Substance use disorder

addictionsubstance use disordersaddictiveaddictedsubstance abusesubstance usesubstance abuse disordersaddictionsaddictivenessdrug use disorder
A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a medical condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.wikipedia
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Opioid use disorder

heroin addictionopioid addictionheroin addict
Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (such as arylcyclohexylamines); other hallucinogens (such as LSD); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants; tobacco; and other or unknown substances. Of these, the highest numbers are from alcohol use disorders at 137,500, opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100.
Addiction and dependence are components of a substance use disorder.

Amphetamine dependence

amphetamine use disorderAmphetamine
Of these, the highest numbers are from alcohol use disorders at 137,500, opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100.
In individuals with substance use disorder (problematic use or abuse with dependence), psychotherapy is currently the best treatment option as no pharmacological treatment has been approved.

Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
In the DSM-5, substance abuse and substance dependence have been merged into the category of substance use disorders. Substance use may lead to drug addiction, drug dependence, or both, depending on the substance.
In the DSM-5 (released in 2013), substance abuse and substance dependence have been merged into the category of substance use disorders and they no longer exist as individual diagnosis.

Cocaine

cokecocaine traffickingcrack
A drug can cause physical dependence and not psychological dependence (for example, a person who is physically dependent on prescribed opioid medications may not experience a loss of control, strong cravings, etc.) and some can cause psychological dependence without physical dependence (the withdrawal symptoms associated with cocaine are all psychological, there is no associated vomiting or diarrhea as there is with opiate withdrawal).
Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain.

Impulsivity

impulsiveimpulsivenessimpulsive behavior
Psychological risk factors include high impulsivity, sensation seeking, neuroticism and openness to experience in combination with low conscientiousness.
Impulsivity is both a facet of personality and a major component of various disorders, including ADHD, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder.

Addiction

drug addictiondrug addictdrug addicts
Substance use may lead to drug addiction, drug dependence, or both, depending on the substance.
The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) uses the term "substance use disorder" to refer to a spectrum of drug use-related disorders.

Personality theories of addiction

Psychological risk factors
Psychological risk factors include high impulsivity, sensation seeking, neuroticism and openness to experience in combination with low conscientiousness.
Research has consistently shown strong associations between affective disorders and substance use disorders.

Neuroticism

neuroticneuroticallyadult neurotic
Psychological risk factors include high impulsivity, sensation seeking, neuroticism and openness to experience in combination with low conscientiousness.
People with high neuroticism indexes are at risk for the development and onset of common mental disorders, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorder, symptoms of which had traditionally been called neuroses.

Stimulant

stimulantspsychostimulantpsychostimulants
Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (such as arylcyclohexylamines); other hallucinogens (such as LSD); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants; tobacco; and other or unknown substances.
Addiction to some CNS stimulants can quickly lead to medical, psychiatric, and psychosocial deterioration.

CRAFFT Screening Test

CRAFFTCRAFFT substance abuse screen
There are several different screening tools that have been validated for use with adolescents, such as the CRAFFT, and with adults, such as CAGE.
It has been established as valid and reliable for identifying youth who need further assessment and therapeutic intervention The CRAFFT was originally designed to screen adolescents at high risk of substance use disorders in primary medical care offices.

Substance abuse

drug abusedrug useabuse
In the DSM-5, substance abuse and substance dependence have been merged into the category of substance use disorders.
In the DSM-5, substance abuse and substance dependence have been merged into the category of substance use disorders and they now longer exist as individual concepts.

Psychological dependence

psychologicalpsychological dependencypsychological or behavioral dependence
The medical community makes a distinction between physical dependence and psychological dependence upon drugs.

Cognitive restructuring

cognitive interventionscognitive-restructuring
Cognitive restructuring has been used to help individuals experiencing a variety of psychiatric conditions, including depression, substance abuse disorders, anxiety disorders collectively, bulimia, social phobia, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and problem gambling.

Caffeine dependence

caffeinecaffeine addictioncoffee addiction
Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (such as arylcyclohexylamines); other hallucinogens (such as LSD); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants; tobacco; and other or unknown substances.

Cannabis (drug)

marijuanacannabispot
Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (such as arylcyclohexylamines); other hallucinogens (such as LSD); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants; tobacco; and other or unknown substances.

Arylcyclohexylamine

1-phenylcyclohexylaminearylcyclohexamineArylcyclohexylamines
Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (such as arylcyclohexylamines); other hallucinogens (such as LSD); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants; tobacco; and other or unknown substances.

Lysergic acid diethylamide

LSDacidLSD-25
Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (such as arylcyclohexylamines); other hallucinogens (such as LSD); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants; tobacco; and other or unknown substances.

Inhalant

inhalantsinhalant abusesolvent abuse
Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (such as arylcyclohexylamines); other hallucinogens (such as LSD); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants; tobacco; and other or unknown substances.

Sedative

sedativessedative-hypnoticsedated
Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (such as arylcyclohexylamines); other hallucinogens (such as LSD); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants; tobacco; and other or unknown substances.

Hypnotic

sleeping pillssleeping pillsoporific
Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (such as arylcyclohexylamines); other hallucinogens (such as LSD); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants; tobacco; and other or unknown substances.

Anxiolytic

anxiolysisanti-anxietyanxiolytics
Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (such as arylcyclohexylamines); other hallucinogens (such as LSD); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants; tobacco; and other or unknown substances.

Tobacco smoking

smokingcigarette smokingsmoker
Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (such as arylcyclohexylamines); other hallucinogens (such as LSD); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants; tobacco; and other or unknown substances.

Alcoholism

alcoholicalcoholicsalcohol
Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (such as arylcyclohexylamines); other hallucinogens (such as LSD); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants; tobacco; and other or unknown substances. Of these, the highest numbers are from alcohol use disorders at 137,500, opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100.

Cocaine dependence

cocaine addictioncocaine abusecocaine addict
Of these, the highest numbers are from alcohol use disorders at 137,500, opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100.

Drug tolerance

tolerancetolerantmedication tolerance
Physical dependence requires the development of tolerance leading to withdrawal symptoms; it involves physiological processes while substance abuse reflects a complex interaction between the individual, the abused substance and society.