Sturm und Drang

Storm and StressSturm and DrangSturm-und-DrangSturm-und-Drangströmstürm und drangturbulent
Sturm und Drang ({{IPAc-en|,|S|t|ʊə|m|_|U|n|t|_|'|d|r|{|N|,_|'|d|r|a:|N}} ;, literally "storm and drive", though usually translated as "storm and stress") was a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that occurred between the late 1760s and early 1780s.wikipedia
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Romanticism

RomanticRomantic movementRomantic era
Sturm und Drang ({{IPAc-en|,|S|t|ʊə|m|_|U|n|t|_|'|d|r|{|N|,_|'|d|r|a:|N}} ;, literally "storm and drive", though usually translated as "storm and stress") was a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that occurred between the late 1760s and early 1780s.
Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were also proximate factors.

German literature

GermanGermanyliterature
Sturm und Drang ({{IPAc-en|,|S|t|ʊə|m|_|U|n|t|_|'|d|r|{|N|,_|'|d|r|a:|N}} ;, literally "storm and drive", though usually translated as "storm and stress") was a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that occurred between the late 1760s and early 1780s.
The Sturm und Drang and Weimar Classicism movements were led by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller.

Abel Seyler

The period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play of the same name, which was first performed by Abel Seyler's famed theatrical company in 1777.
He was "the leading patron of German theatre" in his lifetime, and is credited with introducing Shakespeare to a German language audience, and with promoting the concept of a national theatre in the tradition of Ludvig Holberg, the Sturm und Drang playwrights, and German opera.

Friedrich Maximilian Klinger

KlingerF. M. KlingerFedor Ivanovich Klinger
The period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play of the same name, which was first performed by Abel Seyler's famed theatrical company in 1777. The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann is considered to be the ideologue of Sturm und Drang; other significant figures were Johann Anton Leisewitz, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, H. L. Wagner, and Friedrich Maximilian Klinger.
His play Sturm und Drang (1776) gave its name to the Sturm und Drang artistic epoch.

Johann Georg Hamann

HamannGeorg Johann HamannJ G Hamann
The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann is considered to be the ideologue of Sturm und Drang; other significant figures were Johann Anton Leisewitz, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, H. L. Wagner, and Friedrich Maximilian Klinger.
His work was used by his student J. G. Herder as the main support of the Sturm und Drang movement, and is associated with the Counter-Enlightenment and Romanticism.

Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz

Jakob LenzLenzJ. M. R. Lenz
The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann is considered to be the ideologue of Sturm und Drang; other significant figures were Johann Anton Leisewitz, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, H. L. Wagner, and Friedrich Maximilian Klinger. One point of view would limit the movement to Goethe, Johann Gottfried Herder, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, and their direct German associates writing works of fiction and/or philosophy between 1770 and the early 1780s.
Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz (23 January 1751, or 12 January in the Julian calendar – 4 June 1792, or 24 May in the Julian calendar) was a Baltic German writer of the Sturm und Drang movement.

Sturm und Drang (play)

Sturm und Drangplayplay of the same name
The period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play of the same name, which was first performed by Abel Seyler's famed theatrical company in 1777.
Sturm und Drang is a play in five acts by Friedrich Maximilian Klinger, which gave its name to the artistic period known as Sturm und Drang.

Johann Anton Leisewitz

Leisewitz
The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann is considered to be the ideologue of Sturm und Drang; other significant figures were Johann Anton Leisewitz, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, H. L. Wagner, and Friedrich Maximilian Klinger.
Johann Anton Leisewitz (born 9 May 1752 in Hanover, died 10 September 1806 in Braunschweig) was a German lawyer and dramatic poet, and a central figure of the Sturm und Drang era.

Johann Gottfried Herder

HerderJohann Gottfried von HerderJohann Herder
One point of view would limit the movement to Goethe, Johann Gottfried Herder, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, and their direct German associates writing works of fiction and/or philosophy between 1770 and the early 1780s.
He is associated with the Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, and Weimar Classicism.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

GoetheJohann Wolfgang GoetheJohann von Goethe
One point of view would limit the movement to Goethe, Johann Gottfried Herder, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, and their direct German associates writing works of fiction and/or philosophy between 1770 and the early 1780s. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller were notable proponents of the movement early in their life, although they ended their period of association with it by initiating what would become Weimar Classicism. The story of hopeless love and eventual suicide presented in Goethe's sentimental novel Die Leiden des jungen Werthers (1774) is an example of the author's tempered introspection regarding his love and torment. Goethe's unfinished Prometheus exemplifies this along with the common ambiguity provided by juxtaposing humanistic platitudes with outbursts of irrationality.
He was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement.

Weimar Classicism

German ClassicismClassicalclassic" period
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller were notable proponents of the movement early in their life, although they ended their period of association with it by initiating what would become Weimar Classicism.
Baumgarten's emphasis on the need for such "sensuous" knowledge was a major abetment to the "pre-Romanticism" known as Sturm und Drang (1765), of which Goethe and Schiller were notable participants for a time.

Seyler Theatre Company

Seyler theatrical companytheatrical companySeylersche Schauspiel-Gesellschaft
The period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play of the same name, which was first performed by Abel Seyler's famed theatrical company in 1777.
For example, the play Sturm und Drang (which gave its name to the Sturm und Drang period) was written originally for the company by Friedrich Maximilian Klinger (Goethe's childhood friend), then employed as its playwright, and first performed in 1777.

The Sorrows of Young Werther

WertherDie Leiden des jungen WerthersDie Leiden des jungen Werther
The story of hopeless love and eventual suicide presented in Goethe's sentimental novel Die Leiden des jungen Werthers (1774) is an example of the author's tempered introspection regarding his love and torment.
It was one of the most important novels in the Sturm und Drang period in German literature, and influenced the later Romantic movement.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe EnlightenmentFrench Enlightenment
Within the movement, individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements.
Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744–1803) broke new ground in philosophy and poetry, as a leader of the Sturm und Drang movement of proto-Romanticism.

Intrigue and Love

Kabale und LiebeLove and IntrigueLuise Miller
Following Schiller's plays Die Räuber ("The Robbers") and Kabale und Liebe ("Intrigue and Love"), he went on to become a major poet as well as to write famous essays and Weimar Classical drama (Leidner xiv).
Intrigue and Love belongs to the era of Sturm und Drang and is categorised as a bourgeois tragedy, a genre attributable to Gotthold Ephraim Lessing – Lessing's own Emilia Galotti is a key influence on it.

Prometheus (Goethe)

Prometheusa poemPrometheus" (Goethe)
Goethe's unfinished Prometheus exemplifies this along with the common ambiguity provided by juxtaposing humanistic platitudes with outbursts of irrationality.
It is an important work of the Sturm und Drang movement.

Lenore (ballad)

LenoreLeonoraballad of the same name
No production of the German "Sturm und Drang"—not even Goethe's Werther, which appeared a few months later—had such far-reaching effects on other literatures as Bürger's Lenore; it helped materially to call the Romantic movement in Europe to life.

Melodrama

melodrama filmmelodramaticmelodramas
Friedrich Schiller's drama, Die Räuber (1781), provided the groundwork for melodrama to become a recognized dramatic form.
English melodrama evolved from the tradition of populist drama established during the Middle Ages by mystery and morality plays, under influences from Italian commedia dell'arte as well as German Sturm und Drang drama and Parisian melodrama of the post-Revolutionary period.

Symphony No. 52 (Haydn)

Symphony No. 5252
52 in C minor' is one of the last Sturm und Drang'' symphonies composed by the Austrian composer Joseph Haydn while the composer was in residence at Esterházy in 1771 or 1772.

Symphony No. 26 (Haydn)

Symphony No. 26Symphony No. 26 "Lamentatione26
26''' in D minor, Hoboken 1/26, is one of the early Sturm und Drang Symphonies written by Joseph Haydn.

Symphony No. 49 (Haydn)

Symphony No. 4949La Passione
49''' in F minor (Hoboken I/49) was written in 1768 by Joseph Haydn during his Sturm und Drang period.

Symphony No. 46 (Haydn)

Symphony No. 4646Forty-Sixth Symphony
46''' in B major, Hoboken I/46, was composed in 1772, during his Sturm und Drang period.

Johann Jakob Wilhelm Heinse

Wilhelm HeinseHeinseWilliam Heinse
This and his other novels Laidion, oder die eleusinischen Geheimnisse (1774) and Hildegard von Hohenthal (1796) combine the frank voluptuousness of Wieland with the enthusiasm of the "Sturm und Drang."

Johann Gottfried Müthel

J.G. MüthelMÜTHEL, JOHANN GODFRIED
Along with C.P.E. Bach, he represented the Sturm und Drang style of composition.

Symphony No. 39 (Haydn)

Symphony No. 39No. 3939
It is the earliest of Haydn's minor key symphonies associated with his Sturm und Drang period works (such as the Symphony No. 45).