Subject (grammar)wikipedia
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
subjectsubjectsgrammatical subjectS(subj.)subjecthood

Clause

clauseclausesfinite clause
Traditionally the subject is the word or phrase which controls the verb in the clause, that is to say with which the verb agrees (John is but John and Mary are). The subject (glossing abbreviations: or ) is, according to a tradition that can be traced back to Aristotle (and that is associated with phrase structure grammars), one of the two main constituents of a clause, the other constituent being the predicate, whereby the predicate says something about the subject.
A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers.

Agreement (linguistics)

agreementagreegrammatical agreement
Traditionally the subject is the word or phrase which controls the verb in the clause, that is to say with which the verb agrees (John is but John and Mary are). All of these positions see the subject in English determining person and number agreement on the finite verb, as exemplified by the difference in verb forms between he eats and they eat.
This is because the grammar of the language requires that the verb and its subject agree in person.

Topic and comment

topictopic–commenttheme
If there is no verb, as in John - what an idiot!, or if the verb has a different subject, as in John - I can't stand him!, then 'John' is not considered to be the grammatical subject, but can be described as the 'topic' of the sentence.
The difference between "topic" and grammatical subject is that topic is used to describe the information structure, or pragmatic structure of a clause and how it coheres with other clauses, whereas the subject is a purely grammatical category.

Verb

verbverbsv.
Traditionally the subject is the word or phrase which controls the verb in the clause, that is to say with which the verb agrees (John is but John and Mary are).
A verb may also agree with the person, gender or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object.

Nominative case

nominativenominative casenom.
In languages such as Latin or German the subject of a verb has a form which is known as the nominative case: for example, the form 'he' (not 'him' or 'his') is used in sentences such as he ran, he broke the window, he is a teacher, he was hit by a car.
The nominative case (abbreviated ), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

Ergative–absolutive language

ergativeergative–absolutiveergative–absolutive language
In these languages, which are known as ergative languages, the concept of 'subject' may not apply at all.
Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.

Sentence (linguistics)

sentencesentencesdeclarative sentence
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
Typically a sentence contains a subject and predicate.

Greenlandic language

GreenlandicKalaallisutGreenlandic Inuit
But there are some languages such as Basque or Greenlandic, in which the form of a noun or pronoun when the verb is intransitive (he ran) is different from when the verb is transitive (he broke the window).
Verbs are inflected for one of the eight moods and for the number and person of its subject and object.

Predicate (grammar)

predicatepredicatespredication
The subject (glossing abbreviations: or ) is, according to a tradition that can be traced back to Aristotle (and that is associated with phrase structure grammars), one of the two main constituents of a clause, the other constituent being the predicate, whereby the predicate says something about the subject.
The first concerns traditional grammar, which tends to view a predicate as one of two main parts of a sentence, the other part being the subject; the purpose of the predicate is to complete an idea about the subject, such as what it does or what it is like.

Intransitive verb

intransitive verbintransitiveintransitive verbs
But there are some languages such as Basque or Greenlandic, in which the form of a noun or pronoun when the verb is intransitive (he ran) is different from when the verb is transitive (he broke the window).
The sentence can be made passive with the direct object "Mary" as the grammatical subject as follows:

Finite verb

finite verbfinitefinite forms
All of these positions see the subject in English determining person and number agreement on the finite verb, as exemplified by the difference in verb forms between he eats and they eat.
A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.

Pronoun

pronounpronounspronominal
But there are some languages such as Basque or Greenlandic, in which the form of a noun or pronoun when the verb is intransitive (he ran) is different from when the verb is transitive (he broke the window).
Subject pronouns are used in subject position (I like to eat chips, but she does not).

Transitive verb

transitive verbtransitivetransitive verbs
But there are some languages such as Basque or Greenlandic, in which the form of a noun or pronoun when the verb is intransitive (he ran) is different from when the verb is transitive (he broke the window).
Verbs that require only two arguments, a subject and a single direct object, are monotransitive.

Phrase structure grammar

phrase structure grammarphrase structureconstituency grammar
The subject (glossing abbreviations: or ) is, according to a tradition that can be traced back to Aristotle (and that is associated with phrase structure grammars), one of the two main constituents of a clause, the other constituent being the predicate, whereby the predicate says something about the subject.
The constituency relation derives from the subject-predicate division of Latin and Greek grammars that is based on term logic and reaches back to Aristotle in antiquity.

Agent (grammar)

agentagentsagental
The stereotypical subject immediately precedes the finite verb in declarative sentences in English and represents an agent or a theme.
The agent is a semantic concept distinct from the subject of a sentence.

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated ) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue."

Gerund

gerundgerundsfused participle
| A gerund (phrase) || His constant hammering was annoying.
Moreover, the clause may function within a sentence as subject or object, which is impossible for a Latin gerund.

Subject–auxiliary inversion

subject–auxiliary inversionsubject-auxiliary inversioninversion
In the second sentence, which involves the subject-auxiliary inversion of a yes/no-question, the subject immediately follows the finite verb (instead of immediately preceding it), which means the second criterion is flouted.
Subject–auxiliary inversion (also called subject–operator inversion) is a frequently occurring type of inversion in English, whereby a finite auxiliary verb – taken here to include finite forms of the copula be – appears to "invert" (change places) with the subject.

Subject–verb inversion in English

locative inversionsubject-verb inversionsubject–verb inversion
The following subsections briefly illustrate three such cases in English: 1) existential there-constructions, 2) inverse copular constructions, and 3) locative inversion constructions.
Subject–verb inversion in English is a type of inversion where the subject and verb (or chain of verbs, verb catena) switch their canonical order of appearance, so that the subject follows the verb(s), e.g. A lamp stood beside the bed → Beside the bed stood a lamp.

Object (grammar)

objectdirect objectindirect object
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.

Noun

nounnounssubstantive
But there are some languages such as Basque or Greenlandic, in which the form of a noun or pronoun when the verb is intransitive (he ran) is different from when the verb is transitive (he broke the window).
A noun phrase functions within a clause or sentence in a role such as that of subject, object, or complement of a verb or preposition.

Pro-drop language

pro-drop languagepro-dropdropped
This dropping pattern does not automatically make a language a pro-drop language.
The term "pro-drop" stems from Noam Chomsky's "Lectures on Government and Binding" from 1981 as a cluster of properties of which "null subject" was one (for the occurrence of pro as a predicate rather than a subject in sentences with the copula see Moro 1997).

Grammatical case

casegrammatical casecases
Forms such as I, he and we are used for the subject ("I kicked the ball"), and forms such as me, him and us are used for the object ("John kicked me").

Subject pronoun

subject pronounsubjective pronounssubject pronouns
In linguistics, a subject pronoun is a personal pronoun that is used as the subject of a verb.

Syntactic expletive

expletiveexpletivessyntactic expletive
| An expletive || It is raining.
Expletive subjects in the form of dummy pronouns are part of the grammar of many non-pro-drop languages such as English, whose clauses normally require overt provision of subject even when the subject can be pragmatically inferred.