Substance abuse

drug abusedrug useabusedrugdrugsdrug userabuse potentialsubstance useanti-drugdrugs of abuse
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is use of a drug in amounts or by methods which are harmful to the individual or others.wikipedia
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Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
This model explicitly recognizes a spectrum of use, ranging from beneficial use to chronic dependence. Depending on the actual compound, drug abuse including alcohol may lead to health problems, social problems, morbidity, injuries, unprotected sex, violence, deaths, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, suicides, physical dependence or psychological addiction.
In the DSM-5 (released in 2013), substance abuse and substance dependence have been merged into the category of substance use disorders and they no longer exist as individual diagnosis.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
'Drug abuse' is no longer a current medical diagnosis in either of the most used diagnostic tools in the world, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), and the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD).
Its current priorities include communicable diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS, Ebola, malaria and tuberculosis; the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases such as sexual and reproductive health, development, and aging; nutrition, food security and healthy eating; occupational health; substance abuse; and driving the development of reporting, publications, and networking.

Amphetamine dependence

amphetamine use disorderAmphetamine
Of these, the highest numbers are from alcohol use disorders at 137,500, opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100.
In individuals with substance use disorder (problematic use or abuse with dependence), psychotherapy is currently the best treatment option as no pharmacological treatment has been approved.

Prescription drug

prescriptionprescription drugsprescription medication
Drug misuse is a term used commonly when prescription medication with sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, or stimulant properties are used for mood alteration or intoxication ignoring the fact that overdose of such medicines can sometimes have serious adverse effects.
The reason for this difference in substance control is the potential scope of misuse, from drug abuse to practicing medicine without a license and without sufficient education.

Suicide

suicidalcommitted suicidesuicides
Depending on the actual compound, drug abuse including alcohol may lead to health problems, social problems, morbidity, injuries, unprotected sex, violence, deaths, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, suicides, physical dependence or psychological addiction.
Mental disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse—including alcoholism and the use of benzodiazepines—are risk factors.

Physical dependence

dependencedrug dependencyphysical
Depending on the actual compound, drug abuse including alcohol may lead to health problems, social problems, morbidity, injuries, unprotected sex, violence, deaths, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, suicides, physical dependence or psychological addiction.
Physical dependence can develop from low-dose therapeutic use of certain medications such as benzodiazepines, opioids, antiepileptics and antidepressants, as well as the recreational misuse of drugs such as alcohol, opioids, amphetamines and benzodiazepines.

Controlled Substances Act

Schedule ISchedule IISchedule III
In the U.S., drugs have been legally classified into five categories, schedule I, II, III, IV, or V in the Controlled Substances Act.

Major depressive disorder

depressionclinical depressionmajor depression
In some cases these substance induced psychiatric disorders can persist long after detoxification, such as prolonged psychosis or depression after amphetamine or cocaine abuse.
Risk factors include a family history of the condition, major life changes, certain medications, chronic health problems, and substance abuse.

Violence

violentviolent behaviorphysical violence
Depending on the actual compound, drug abuse including alcohol may lead to health problems, social problems, morbidity, injuries, unprotected sex, violence, deaths, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, suicides, physical dependence or psychological addiction.
The first level identifies biological and personal factors that influence how individuals behave and increase their likelihood of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence: demographic characteristics (age, education, income), genetics, brain lesions, personality disorders, substance abuse, and a history of experiencing, witnessing, or engaging in violent behaviour.

Benzodiazepine

benzodiazepinesbenzodiazapinesbenzo
Drugs most often associated with this term include: alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, methaqualone, and opioids.
Benzodiazepines are commonly misused and taken in combination with other drugs of abuse.

Disease

morbidityillnessdiseases
Depending on the actual compound, drug abuse including alcohol may lead to health problems, social problems, morbidity, injuries, unprotected sex, violence, deaths, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, suicides, physical dependence or psychological addiction.

Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
Drugs most often associated with this term include: alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, methaqualone, and opioids.
The amount of evidence available only permits making a weak conclusion, but it suggests that a physician properly managing opioid use in patients with no history of substance dependence or substance abuse can give long-term pain relief with little risk of developing addiction, abuse, or other serious side effects.

Ketamine

K-holeSpecial KCalypsol
Ketamine can produce euphoria and dissociative hallucinogen effects at higher doses, and thus has an abuse potential.

Methylphenidate

RitalinConcertaMethylin
More serious side effects may include psychosis, allergic reactions, prolonged erections, abuse, and heart problems.

Domestic violence

domestic abusespousal abuseabusive
Alcohol abuse is also associated with increased risks of committing criminal offences including child abuse, domestic violence, rapes, burglaries and assaults.
Victims often suffer from depression, putting them at increased risk of eating disorders, suicide, and drug and alcohol abuse.

Child abuse

abuseabusiveabused
Alcohol abuse is also associated with increased risks of committing criminal offences including child abuse, domestic violence, rapes, burglaries and assaults.
Substance abuse can be a major contributing factor to child abuse.

Amphetamine

Benzedrinespeedamphetamines
According to the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), amphetamine is contraindicated in people with a history of drug abuse, cardiovascular disease, severe agitation, or severe anxiety.

Khat

Catha edulisqatmiraa
The World Health Organization (WHO) classified it in 1980 as a drug of abuse that can produce psychological dependence, although the WHO does not consider khat addiction to be seriously problematic.

Stimulant

stimulantspsychostimulantpsychostimulants
Drug misuse is a term used commonly when prescription medication with sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, or stimulant properties are used for mood alteration or intoxication ignoring the fact that overdose of such medicines can sometimes have serious adverse effects.
Methamphetamine is known to have a high potential for abuse and addiction.

Impulsivity

impulsiveimpulsivenessimpulsive behavior
Impulsivity is characterized by actions based on sudden desires, whims, or inclinations rather than careful thought.
In both adults and children, ADHD has a high rate of comorbidity with other mental health disorders such as learning disability, conduct disorder, anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and substance use disorders.

Adolescence

adolescentteenagerteenage
Suicide is also very common in adolescent alcohol abusers, with 1 in 4 suicides in adolescents being related to alcohol abuse.
In addition to having earlier sexual experiences and more unwanted pregnancies than late maturing girls, early maturing girls are more exposed to alcohol and drug abuse.

Behaviorism

behavioristbehaviourismbehavior analysis
From the applied behavior analysis literature, behavioral psychology, and from randomized clinical trials, several evidenced based interventions have emerged: behavioral marital therapy, motivational Interviewing, community reinforcement approach, exposure therapy, contingency management They help suppress cravings and mental anxiety, improve focus on treatment and new learning behavioral skills, ease withdrawal symptoms and reduce the chances of relapse.
The application of radical behaviorism—known as applied behavior analysis—is used in a variety of contexts, including, for example, organizational behavior management and pediatric feeding therapy, to the treatment of mental disorders, such as autism and substance abuse.

Opioid use disorder

heroin addictionopioid addictionheroin addict
Of these, the highest numbers are from alcohol use disorders at 137,500, opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100.

Narcotics Anonymous

NAChristiansheroin addiction
Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous are one of the most widely known self-help organizations in which members support each other not to use alcohol.
Narcotics Anonymous uses a traditional 12-step model that has been expanded and developed for people with varied substance abuse issues and is the second-largest 12-step organization.

Depressant

depressantsdownerscentral depressant
Benzodiazepines are commonly misused and taken in combination with other drugs of abuse.