Sub-replacement fertility

sub-replacement fertility ratereplacement levelreplacement rateReplacement-level fertilitylow fertility ratesnatural decreasereplacement levelstempo effectbelow replacement ratebelow the rate of 2.1 children per woman required for natural population replacement
Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.wikipedia
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Total fertility rate

fertility ratefertility ratesreplacement rate
Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.
The TPFR (total period fertility rate) is affected by a tempo effect—if age of childbearing increases (and life cycle fertility is unchanged) then while the age of childbearing is increasing, TPFR will be lower (because the births are occurring later), and then the age of childbearing stops increasing, the TPFR will increase (due to the deferred births occurring in the later period) even though the life cycle fertility has been unchanged.

Population decline

depopulationdepopulatedpopulation loss
Only a few countries have had, for the time being, sufficiently sustained sub-replacement fertility (sometimes combined with other population factors like higher emigration than immigration) to have population decline, such as Japan, Germany, Lithuania, and Ukraine. But if the fertility trend is sustained (and not compensated by immigration), it results in population ageing and/or population decline.
A population decline (or depopulation) in humans is a reduction in a human population caused by events such as long-term demographic trends, as in sub-replacement fertility, urban decay, white flight, or rural flight, or due to violence, disease, or other catastrophes.

Aging of Japan

aging populationJapanpopulation is aging
Only a few countries have had, for the time being, sufficiently sustained sub-replacement fertility (sometimes combined with other population factors like higher emigration than immigration) to have population decline, such as Japan, Germany, Lithuania, and Ukraine.
The dramatic aging of Japanese society as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates and high life expectancy is expected to continue.

Net reproduction rate

net reproductive indexnet reproductive ratereproduction rate
Replacement level fertility in terms of the net reproduction rate (NRR) is exactly one, because the NRR takes both mortality rates and sex ratios at birth into account.

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
This includes most nations of Europe, Canada, Australia, Brazil, Russia, Iran, Tunisia, China, the United States and many others.
Most of Europe is in a mode of Sub-replacement fertility, which means that each new(-born) generation is being less populous than the older.

Lithuania

LTURepublic of LithuaniaLithuanian
Only a few countries have had, for the time being, sufficiently sustained sub-replacement fertility (sometimes combined with other population factors like higher emigration than immigration) to have population decline, such as Japan, Germany, Lithuania, and Ukraine.
Lithuania has a sub-replacement fertility rate: the total fertility rate (TFR) in Lithuania is 1.59 children born/woman (2015 estimates).

Portugal

PortuguesePortuguese RepublicPOR
In 2016, all European Union countries had a sub-replacement fertility rate, ranging from a low of 1.3 in Portugal, Poland, Greece, Spain and Cyprus to a high of 2.0 in France.
Like most Western countries, Portugal has to deal with low fertility levels: the country has experienced a sub-replacement fertility rate since the 1980s.

Finland

FinnishFINRepublic of Finland
In this regard, there are major differences between European countries: while 50.23% of women aged 15–39 state that the "ideal" family has 3 or more children in Estonia, and 46.43% say this in Finland; only 11.3% say this in Czech Republic, and 11.39% in Bulgaria.
The fertility rate in 2014 stood at 1.71 children born/per woman and has been below the replacement rate of 2.1 since 1969.

Human overpopulation

overpopulationexpanding human populationoverpopulated
The development of the world population is linked with concerns of overpopulation, sustainability and exceeding Earth's carrying capacity.
The UN population forecast of 2017 was predicting "near end of high fertility" globally and anticipating that by 2030 over ⅔ of world population will be living in countries with fertility below the replacement level and for total world population to stabilize between 10-12 billion people by year 2100.

Two-child policy

Two-Child
The People's Republic of China implemented a one-child policy for 35 years (from 1979 to 2015); this was relaxed to a two-child policy in 2016.
Currently, the total fertility rate of Vietnam is 1.8 (births per woman), which is below the replacement-level fertility of 2.1, the rate "at which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to the next" according to the World Resources Institute.

Income and fertility

Fertility-development controversyfertility-income paradoxdeclining fertility rate
This is part of the fertility-income paradox, as these high fertility countries are very poor, and it may seem counter-intuitive for families there to have so many children.

Population ageing

ageing populationaging populationpopulation aging
But if the fertility trend is sustained (and not compensated by immigration), it results in population ageing and/or population decline.
Most of the developed countries now have sub-replacement fertility levels, and population growth now depends largely on immigration together with population momentum, which arises from previous large generations now enjoying longer life expectancy.

Baby bonus

monthly paymentsubsidy
This Baby Bonus was introduced explicitly to increase the birth rate.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
In addition, the (mostly non-religious) aliyah Jews from the former USSR shifted from a 1 child per woman fertility rate to an average fertility rate close to 2.2 children per woman.
Soviet Europe moved towards sub-replacement fertility, while Soviet Central Asia continued to exhibit population growth well above replacement-level fertility.

List of sovereign states and dependencies by total fertility rate

List of sovereign states and dependent territories by fertility rateFertility rateList of countries and territories by fertility rate

Natalism

natalistpronatalistpro-natalist
Some governments, fearful of a future pensions crisis, have developed natalist policies to attempt to encourage more women to have children.

Generation

generationsList of generationsgenerate
Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.

Developed country

developed countriesdeveloped worlddeveloped
In developed countries sub-replacement fertility is any rate below approximately 2.1 children born per woman, but the threshold can be as high as 3.4 in some developing countries because of higher mortality rates.

Mortality rate

mortalitymortality ratesdeath rates
In developed countries sub-replacement fertility is any rate below approximately 2.1 children born per woman, but the threshold can be as high as 3.4 in some developing countries because of higher mortality rates.

Human sex ratio

Sex ratioGender ratiogender imbalance
This can be "translated" as 2 children per woman to replace the parents, plus a "third of a child" to make up for the higher probability of boys born and mortality prior to the end of a person's fertile life.

Immigration

immigrantimmigrantsimmigrated
Only a few countries have had, for the time being, sufficiently sustained sub-replacement fertility (sometimes combined with other population factors like higher emigration than immigration) to have population decline, such as Japan, Germany, Lithuania, and Ukraine. But if the fertility trend is sustained (and not compensated by immigration), it results in population ageing and/or population decline. Nonetheless most of these countries still have growing populations due to immigration, population momentum and increase of the life expectancy.

Population momentum

Nonetheless most of these countries still have growing populations due to immigration, population momentum and increase of the life expectancy.

Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
This includes most nations of Europe, Canada, Australia, Brazil, Russia, Iran, Tunisia, China, the United States and many others.

Australia

AUSAustralianCommonwealth of Australia
This includes most nations of Europe, Canada, Australia, Brazil, Russia, Iran, Tunisia, China, the United States and many others.