Sudan

🇸🇩SudaneseRepublic of the Sudanthe SudanRepublic of SudanSoudanNorthnorthern SudanSDNNorth Sudan
Sudan (, ; السودان as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.wikipedia
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Eritrea

🇪🇷EritreanERI
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest.
It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast.

South Sudan

🇸🇸southern SudanRepublic of South Sudan
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest. This exacerbated the rift between the Arab north, the seat of the government and the black African animists and Christians in the south.
The country gained its independence from the Republic of the Sudan in 2011, making it the newest country with widespread recognition.

Ethiopia

🇪🇹AbyssiniaEthiopian
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest.
It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northwest, to the northeast Somaliland, and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south.

Egypt

🇪🇬EgyptianEGY
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest.
Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west.

Central African Republic

🇨🇫Central AfricanCAR
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest.
It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest and Cameroon to the west.

Libya

🇱🇾LibyanLY
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest.
Libya, officially the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, and Tunisia to the northwest.

Chad

🇹🇩ChadianRepublic of Chad
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest.
It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west.

Khartoum

Khartoum, SudanKhartoum-basedKhartuom
The capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile.
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.

Kingdom of Kush

KushKushiteCush
undefined 1500 BC–1070 BC) and the rise of the kingdom of Kush (c.
The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the Sudanese and southern Egyptian Nile Valley.

Kerma culture

KermaKingdom of KermaBronze age
Sudan's history goes back to the Pharaonic period, witnessing the kingdom of Kerma (c.
The Kerma culture or Kerma kingdom was an early civilization centered in Kerma, Sudan.

Alodia

AlwaAlodia/AlwaKingdom of Alodia
After the fall of Kush the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia, with the latter two lasting until around 1500.
Alodia, also known as Alwa (Greek: Aρογα, Aroua; علوة, 'Alwa), was a medieval Nubian kingdom in what is now Central and Southern Sudan.

Makuria

Early ChristianChristian NubiaKings of Makuria
After the fall of Kush the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia, with the latter two lasting until around 1500.
Makuria (Old Nubian: ⲇⲱⲧⲁⲩⲟ, Dotawo; Greek: Μακογρια, Makouria; مقرة, al-Muqurra) was a Nubian kingdom located in what is today Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt.

Sultanate of Darfur

DarfurKeira SultanateDarfur Sultanate
From the 16th–19th centuries, central and eastern Sudan were dominated by the Funj sultanate, while Darfur ruled the west and the Ottomans the far north.
The Sultanate of Darfur was a pre-colonial state in present-day Sudan.

Arabs

ArabArabianArabic
Between the 14th and 15th centuries much of Sudan was settled by Muslim Arabs.
* The Arabs forged the Rashidun (632–661), Umayyad (661–750), Abbasid (750–1517) and the Fatimid (901–1071) caliphates, whose borders reached southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north, and the Sudan in the south.

Muhammad Ahmad

MahdiMahdistthe Mahdi
Between 1881 and 1885 the harsh Egyptian reign was eventually met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman.
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله; 12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885) was a Nubian religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, as a youth, moved from orthodox religious study to a mystical interpretation of Islam.

Muhammad Ali dynasty

House of Muhammad AliMuhammad AliEgyptian Royal Family
From 1820 to 1874 the entirety of Sudan was conquered by the Muhammad Ali dynasty.
The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century.

Gaafar Nimeiry

NimeiriNimeiry Gaafar Nimeiry
Under Gaafar Nimeiry, Sudan instituted Islamic law in 1983.
Jaafar Muhammad an-Nimeiry (otherwise spelled in English as Jaafar Nimeiry, Jaafar Nimeiry or Ja'far Muhammad Numayri; جعفر محمد نميري; 1 January 1930 – 30 May 2009 ) was the President of Sudan from 1969 to 1985.

Arabization

ArabizedArabizeArabised
This period saw extensive Islamization and Arabization.
Arabization also continued in modern times, most prominently being enforced by the Arab nationalist regimes of Iraq, Syria, Sudan, Mauritania, Algeria and Libya and enforcement of Arab identity and culture upon non-Arab populations, in particular by means of not permitting autochthonous mother tongues other than Arabic in education.

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

SudanAnglo-Egyptian CondominiumAnglo-Egyptian
This state was eventually destroyed in 1898 by the British, who would then govern Sudan together with Egypt.
It attained independence as the Republic of the Sudan, which since 2011 has been split into Sudan and South Sudan.

Sahara

Sahara DesertSaharansub-Saharan
The country's place name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa.
The desert comprises much of North Africa, excluding the fertile region on the Mediterranean Sea coast, the Atlas Mountains of the Maghreb, and the Nile Valley in Egypt and Sudan.

Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt

25th DynastyTwenty-fifth Dynasty25th Dynasty of Egypt
undefined 785 BC–350 AD), which would in turn control Egypt itself for nearly a century.
It was during the 25th dynasty that the Nile valley saw the first widespread construction of pyramids (many in what is now Sudan) since the Middle Kingdom.

National Islamic Front

Islamic Charter FrontNational IslamicNational Islamic Front (NIF)
Differences in language, religion, ethnicity and political power erupted in a civil war between government forces, strongly influenced by the National Islamic Front (NIF) and the southern rebels, whose most influential faction was the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), eventually concluding in the independence of South Sudan in 2011.
The National Islamic Front (الجبهة الإسلامية القومية; transliterated: al-Jabhah al-Islamiyah al-Qawmiyah) was an Islamist political organization founded in 1976 and led by Dr. Hassan al-Turabi that influenced the Sudanese government starting in 1979, and dominated it from 1989 to the late 1990s.

Mahdi

Imam MahdiMahdīal-Mahdi
Between 1881 and 1885 the harsh Egyptian reign was eventually met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman.
These have included Muhammad Jaunpuri, founder of the Mahdavia sect; the Báb (Siyyid Ali Muhammad), founder of Bábism; Muhammad Ahmad, who established the Mahdist State in Sudan in the late 19th century; Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya religion; ; and Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi.

Black people

blackblacksBlack African
This exacerbated the rift between the Arab north, the seat of the government and the black African animists and Christians in the south.
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother who was a dark-skinned Nubian Sudanese woman and a father who was a lighter-skinned Egyptian.

Sudan Revolutionary Front

SRFChairman of the SRF
Since 2011, Sudan's government has been engaged in a war with the Sudan Revolutionary Front.
The Sudan Revolutionary Front (Arabic: الجبهة الثورية السودان Al-Jabhat Al-Thawriyat Al-Sudan), or the Sudanese Revolutionary Front, is an alliance between Sudanese factions opposed to the government led by President Omar al-Bashir.