Succession to Muhammad

successor to MuhammadMuhammad's successorsucceeded Muhammadsuccessionsuccessorsuccessor of Muhammadsuccessorsas his successorcivil warsdeath of the Prophet
The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that split the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Islamic history, the most prominent among these sects being the Shia and Sunni branches of Islam.wikipedia
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History of Islam

Islamic historyMuslim historyhistory
The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that split the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Islamic history, the most prominent among these sects being the Shia and Sunni branches of Islam.
With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community during the Rashidun Caliphate.

Shia Islam

ShiaShi'aShiite
The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that split the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Islamic history, the most prominent among these sects being the Shia and Sunni branches of Islam.
It holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor and the Imam (leader) after him, most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm, but was prevented from the caliphate as a result of the incident of Saqifah.

Sunni Islam

SunniSunni MuslimSunni Muslims
The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that split the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Islamic history, the most prominent among these sects being the Shia and Sunni branches of Islam.
The differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions.

Abu Bakr

Abu Bakr as-SiddiqSayyadna '''Abu Bakr SiddiqAbu Bakr Siddique
Sunni Islam maintains Abu Bakr to be the first leader after Muhammad on the basis of election.
Following Muhammad's death in 632, Abu Bakr succeeded in the leadership of the Muslim community as the first Rashidun Caliph.

Rashidun Caliphate

RashidunRashidun caliphRashidun Caliphs
They accept the rule of Abu Bakr, who was elected at Saqifah, and that of his successors, who are together termed the Rashidun Caliphs.
The caliphate arose out of the death of Muhammad in 632 CE and the subsequent debate over the succession to his leadership.

Islamic schools and branches

Islamic conservatismdenominationbranches of Islam
The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that split the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Islamic history, the most prominent among these sects being the Shia and Sunni branches of Islam.
In addition to believing in the authority of the Quran and teachings of Muhammad, Shia believe that Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt (the "People of the House"), including his descendants known as Imams, have special spiritual and political authority over the community and believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, was the first of these Imams and was the rightful successor to Muhammad, and thus reject the legitimacy of the first three Rashidun caliphs.

The Twelve Imams

Twelve ImamsImamImams
They primarily see the rulers who followed Muhammad as illegitimate, with the only rightful Muslim leaders being Ali and his lineal descendants, the Twelve Imams, who are viewed as divinely appointed. For the Twelvers, Ali and his eleven descendants, the twelve Imams, are believed to have been considered, even before their birth, as the only valid Islamic rulers appointed and decreed by God.
Ali was the first of the Twelve Imams, and, in the Twelvers view, the rightful successor to Muhammad, followed by male descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah.

Muhammad

Prophet MuhammadMohammedMohammad
Shia Islam holds that Ali ibn Abi Talib was the appointed successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad as head of the community.
According to Shia tafsir, it refers to the appointment of Ali ibn Abi Talib at the pond of Khumm as Muhammad's successor, this occurring a few days later when Muslims were returning from Mecca to Medina.

Aisha

AishahA'ishaAisha bint Abu Bakr
Leone Caetani considered the attribution of historical reports to `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas and Aisha as mostly fictitious, preferring accounts reported without isnad by early historians such as Ibn Ishaq.
This was of great importance to those who supported Aisha's position in the debate of the succession to Muhammad.

Ali

Ali ibn Abi TalibImam AliAli ibn Abu Talib
Shia Islam holds that Ali ibn Abi Talib was the appointed successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad as head of the community.
He ruled as the fourth caliph from 656 to 661, but is regarded as the rightful immediate successor to Muhammad as an Imam by Shia Muslims.

Mecca

MakkahMecca, Saudi ArabiaMakka
The general belief at the time was that the purpose of the meeting was for the Ansar to decide on a new leader of the Muslim community among themselves, with the intentional exclusion of the Muhajirun (migrants from Mecca), though this has since become the subject of debate.
Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities.

Shia–Sunni relations

Shi'a–Sunni relationsShi'a-Sunni relationsShia-Sunni relations
This conflict marked the Second Fitna, as a result of which the Sunni-Shia schism became finalised.
A dispute over succession to Islamic prophet Muhammad as a caliph of the Islamic community spread across various parts of the world, which led to the Battle of Jamal and Battle of Siffin.

Imamate in Shia doctrine

ImamShia ImamImams
This can be compared to the Shia belief in the Imamate, in which Ali and his descendants are regarded as inheritors of religious authority. With the exception of Zaydis, Shi'ites believe in the Imamate, a principle by which rulers are Imams who are divinely chosen, infallible and sinless and must come from the Ahl al-Bayt regardless of majority opinion, shura or election.
In Shia Islam, the Imamah is a doctrine which asserts that certain individuals from the lineage of the Prophet Muhammad are to be accepted as leaders and guides of the ummah after the death of the Prophet.

Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah

Abu UbaidahAbu Ubaidah ibn al JarrahAbu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah
He then took Umar and another companion, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, by the hand and offered them to the Ansar as potential choices.
When Muhammad died in 632 the matter of his succession took place at the Saqifah of Banu Sa'ida, Abu Ubaidah was there along with Abu Bakr and Umar.

Twelver

Twelver ShiaTwelversTwelver Shi'ism
For the Twelvers, Ali and his eleven descendants, the twelve Imams, are believed to have been considered, even before their birth, as the only valid Islamic rulers appointed and decreed by God.
Twelvers believe that the Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Ahl al-Bayt

Ahlul BaytBaytAhlul-Bayt
With the exception of Zaydis, Shi'ites believe in the Imamate, a principle by which rulers are Imams who are divinely chosen, infallible and sinless and must come from the Ahl al-Bayt regardless of majority opinion, shura or election.
Shias believe they are successors of Muhammad and consist of Muhammad, his daughter Fatimah, his son-in-law Ali, and their children Hasan and Husayn, known collectively as the Ahl al-Kisa ("People of the Cloak"), in addition to the Twelve Imams of Muhammad's grandchildren children.

Imam

imamsImāmImaam
With the exception of Zaydis, Shi'ites believe in the Imamate, a principle by which rulers are Imams who are divinely chosen, infallible and sinless and must come from the Ahl al-Bayt regardless of majority opinion, shura or election.

Shura

Shura Councilshūrāshoras
With the exception of Zaydis, Shi'ites believe in the Imamate, a principle by which rulers are Imams who are divinely chosen, infallible and sinless and must come from the Ahl al-Bayt regardless of majority opinion, shura or election.
(See Succession to Muhammad, Umar ibn al-Khattab, The election of Uthman, and Ali Ibn Abi Talib.)

Mawla

mawalimawlāmawālī
The point of contention between different sects is when Muhammad, whilst giving his speech, gave the proclamation "Anyone who has me as his mawla, has Ali as his mawla." Some versions add the additional sentence "O God, befriend the friend of Ali and be the enemy of his enemy."
They therefore see this to be the official designation of Ali as Muhammad's successor.

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Hadith of the pond of KhummGhadir KhummEid al-Ghadeer
Conversely, Shi'ites believe that Ali had previously been nominated by Muhammad as heir, most notably during the Event of Ghadir Khumm.
While Sunnis hold little significance to Ghadir Khumm, Shi'ites consider it to mark the completion of Islam as well as the official appointment of Ali as Muhammad's successor.

Hadith of the pen and paper

event of the pen and paper
Differing views on the nature of the silenced order have also been used to further political arguments, in particular regarding the succession to Muhammad.

Muawiyah I

Mu'awiya IMu'awiyaMuawiyah
Hostilities only ceased when Ali's eldest son Hasan (who had been elected upon his father's death) made an agreement to abdicate in favour of the first Umayyad caliph, Muawiyah I, resulting in a period of relative calm and a hiatus in sectarian disagreements.
Firstly, because of his involvement in the Battle of Siffin against Ali ibn Abi Talib, whom the Shia Muslims believe was Muhammad's true successor; secondly, for the breaking of the treaty he made with Hasan ibn Ali, after the death of Hasan ibn Ali, including by appointing his son Yazid as his successor; thirdly, because they believe that he is responsible for the killing of Hasan ibn Ali by bribing his wife Ja'dah binte Ash'as to poison him whereas the Sunni texts do not say that his wife killed him; and fourthly because some Shia think that he distorted their interpretation of Islam to match his rule, whereas the Sunnis do not say that he distorted Islam, as he was a political leader at a certain time in history to whom Hassan and Hussein also gave their allegiance, whereas they say that Islam is based on the Quran and the teaching of Muhammad and its main center of learning was in Madina not in Syria and they say that Islam was completed at the time of Muhammad and use the verses "This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion" Quran 5:5.

Saqifah

Saqifaconsultation of companionshall
They accept the rule of Abu Bakr, who was elected at Saqifah, and that of his successors, who are together termed the Rashidun Caliphs.

Ummah

Muslim communityIslamic communityumma
The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that split the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Islamic history, the most prominent among these sects being the Shia and Sunni branches of Islam. The general belief at the time was that the purpose of the meeting was for the Ansar to decide on a new leader of the Muslim community among themselves, with the intentional exclusion of the Muhajirun (migrants from Mecca), though this has since become the subject of debate.

Islam

IslamicMuslimMuslims
The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that split the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Islamic history, the most prominent among these sects being the Shia and Sunni branches of Islam.