Submarine

submarinesdiesel-electric submarinediesel-electricsubunderwater vehiclesnuclear submarinesubsfast-attackmilitary submarinepatrol submarine
A submarine (or sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.wikipedia
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Midget submarine

midget submarinesmini-submarinemini-sub
It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub.
A midget submarine (also called a mini submarine) is any submarine under 150 tons, typically operated by a crew of one or two but sometimes up to 6 or 9, with little or no on-board living accommodation.

Submersible

submersiblesmanned submersiblemanned submersibles
It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability.
The term submersible is often used to differentiate from other underwater vessels known as submarines, in that a submarine is a fully autonomous craft, capable of renewing its own power and breathing air, whereas a submersible is usually supported by a surface vessel, platform, shore team or sometimes a larger submarine.

Ballistic missile submarine

SSBNfleet ballistic missile submarineballistic missile submarines
Military uses include attacking enemy surface ships (merchant and military), or other submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, reconnaissance, conventional land attack (for example using a cruise missile), and covert insertion of special forces.
A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.

Wet sub

wetfloodedwet cabin underwater craft
It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub.
A wet sub is a type of underwater vehicle, either a submarine or a submersible, that does not provide a dry environment for its occupants.

Watercraft

vesselvesselsmarine vessel
A submarine (or sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Watercraft, also known as marine vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles used in water, including ships, boats, hovercraft and submarines.

Navy

navalnaviesnaval forces
Submarines were first widely used during World War I (1914–1918), and are now used in many navies large and small.
It includes anything conducted by surface ships, amphibious ships, submarines, and seaborne aviation, as well as ancillary support, communications, training, and other fields.

Ship

shipsvesselsvessel
Military uses include attacking enemy surface ships (merchant and military), or other submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, reconnaissance, conventional land attack (for example using a cruise missile), and covert insertion of special forces.
Submarines are a prime example.

Diving plane

hydroplanehydroplanesbow planes
Submarines use diving planes and also change the amount of water and air in ballast tanks to change buoyancy for submerging and surfacing.
Diving planes, also known as hydroplanes, are control surfaces found on a submarine which allow the vessel to pitch its bow and stern up or down to assist in the process of submerging or surfacing the boat, as well as controlling depth when submerged.

Reconnaissance

scoutscoutsreconnaissance in force
Military uses include attacking enemy surface ships (merchant and military), or other submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, reconnaissance, conventional land attack (for example using a cruise missile), and covert insertion of special forces.
Examples of reconnaissance include patrolling by troops (skirmishers, long-range reconnaissance patrol, U.S. Army Rangers, cavalry scouts, or military intelligence specialists), ships or submarines, manned/unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, satellites, or by setting up covert observation posts.

Cornelis Drebbel

Cornelius DrebbelCornelius Jacobszoon DrebbelDrebbel
The first submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in 1620 by Cornelis Drebbel, a Dutchman in the service of James I of England.
He was the builder of the first navigable submarine in 1620 and an innovator who contributed to the development of measurement and control systems, optics and chemistry.

Julius H. Kroehl

Julius KröhlAndrew JohnsonKroehl
The design by German American Julius H. Kroehl (in German, Kröhl) incorporated elements that are still used in modern submarines.
He invented and built the first submarine able to dive and resurface on its own, the Sub Marine Explorer, technically advanced for its era.

Robert Fulton

Fulton(Robert) FultonAmerican engineer and inventor of the same name
In 1800, France built a human-powered submarine designed by American Robert Fulton,.
In 1800, Fulton had been commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte, leader of France, to attempt to design a submarine; he produced, the first practical submarine in history.

Sail (submarine)

sailfinfairwater
In modern submarines, this structure is the "sail" in American usage and "fin" in European usage.
In naval parlance, the sail (American usage) or fin (European/Commonwealth usage) of a submarine is the tower-like structure found on the dorsal (topside) surface of submarines.

William Bourne (mathematician)

William BourneBourne, William
In 1578, the English mathematician William Bourne recorded in his book Inventions or Devises one of the first plans for an underwater navigation vehicle.
1535–1582) was an English mathematician, innkeeper and former Royal Navy gunner who presented the first design for a navigable submarine and wrote important navigational manuals.

Torpedo

torpedoeshoming torpedotorpedoed
The first was Nordenfelt I, a 56-tonne, 19.5 m vessel similar to Garrett's ill-fated (1879), with a range of 240 km, armed with a single torpedo, in 1885.
While the battleship had evolved primarily around engagements between armoured ships with large-calibre guns, the torpedo allowed torpedo boats and other lighter surface ships, submersibles, even ordinary fishing boats or frogmen, and later, aircraft, to destroy large armoured ships without the need of large guns, though sometimes at the risk of being hit by longer-range shellfire.

John Philip Holland

John P. HollandJohn HollandJohn Phillip Holland
The Irish inventor John Philip Holland built a model submarine in 1876 and a full-scale version in 1878, which were followed by a number of unsuccessful ones.
John Philip Holland (Seán Pilib Ó hUallacháin/Ó Maolchalann) (24 February 1841 – 12 August 1914 ) was an Irish engineer who developed the first submarine to be formally commissioned by the US Navy, and the first Royal Navy submarine, Holland 1.

George Garrett (inventor)

George GarrettGarratGeorge William Garrett
Discussions between the English clergyman and inventor George Garrett and the Swedish industrialist Thorsten Nordenfelt led to the first practical steam-powered submarines, armed with torpedoes and ready for military use.
George William Littler Garrett (4 July 1852 – 26 February 1902) was a British clergyman and inventor who pioneered submarine design.

Naval tradition

By naval tradition, submarines are still usually referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size.
A basic tradition is that all ships commissioned in a navy are referred to as ships rather than vessels, with the exception of submarines, which are known as boats.

U-boat

U-boatsGerman submarineGerman submarines
Forces such as the U-boats of Germany saw action in the First Battle of the Atlantic, and were responsible for sinking, which was sunk as a result of unrestricted submarine warfare and is often cited among the reasons for the entry of the United States into the war.
While the German term refers to any submarine, the English one (in common with several other languages) refers specifically to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the First and Second World Wars.

Lewis Nixon (naval architect)

Lewis NixonLewis Nixon I
Launched on 17 May 1897 at Navy Lt. Lewis Nixon's Crescent Shipyard in Elizabeth, New Jersey, Holland VI was purchased by the United States Navy on 11 April 1900, becoming the Navy's first commissioned submarine, christened.
He designed the United States' first modern battleships, and supervised the construction of its first modern submarines, all before his 40th birthday.

Confederate States Navy

Confederate NavyConfederateCSN
In 1864, late in the American Civil War, the Confederate navy's became the first military submarine to sink an enemy vessel, the Union sloop-of-war.
The Confederate navy could never achieve numerical equality with the United States Navy, (then known as the Union Navy), with its near 70 years of traditions and experience, so it used technological innovation, such as ironclads, submarines, torpedo boats, and naval mines (then known as torpedoes) to attempt to gain advantage.

Gustave Zédé

Zédé
The first electrically powered boats were built by Isaac Peral y Caballero in Spain (who built ), Dupuy de Lôme (who built ) and Gustave Zédé (who built Sirène) in France, and James Franklin Waddington (who built Porpoise) in England.
Gustave Zédé was a French naval engineer and pioneering designer of submarines.

Bathyscaphe

bathyscapebathyscaphthe ship of the same name
Modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell.
To descend, a bathyscaphe floods air tanks with sea water, but unlike a submarine the water in the flooded tanks cannot be displaced with compressed air to ascend, because the water pressures at the depths for which the craft was designed to operate are too great.

Underwater archaeology

underwater archaeologistUnderwater archeologyunderwater
Submarines are also used in tourism and undersea archaeology.
For deep sites beyond the reach of divers, submarines or remote sensing equipment are needed.

Unrestricted submarine warfare

unrestrictedresumed submarine attacksunrestricted air and submarine warfare
Forces such as the U-boats of Germany saw action in the First Battle of the Atlantic, and were responsible for sinking, which was sunk as a result of unrestricted submarine warfare and is often cited among the reasons for the entry of the United States into the war.
Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as "cruiser rules").