A report on Submarine

US underway in Groton, Connecticut, July 2004
Russian Akula-class submarine of the Northern Fleet
Drebbel, an early submersible craft, propelled by oars.
1806 illustration by Robert Fulton showing a "plunging boat"
The French submarine Plongeur
Peral at Cartagena, 1888
USS Plunger (SS-2), launched in 1902
(launched in 1907) was the first Russian submarine able to cruise long distances.
The German submarine, which sank three British cruisers in less than an hour in September 1914
The Imperial Japanese Navy's, the largest submarine type of WWII
A model of Günther Prien's, German WWII Type VII diesel–electric hunter
, a at periscope depth
USS Charlotte (SSN-766), a runs with submarines from partner nations during RIMPAC 2014.
German UC-1-class World War I submarine. The wires running up from the bow to the conning tower are the jumping wires
in the Estonian Maritime Museum. The Lembit is the only minelayer submarine of its series left in the world.
US Navy attack submarine USS Annapolis (SSN-760) rests in the Arctic Ocean after surfacing through one metre of ice during Ice Exercise 2009 on 21 March 2009.
An illustration showing submarine control surfaces and trim tanks
USS Seawolf (SSN-21) Ship Control Panel, with yokes for control surfaces (planes and rudder), and Ballast Control Panel (background), to control the water in tanks and ship's trim
Sail of the French nuclear submarine ; note the diving planes, camouflaged masts, periscope, electronic warfare masts, hatch, and deadlight.
Rear view of a model of Swedish submarine HMS Sjöormen, the first production submarine to feature an x-stern
USS Albacore, the first submarine to use an x-rudder in practice, now on display in Portsmouth, New Hampshire
The x-rudder of HMS Neptun, a Näcken-class submarine in service with the Swedish Navy 1980–1998, now on display at Marinmuseum in Karlskrona
The US Navy USS Greeneville (SSN-772) in dry dock, showing cigar-shaped hull
, Type VIIC/41 U-boat of World War II, showing the ship-like lines of the outer hull for surface travel, blended into the cylindrical pressure hull structure.
Type XXI U-boat, late World War II, with pressure hull almost fully enclosed inside the light hull
In 1960, Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh were the first people to explore the deepest part of the world's ocean, and the deepest location on the surface of the Earth's crust, in the designed by Auguste Piccard.
, a Royal Canadian Navy diesel–electric hunter-killer submarine
Recharging battery (JMSDF)
One of the first submarines with diesel–electric transmission, HMS Hajen, on display outside Marinmuseum in Karlskrona
Two widely different generations of Swedish submarines but both with diesel–electric transmission: HMS Hajen, in service 1905–1922, and HMS Neptun, in service 1980-1998
Head of the snorkel mast from German type XXI submarine U-3503, scuttled outside Gothenburg on 8 May 1945 but raised by the Swedish Navy and carefully studied for the purpose of improving future Swedish submarine designs
USS U-3008 (former German submarine U-3008) with her snorkel masts raised at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine
German Type XXI submarine
American X-1 Midget Submarine
Battery well containing 126 cells on USS Nautilus (SSN-571), the first nuclear-powered submarine
The forward torpedo tubes in HMS Ocelot
The torpedo room of Vesikko
The larger search periscope, and the smaller, less detectable attack periscope on HMS Ocelot
The interior of a British E-class submarine. An officer supervises submerging operations, c. 1914–1918.
Midshipmen learn to pilot USS West Virginia (SSBN-736).
Submarine Escape Immersion Equipment suit Mk 10
A submarine escape suit with rebreather
Model of the Mésoscaphe Auguste Piccard
Interior of the tourist submarine Atlantis whilst submerged
Tourist submarine Atlantis

Watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.

- Submarine
US underway in Groton, Connecticut, July 2004

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Bliss–Leavitt Mark 8 torpedo

Torpedo

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Underwater ranged weapon launched above or below the water surface, self-propelled towards a target, and with an explosive warhead designed to detonate either on contact with or in proximity to the target.

Underwater ranged weapon launched above or below the water surface, self-propelled towards a target, and with an explosive warhead designed to detonate either on contact with or in proximity to the target.

Bliss–Leavitt Mark 8 torpedo
Fulton's torpedo
Confederates laying torpedoes in Charleston Harbor
NMS Rândunica
Whitehead torpedo's general profile: A. war-head B. air-flask. B'. immersion chamber C'. after-body C. engine room D. drain holes E. shaft tube F. steering-engine G. bevel gear box H. depth index I. tail K. charging and stop-valves L. locking-gear M. engine bed-plate P. primer case R. rudder S. steering-rod tube T. guide stud U. propellers V. valve-group W. war nose Z. strengthening band
Robert Whitehead (right) invented the modern self-propelled torpedo in 1866. Pictured examining a battered test torpedo in Rijeka c. 1875.
The Nordenfelt-class Ottoman submarine Abdülhamid (1886) was the first submarine in history to fire a torpedo while submerged.
The first modern-day torpedo launching station in Rijeka, 2020
, built-in 1877 as a small attack boat armed with torpedoes.
The Brennan torpedo was the first practical guided torpedo.
Sinking of the Chilean ironclad by a torpedo in the Battle of Caldera Bay, during the Chilean Civil War of 1891.
was sunk by Japanese torpedo boats during the Russo-Japanese War.
In 1915, Rear Admiral Bradley A. Fiske conceived of the aerial torpedo.
The Short Type 184 was the first torpedo aircraft when built-in 1915.
Launching a torpedo in 1915 during World War I
Torpedo launch in 1916
A Japanese Type 93 torpedo – nicknamed "Long Lance" after the war
Loading 21-inch RNTF Mark VIII torpedoes into a Vickers Wellington medium bomber, May 1942. This type of torpedo was used to sink the Argentinian cruiser during the 1982 Falklands War
USS Mustin (DDG-89) launches a dummy torpedo during exercises.
U.S. World War II PT boat torpedo on display
Electric batteries of a French Z13 torpedo
A torpedo dropped from a Sopwith Cuckoo during World War I
Illustration of General Torpedo Fire Control Problem
A Mark 32 Mod 15 Surface Vessel Torpedo Tube (SVTT) fires a Mark 46 Mod 5 lightweight torpedo
Amidships quintuple mounting for 21 in torpedoes aboard the World War II era destroyer USS Charrette (DD-581)
Torpedo tube aboard the French submarine Argonaute
Mark 30 torpedo on display at DCAE Cosford.
A French Lynx helicopter carrying a Mark 46 torpedo
A Malafon torpedo-carrying missile of the 1960s
Varunastra heavyweight torpedo

While the 19th-century battleship had evolved primarily with a view to engagements between armored warships with large-caliber guns, the invention and refinement of torpedoes from the 1860s onwards allowed small torpedo boats and other lighter surface vessels, submarines/submersibles, even improvised fishing boats or frogmen, and later light aircraft, to destroy large ships without the need of large guns, though sometimes at the risk of being hit by longer-range artillery fire.

, a typical VIIC/41 U-boat on display at the Laboe Naval Memorial

U-boat

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, a typical VIIC/41 U-boat on display at the Laboe Naval Memorial
Sinking of the Linda Blanche out of Liverpool by (Willy Stöwer)
U-boat pens in Saint-Nazaire, France
U-534, Birkenhead Docks, Merseyside, England
Oil painting of a Kriegsmarine U-boat, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau
Captured Type VII and Type IX U-boats outside their pen in Trondheim, Norway, 19 May 1945.
Survivors from after being sunk by, 17 April 1943
U-15, a Type 206 submarine, of the German Navy at the Kiel Week 2007
Type 212 submarine with air-independent propulsion of the German Navy in dock at HDW/Kiel

U-boats were naval submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the First and Second World Wars.

Officers on the bridge of an escorting British destroyer stand watch for enemy submarines, October 1941

Battle of the Atlantic

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The Battle of the Atlantic, the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, ran from 1939 to the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, covering a major part of the naval history of World War II.

The Battle of the Atlantic, the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, ran from 1939 to the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, covering a major part of the naval history of World War II.

Officers on the bridge of an escorting British destroyer stand watch for enemy submarines, October 1941
Admiral Graf Spee shortly after her scuttling
Grand Admiral Erich Raeder with Otto Kretschmer (left), August 1940
Before Murmansk Seaport began operating as a hub for arctic convoys, it has been offered by Stalin to Hitler as a secret submarine base for German U-boats at the climax of the Battle of the Atlantic
German submarine pens in Lorient, Brittany
A U-boat shells a merchant ship which has remained afloat after being torpedoed.
The battlecruiser steaming into battle minutes before she was sunk by the German battleship Bismarck on May 24, 1941.
Losses of merchant ship (blue) and u-boats (red) in 1941
A SB2U Vindicator scout bomber from USS Ranger flies anti-submarine patrol over Convoy WS-12, en route to Cape Town, November 27, 1941. The convoy was one of many escorted by the US Navy on "Neutrality Patrol", before the US officially entered the war.
Sea Hurricane Mk IA on the catapult of a CAM ship
A Huff Duff set fitted to HMS Belfast. These sets were common pieces of equipment by the spring of 1943
The distinctive HF/DF "birdcage" aerial can be seen at the masthead of
Enigma rotors and spindle
Allied tanker Dixie Arrow, torpedoed by, in 1942
An Allied convoy heads eastward across the Atlantic, bound for Casablanca, in November 1942
Hedgehog anti-submarine mortar mounted on the forecastle of the destroyer
Leigh Light fitted to a Royal Air Force Coastal Command Liberator, February 26, 1944
Depth charges detonate astern of the sloop . She participated in the sinking of 14 U-boats throughout the war
under attack by a US Navy Consolidated PB4Y-1 Liberator in November 1943
U-507, under attack by a US Navy Consolidated PBY-5A Catalina of Patrol Squadron VP-83 off the northern coast of Brazil in the South Atlantic.
Brazilian Navy on anti-submarine warfare in the South Atlantic, 1944.
Scout cruiser Bahia of the Brazilian Navy launching depth charges to defend an allied convoy in the South Atlantic.
, a Type XIV supply submarine (known as a "milch cow") sinking after being attacked by a Vickers Wellington
Seamen raise the White Ensign over the captured German U-boat in St. John's, Newfoundland 1945
Merchant ship losses
U-boat losses

The Germans were joined by submarines of the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy) after Germany's Axis ally Italy entered the war on June 10, 1940.

Polish wz. 08/39 contact mine. The protuberances near the top of the mine, here with their protective covers, are called Hertz horns, and these trigger the mine's detonation when a ship bumps into them.

Naval mine

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Polish wz. 08/39 contact mine. The protuberances near the top of the mine, here with their protective covers, are called Hertz horns, and these trigger the mine's detonation when a ship bumps into them.
British Mk 14 sea mine
A 14th-century drawn illustration of a naval mine and page description from the Huolongjing
David Bushnell's mines destroying a British ship in 1777
Infernal machines in the Potomac River in 1861 during the American Civil War, sketch by Alfred Waud
A contact mine being deployed from the German minelayer Hansestadt Danzig
The towed, electric cables of Double-L, magnetic–minesweeping gear being deployed behind a Royal Navy minesweeper
A Vickers Wellington fitted with a DWI, magnetic mine exploder, Ismailia, Egypt
In 1988, an Iranian M-08 mine made a 25 ft hole in the hull of the frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58), forcing the ship to seek temporary repairs in a dry dock in Dubai, UAE.
Types of naval mines: A-underwater, B-bottom, SS-submarine. 1-drifting mine, 2-drifting mine, 3-moored mine, 4-moored mine (short wire), 5-bottom mines, 6-torpedo mine/CAPTOR mine, 7-rising mine
A German contact mine laid in Australian waters during World War II
Sequence of laying a moored contact mine with a plummet
German parachute-retarded magnetic mine. Dropped by Luftwaffe bomber during WWII and landed on the ground. Fuse mechanisms are visible
A CAPTOR mine being loaded onto a B-52 Stratofortress at Loring Air Force Base
Captured Iranian mine laying ship, Iran Ajr (left), a converted Japanese-built landing craft, 1987.
Camouflaged Iraqi mines hidden inside oil barrels on a shipping barge in the Persian Gulf, 2003.
A B-29 Superfortress dropping sea mines over Japanese home waters
A bottlenose dolphin of the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program during mine clearance operations in the Persian Gulf
An MH-53E from HM-15 tows a minesweeping sled while conducting simulated mine clearing operations
Minesweeper USS Tide (AM-125) after striking a mine off Utah Beach, 7 June 1944. Note her broken back, with smoke pouring from amidships.
Pinguin B3 mine hunting drone, such are operated from s of the German Navy
Seehund ROVs of the German Navy used for minesweeping
MK 62 Quick Strike deployed from a P-3 Orion

A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.

Emblem of the United States Navy

United States Navy

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Maritime service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the eight uniformed services of the United States.

Maritime service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the eight uniformed services of the United States.

Emblem of the United States Navy
USS Constellation vs L'Insurgente during the Quasi-War
USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere during the War of 1812
A carte de visite of a U.S. Navy lieutenant during the Civil War
The Great White Fleet demonstrating U.S. naval power in 1907; it was proof that the U.S. Navy had blue-water capability.
Columbia, personification of the United States, wearing a warship bearing the words "World Power" as her "Easter bonnet" on the cover of Puck, 6 April 1901
Battleship USS Idaho (BB-42) shelling Okinawa on 1 April 1945.
USS George Washington (SSBN-598), a ballistic missile submarine
U.S. Navy officers aboard the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) monitor defense systems during early 2010s maritime security operations exercises
U.S. Navy patrol boat near Kuwait Naval Base in 2009
The amphibious assault ship USS America (LHA-6), launched in 2012.
Organization of the United States Navy within the Department of Defense
Simplified flowchart of the U.S. Navy command structure
Areas of responsibility for each of the United States Navy fleets. Tenth Fleet serves as the numbered fleet for U.S. Fleet Cyber Command and therefore is not shown.
USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) docking at the U.S. Navy base in Yokosuka, Japan
A Marine F/A-18 from VMFA-451 preparing to launch from USS Coral Sea (CV-43)
A U.S. Coast Guard helicopter preparing to land on the flight deck of the amphibious assault ship USS Wasp (LHD-1)
Navy SEALs at one of the entrances to the Zhawar Kili cave complex
U.S. Navy warrant officer specialty insignias
Map of naval bases in the United States
Underwater Demolition Team members using the casting technique from a speeding boat
Combat Camera Underwater Photo Team – A U.S. Navy diver during underwater photography training off the coast of Guantanamo Bay
212x212px
USS Nimitz, a
USS Bataan (LHD-5), a
USS San Antonio (LPD-17), a
USS Port Royal (CG-73), a
USS Zumwalt (DDG-1000), a Zumwalt-class stealth guided missile destroyer
USS Independence (LCS-2), a Littoral combat ship
USS Freedom (LCS-1) underway in special naval camouflage
USS Warrior (MCM-10) in port
USS Typhoon (PC-5) departing Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek in Virginia
USS Kentucky (SSBN-737), an ballistic missile submarine
USS Virginia (SSN-774), a attack submarine
Four Navy F/A-18F Super Hornets
U.S. Navy MH-60R maritime strike helicopter assigned to the HSM-78 Blue Hawks aboard the carrier USS Carl Vinson
Aviation Ordnancemen loading GBU-12 bombs in 2005
U.S. naval jack
First navy jack
Naval Aviator Badge
Submarine Officer badge
Surface Warfare Officer Insignia

The U.S. Navy was one of the first to install nuclear reactors aboard naval vessels; today, nuclear energy powers all active U.S. aircraft carriers and submarines.

A replica of Ictineo II, Monturiol's pioneering submarine, in Barcelona.

Air-independent propulsion

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A replica of Ictineo II, Monturiol's pioneering submarine, in Barcelona.
X-1 midget submarine on display at the Submarine Force Library and Museum in the United States
HSwMS Gotland in San Diego
A Type 212 submarine of the German Navy, equipped with a fuel-cell AIP.
A diagram of the fuel-cell AIP module developed by the DRDO of India

Air-independent propulsion (AIP), or air-independent power, is any marine propulsion technology that allows a non-nuclear submarine to operate without access to atmospheric oxygen (by surfacing or using a snorkel).

USS George Washington (SSBN-598) – the lead boat of US Navy's first class of Fleet Ballistic Missile submarines (SSBN). George Washington was the first operational nuclear-powered multi-missile strategic deterrence asset fielded by any navy.

Ballistic missile submarine

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USS George Washington (SSBN-598) – the lead boat of US Navy's first class of Fleet Ballistic Missile submarines (SSBN). George Washington was the first operational nuclear-powered multi-missile strategic deterrence asset fielded by any navy.
Soviet Project 667BD (Delta II class) nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine
USS Alabama (SSBN-731), an (aka Trident) submarine.
A Project 941 (Typhoon-class) SSBN.
USS Sam Rayburn (SSBN-635) showing the hatches for the UGM-27 Polaris missiles
The French SNLE

A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.

Royal Navy

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United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

A late 16th-century painting of the Spanish Armada in battle with English warships
, Nelson's flagship at Trafalgar, is still a commissioned Royal Navy ship, although she is now permanently kept in dry-dock
The Battle of Trafalgar, depicted here in its opening phase
The routes of Captain James Cook's three voyages.
Heavy cruiser berthed in Admiralty Floating Dock No. 1 at the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda, 1934.
Britannia Royal Naval College
, a aircraft carrier on sea trials in June 2017
, the Type 45 guided missile destroyer
, the Type 23 frigate designed for anti-submarine warfare.
, a Royal Navy Antarctic patrol ship
, the first nuclear submarine
The F-35B aircraft are operated from the Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers.
Royal Marines in Sangin, 2010
Royal Marines Band Service members beside HMS Duncan in 2010
during HMNB Devonport's Navy day, 2006.
alongside Faslane Naval Base
A Merlin HC3 and Wildcat AH1 both of Commando Helicopter Force, based at RNAS Yeovilton.
A Royal Navy Merlin HM2 at RNAS Culdrose.
The RN presence in the Persian Gulf typically consists of a Type 45 destroyer and a squadron of minehunters supported by an RFA "mothership"
Portsmouth dockyard during the Trafalgar 200 International Fleet Review. Seen here are commissioned ships from; the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Pakistan, Ireland and Nigeria.
HMNB Clyde, Faslane, home of the submarines
Type 23 frigates or "Duke class" are named after British dukes.
The Queen and Admiral Sir Alan West during a Fleet Review

The Submarine Service is the submarine based element of the Royal Navy.

Main parts of ship. 1: Funnel; 2: Stern; 3: Propeller and Rudder; 4: Portside (the right side is known as starboard); 5: Anchor; 6: Bulbous bow; 7: Bow; 8: Deck; 9: Superstructure

Ship

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Large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying cargo or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research, and fishing.

Large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying cargo or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research, and fishing.

Main parts of ship. 1: Funnel; 2: Stern; 3: Propeller and Rudder; 4: Portside (the right side is known as starboard); 5: Anchor; 6: Bulbous bow; 7: Bow; 8: Deck; 9: Superstructure
Fijian voyaging outrigger boat with a crab claw sail
One of the sailing trimarans depicted in Borobudur temple, c. 8th century AD in Java, Indonesia
Egyptian sailing ship, c. 1422–1411 BC
A Roman ship carved on the face of the "Ship Sarcophagus", c. 2nd century AD
A Japanese atakebune from the 16th century
Replica of Magellan's Victoria. Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe in 1519–1522.
Painting of the Battle of Trafalgar by Auguste Mayer.
Italian full-rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor
RMS Titanic departs from Southampton. Her sinking led to tighter safety regulations
Colombo Express, one of the largest container ships in the world, owned and operated by Hapag-Lloyd of Germany
Ship carrying containers in Gadiara (West Bengal, India)
Passenger ship of Köln-Düsseldorfer on the river Rhine
Hurma, Hans and Voima at the Lake Saimaa in the harbour of Imatra, Finland, at a heritage ship meeting in 2009
Two modern container ships in San Francisco
Albatun Dos, a tuna boat at work near Victoria, Seychelles
The weather ship MS Polarfront at sea.
American aircraft carrier USS Harry S. Truman and a replenishment ship
A ship's hull endures harsh conditions at sea, as illustrated by this reefer ship in bad weather.
A ship's engine room
The rudder and propeller on a newly built ferry
Aerial view of the, showing a 39° wake, characteristic of vessels passing through water.
Vessels move along the three axes: 1. heave, 2. sway, 3. surge, 4. yaw, 5. pitch, 6. roll
Lines plan for the hull of a basic cargo ship
MS Freedom of the Seas under construction in a shipyard in Turku.
A ship launching at the Northern Shipyard in Gdańsk, Poland
Able seaman using a needlegun scaler on a mooring winch.
Workers drag steel plate ashore from beached ships in Chittagong, Bangladesh
The tanker Exxon Valdez spilled 10800000 USgal of oil into Alaska's Prince William Sound.
A cargo ship pumps ballast water over the side
Exhaust stack on a container ship.
Ship breaking near Chittagong, Bangladesh

Some large vessels are traditionally called boats, notably submarines.

French F70 type frigates (here, ) are fitted with VDS (Variable Depth Sonar) type DUBV43 or DUBV43C towed sonars

Sonar

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Technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, measure distances (ranging), communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.

Technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, measure distances (ranging), communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.

French F70 type frigates (here, ) are fitted with VDS (Variable Depth Sonar) type DUBV43 or DUBV43C towed sonars
Sonar image of the Soviet Navy minesweeper T-297, formerly the Latvian Virsaitis, which was shipwrecked on 3 December 1941 in the Gulf of Finland
ASDIC display unit from around 1944
Principle of an active sonar
Bubble clouds shown under the sea. From ref.
Comparison of Standard Sonar and TWIPS in finding a target in bubbly water. Adapted from ref.
Variable depth sonar and its winch
AN/AQS-13 Dipping sonar deployed from an H-3 Sea King
Lofargram writers, one for each array beam, on a NAVFAC watch floor.
AN/PQS-2A handheld sonar, shown with detachable flotation collar and magnetic compass
Cabin display of a fish finder sonar
Graphic depicting hydrographic survey ship conducting multibeam and side-scan sonar operations
Active (red) and passive (yellow) sonar detection of bubbles from seabed (natural seeps and CCSF leaks) and gas pipelines, taken from ref.
A humpback whale

During World War I the need to detect submarines prompted more research into the use of sound.