Substance theory

substancesubstancessubstantialismBare particularsubstance ontologysubstantialityinheresprimal chaosPrimary substancesubstantial
Substance theory, or substance–attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.wikipedia
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Metaphysics

metaphysicalmetaphysicianmetaphysic
Substance is a key concept in ontology and metaphysics, which may be classified into monist, dualist, or pluralist varieties according to how many substances or individuals are said to populate, furnish, or exist in the world.
Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that examines the fundamental nature of reality, including the relationship between mind and matter, between substance and attribute, and between potentiality and actuality.

Monism

monisticmonistMonad
Substance is a key concept in ontology and metaphysics, which may be classified into monist, dualist, or pluralist varieties according to how many substances or individuals are said to populate, furnish, or exist in the world.
In Hinduism, substance-ontology prevails, seeing Brahman as the unchanging real beyond the world of appearances.

Pluralism (philosophy)

pluralismpluralisticpluralist
Substance is a key concept in ontology and metaphysics, which may be classified into monist, dualist, or pluralist varieties according to how many substances or individuals are said to populate, furnish, or exist in the world.
In metaphysics, pluralism is the doctrine that—contrary to the assertions of monism and dualism, there are in fact many different substances in nature that constitute reality.

Ontology

ontologicalontologicallyontologies
Substance is a key concept in ontology and metaphysics, which may be classified into monist, dualist, or pluralist varieties according to how many substances or individuals are said to populate, furnish, or exist in the world. Substance theory, or substance–attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.

Object (philosophy)

objectobjectsthing
Substance theory, or substance–attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.
Two leading theories about objecthood are substance theory, wherein substances (objects) are distinct from their properties, and bundle theory, wherein objects are no more than bundles of their properties.

Essence

essentialessential propertiesessentially
Primarily, however, he used it with regard to his category of substance, the specimen ("this person" or "this horse") or individual, qua individual, who survives accidental change and in whom the essential properties inhere that define those universals."A substance—that which is called a substance most strictly, primarily, and most of all—is that which is neither said of a subject nor in a subject, e.g. the individual man or the individual horse. The species in which the things primarily called substances are, are called secondary substances, as also are the genera of these species. For example, the individual man belongs in a species, man, and animal is a genus of the species; so these—both man and animal—are called secondary substances."
In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.

Theory of forms

formsIdeasform
Pluralist philosophies include Plato's Theory of Forms and Aristotle's hylomorphic categories.
The answer was substance, which stands under the changes and is the actually existing thing being seen.

Ousia

essenceHomoousiossubstance
Aristotle used the term "substance" (οὐσία ousia) in a secondary sense for genera and species understood as hylomorphic forms.
It was used by various ancient Greek philosophers, like Plato and Aristotle, as a primary designation for philosophical concepts of essence or substance.

Property (philosophy)

propertypropertiesattribute
Substance theory, or substance–attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.
Property dualism describes a category of positions in the philosophy of mind which hold that, although the world is constituted of just one kind of substance—the physical kind—there exist two distinct kinds of properties: physical properties and mental properties.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
Pluralist philosophies include Plato's Theory of Forms and Aristotle's hylomorphic categories. Aristotle used the term "substance" (οὐσία ousia) in a secondary sense for genera and species understood as hylomorphic forms.
Aristotle examines the concepts of substance (ousia) and essence (to ti ên einai, "the what it was to be") in his Metaphysics (Book VII), and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form, a philosophical theory called hylomorphism.

Stoicism

StoicStoicsStoic philosophy
Stoicism and Spinoza, for example, hold monistic views, that pneuma or God, respectively, is the one substance in the world.

Physics (Aristotle)

PhysicsAristotle's PhysicsPhysica
In chapter 6 of book I the Physics Aristotle argues that any change must be analysed in reference to the property of an invariant subject: as it was before the change and thereafter.
Matter in this understanding does not exist independently (i.e. as a substance), but exists interdependently (i.e. as a "principle") with form and only insofar as it underlies change.

Aristotelian theology

Aristotelian view of GodAristotelian view of a godAristotelian God
However, according to Aristotle's theology, a form of invariant form exists without matter, beyond the cosmos, powerless and oblivious, in the eternal substance of the unmoved movers.
Likewise, they must have no sensory perception whatsoever on account of Aristotle's theory of cognition: were any form of sense perception to intrude upon their thoughts, in that instant they would cease to be themselves, because actual self-reflection is their singular essence, their whole being.

Transubstantiation

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The archbishop of Tours Hildebert of Lavardin introduced the term of transubstantiation about 1080; its use spread since the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215.
Transubstantiation (Latin: transsubstantiatio; Greek: μετουσίωσις metousiosis) is, according to the teaching of the Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ.

Eucharist

Holy CommunioncommunionLord's Supper
In later ages, the meaning of substance gained acuteness concerning the dogma of Eucharist.
While all agree that there is no perceptible change in the appearances of the elements (smell, taste, color, weight, fragility, nutritional effects, etc.), Roman Catholics believe that their substances actually become the body and blood of Christ (transubstantiation) while the appearances or "species" of the elements remain.

Categories (Aristotle)

CategoriescategoryAristotelian categories
Primarily, however, he used it with regard to his category of substance, the specimen ("this person" or "this horse") or individual, qua individual, who survives accidental change and in whom the essential properties inhere that define those universals."A substance—that which is called a substance most strictly, primarily, and most of all—is that which is neither said of a subject nor in a subject, e.g. the individual man or the individual horse. The species in which the things primarily called substances are, are called secondary substances, as also are the genera of these species. For example, the individual man belongs in a species, man, and animal is a genus of the species; so these—both man and animal—are called secondary substances." Pluralist philosophies include Plato's Theory of Forms and Aristotle's hylomorphic categories. Thus they developed a scheme of categories different from Aristotle's based on the ideas of Anaxagoras and Timaeus.

Stoic categories

categoriesCategories (Stoic)
Thus they developed a scheme of categories different from Aristotle's based on the ideas of Anaxagoras and Timaeus.

Madhyamaka

MadhyamikaMādhyamakaMādhyamika
The school of Madhyamaka, namely Nāgārjuna, introduced the idea of the ontological void (śūnyatā).
The ontological aspects include svabhāva as essence, as a property which makes an object what it is, as well as svabhāva as substance, meaning, as the Madhyamaka thinker Candrakirti defines it, something that does "not depend on anything else".

Mind–body dualism

dualismCartesian dualismmind-body dualism
Substance is a key concept in ontology and metaphysics, which may be classified into monist, dualist, or pluralist varieties according to how many substances or individuals are said to populate, furnish, or exist in the world.
In this view, a soul is the hylomorphic form of a viable organism, wherein each level of the hierarchy formally supervenes upon the substance of the preceding level.

Ethics (Spinoza)

EthicsEthicaDeus sive Natura
What is ordinarily called the natural world, together with all the individuals in it, is immanent in God: hence his famous phrase deus sive natura ("God or Nature").
Spinoza attacks several Cartesian positions: (1) that the mind and body are distinct substances that can affect one another; (2) that we know our minds better than we know our bodies; (3) that our senses may be trusted; (4) that despite being created by God we can make mistakes, namely, when we affirm, of our own free will, an idea that is not clear and distinct.

Immanence

immanentDivine immanenceimmanentism
What is ordinarily called the natural world, together with all the individuals in it, is immanent in God: hence his famous phrase deus sive natura ("God or Nature"). These modes of thinking are sometimes associated with the idea of immanence.

Hylomorphism

hylomorphicmatter and formform
Pluralist philosophies include Plato's Theory of Forms and Aristotle's hylomorphic categories. Aristotle used the term "substance" (οὐσία ousia) in a secondary sense for genera and species understood as hylomorphic forms.

Trinity

Holy TrinityTrinitarianTrinitarianism
The ecclesiastics of the Cappadocian group (Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nyssa) taught that the Trinity had a single substance in three hypostases individualized by their reciprocal relations.
Eventually, the diverse references to God, Jesus, and the Spirit found in the New Testament were brought together to form the doctrine of the Trinity—one God subsisting in three persons and one substance.

Matter

corporealsubstancematerial
They believed that all being is corporeal infused with a creative fire called pneuma.
Matter in this understanding does not exist independently (i.e., as a substance), but exists interdependently (i.e., as a "principle") with form and only insofar as it underlies change.

Accident (philosophy)

accidentaccidentsaccidental
Primarily, however, he used it with regard to his category of substance, the specimen ("this person" or "this horse") or individual, qua individual, who survives accidental change and in whom the essential properties inhere that define those universals."A substance—that which is called a substance most strictly, primarily, and most of all—is that which is neither said of a subject nor in a subject, e.g. the individual man or the individual horse. The species in which the things primarily called substances are, are called secondary substances, as also are the genera of these species. For example, the individual man belongs in a species, man, and animal is a genus of the species; so these—both man and animal—are called secondary substances."