann Struensee, a social reformer, was publicly executed in 1772 for usurping royal authority
The French philosopher Voltaire argued for religious tolerance, saying that "It does not require great art, or magnificently trained eloquence, to prove that Christians should tolerate each other. I, however, am going further: I say that we should regard all men as our brothers. What? The Turk my brother? The Chinaman my brother? The Jew? The Siam? Yes, without doubt; are we not all children of the same father and creatures of the same God?"
Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1700
One leader of the Scottish Enlightenment was Adam Smith, the father of modern economic science
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence imagines the drafting committee presenting its work to the Congress
Weimar's Courtyard of the Muses by Theobald von Oer, a tribute to The Enlightenment and the Weimar Classicism depicting German poets Schiller, Wieland, Herder and Goethe
Spanish Constitution of 1812
Empress Elizabeth visits Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov.
Constitution of 3 May, 1791, Europe's first modern constitution
Italian Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci worked with several Chinese elites, such as Xu Guangqi, in translating Euclid's Elements into Chinese.
Jean-François Champollion, considered the founder of Egyptology
If there is something you know, communicate it. If there is something you don't know, search for it. — An engraving from the 1772 edition of the Encyclopédie; Truth, in the top center, is surrounded by light and unveiled by the figures to the right, Philosophy and Reason
A medal minted during the reign of Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, commemorating his grant of religious liberty to Jews and Protestants in Hungary—another important reform of Joseph II was the abolition of serfdom.
German explorer Alexander von Humboldt showed his disgust for slavery and often criticized the colonial policies—he always acted out of a deeply humanistic conviction, borne by the ideas of the Enlightenment.
George Frideric Handel
French philosopher Pierre Bayle
Front page of The Gentleman's Magazine, January 1731
ESTC data 1477–1799 by decade given with a regional differentiation
Denis Diderot is best known as the editor of the Encyclopédie
Georges Buffon is best remembered for his Histoire naturelle, a 44 volume encyclopedia describing everything known about the natural world
Journal des sçavans was the earliest academic journal published in Europe
First page of the Encyclopédie, published between 1751 and 1766
"Figurative system of human knowledge", the structure that the Encyclopédie organised knowledge into—it had three main branches: memory, reason and imagination
A portrait of Bernard de Fontenelle
Louis XIV visiting the Académie des sciences in 1671: "It is widely accepted that 'modern science' arose in the Europe of the 17th century, introducing a new understanding of the natural world" — Peter Barrett
Antoine Lavoisier conducting an experiment related to combustion generated by amplified sun light
Masonic initiation ceremony
Statue of Cesare Beccaria, widely considered one of the greatest thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment.

Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744–1803) broke new ground in philosophy and poetry, as a leader of the Sturm und Drang movement of proto-Romanticism.

Klinger, 1807 etching

Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger

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German dramatist and novelist.

German dramatist and novelist.

Klinger, 1807 etching

His play Sturm und Drang (1776) gave its name to the Sturm und Drang artistic epoch.

Weimar's Courtyard of the Muses (1860) by Theobald Freiherr von Oer. Schiller reads in the gardens of Tiefurt Mansion, Weimar. Amongst the audience are Herder (second person seated at the far left), Wieland (center, seated with cap) and Goethe (in front of the pillar, right).

Weimar Classicism

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German literary and cultural movement, whose practitioners established a new humanism from the synthesis of ideas from Romanticism, Classicism, and the Age of Enlightenment.

German literary and cultural movement, whose practitioners established a new humanism from the synthesis of ideas from Romanticism, Classicism, and the Age of Enlightenment.

Weimar's Courtyard of the Muses (1860) by Theobald Freiherr von Oer. Schiller reads in the gardens of Tiefurt Mansion, Weimar. Amongst the audience are Herder (second person seated at the far left), Wieland (center, seated with cap) and Goethe (in front of the pillar, right).

Baumgarten's emphasis on the need for such "sensuous" knowledge was a major abetment to the "pre-Romanticism" known as Sturm und Drang (1765), of which Goethe and Schiller were notable participants for a time.

Sturm und Drang (play)

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Sturm und Drang is a play in five acts by Friedrich Maximilian Klinger, which gave its name to the artistic period known as Sturm und Drang.