Substance use disorder

The disability-adjusted life year, a measure of overall disease burden (number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death), from drug use disorders per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004

Persistent use of drugs (including alcohol) despite substantial harm and adverse consequences.

- Substance use disorder

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A tin containing drugs and drug paraphernalia

Substance abuse

Use of a drug in amounts or by methods which are harmful to the individual or others.

Use of a drug in amounts or by methods which are harmful to the individual or others.

A tin containing drugs and drug paraphernalia
A person sniffing an inhalant
A drug user receiving an injection of the opiate heroin
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Alcohol was found to be the overall most dangerous drug.
1991 Indian postage stamp bearing the slogan – Beware of drugs
Drug use is higher in countries with high economic inequality
Total recorded alcohol per capita consumption (15+), in litres of pure alcohol<ref>Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004</ref>
Total yearly U.S. drug deaths.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths, and the drugs involved.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

In 2015, substance use disorders resulted in 307,400 deaths, up from 165,000 deaths in 1990.

Mental health as a risk factor for illicit drug dependency or abuse.

Substance dependence

Biopsychological situation whereby an individual's functionality is dependent on the necessitated re-consumption of a psychoactive substance because of an adaptive state that has developed within the individual from psychoactive substance consumption that results in the experience of withdrawal and that necessitates the re-consumption of the drug.<ref name="NHM terms-DSM flaw"> A drug addiction, a distinct concept from substance dependence, is defined as compulsive, out-of-control drug use, despite negative consequences.

Biopsychological situation whereby an individual's functionality is dependent on the necessitated re-consumption of a psychoactive substance because of an adaptive state that has developed within the individual from psychoactive substance consumption that results in the experience of withdrawal and that necessitates the re-consumption of the drug.<ref name="NHM terms-DSM flaw"> A drug addiction, a distinct concept from substance dependence, is defined as compulsive, out-of-control drug use, despite negative consequences.

Mental health as a risk factor for illicit drug dependency or abuse.

In the DSM-5 (released in 2013), substance abuse and substance dependence have been merged into the category of substance use disorders and they no longer exist as individual diagnoses.

Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind.

Neuroticism

In the study of psychology, neuroticism has been considered a fundamental personality trait.

In the study of psychology, neuroticism has been considered a fundamental personality trait.

Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind.

People with high scores on the neuroticism index are thought to be at risk of developing common mental disorders (mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders have been studied), and the sorts of symptoms traditionally referred to as "neuroses".

Molecular structure of morphine

Opioid use disorder

Molecular structure of morphine
Material used for intravenous injection of opioids
Fentanyl 2 mg. A lethal dose in most people. Diameter of a US penny is 19.05 mm, or 0.75 inches.
Buprenorphine/naloxone tablet
Overdose deaths involving opioids, United States. Deaths per 100,000 population by year.
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving other, predominately Fentanyl.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a substance use disorder relating to the use of an opioid.

Orbitofrontal cortex, part of the prefrontal cortex that shapes decision-making

Impulsivity

Tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.

Tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.

Orbitofrontal cortex, part of the prefrontal cortex that shapes decision-making

Impulsivity is both a facet of personality and a major component of various disorders, including FASD, ADHD, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder.

Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets

Stimulant

Overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

Overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets
A chart comparing the chemical structures of different amphetamine derivatives
Roasted coffee beans, a common source of caffeine.
Tablets containing MDMA
Lines of illicit cocaine, used as a recreational stimulant
Catha edulis

Addiction to some CNS stimulants can quickly lead to medical, psychiatric, and psychosocial deterioration.

Codex claromontanus latin (The S.S. Teacher's Edition-The Holy Bible - Plate XXVIII)

CRAFFT Screening Test

Short clinical assessment tool designed to screen for substance-related risks and problems in adolescents.

Short clinical assessment tool designed to screen for substance-related risks and problems in adolescents.

Codex claromontanus latin (The S.S. Teacher's Edition-The Holy Bible - Plate XXVIII)

It has been established as valid and reliable for identifying youth who need further assessment and therapeutic intervention The CRAFFT was originally designed to screen adolescents at high risk of substance use disorders in primary medical care offices.

Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind.

Personality theories of addiction

Individual's proclivity for developing an addiction.

Individual's proclivity for developing an addiction.

Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind.

Research has consistently shown strong associations between affective disorders and substance use disorders.

Sorrowing Old Man (At Eternity's Gate)
by Vincent van Gogh (1890)

Major depressive disorder

Mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of pervasive low mood, low self-esteem, and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

Mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of pervasive low mood, low self-esteem, and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

Sorrowing Old Man (At Eternity's Gate)
by Vincent van Gogh (1890)
An 1892 lithograph of a woman diagnosed with melancholia
A cup analogy demonstrating the diathesis–stress model that under the same amount of stressors, person 2 is more vulnerable than person 1, because of their predisposition.
Caricature of a man with depression
Physical exercise is one recommended way to manage mild depression.
Sertraline (Zoloft) is used primarily to treat major depression in adults.
Diagnoses of depression go back at least as far as Hippocrates.
The 16th American president, Abraham Lincoln, had "melancholy", a condition that now may be referred to as clinical depression.

Risk factors include a family history of the condition, major life changes, certain medications, chronic health problems, and substance use disorders.

Plato on the set of Diff'rent Strokes in 1983

Dana Plato

American actress.

American actress.

Plato on the set of Diff'rent Strokes in 1983
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Her later struggles with substance abuse and mental health have received significant media coverage, and her personal life, in retrospect, has been described as a "tragedy".