Sudan

SudaneseRepublic of SudanRepublic of the Sudanthe SudanNorthern SudanNorth SudanSoudanCulture of SudanNorthSDN
Sudan ( السودان as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in northeastern Africa.wikipedia
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Egypt

EgyptianEGYArab Republic of Egypt
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east, and the Red Sea to the northeast.
Egypt is bordered by the Gaza Strip (Palestinian territories) and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north.

Libya

State of LibyaLibyanLBY
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east, and the Red Sea to the northeast.
Libya, officially the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, and Tunisia to the northwest.

South Sudan

Southern SudanRepublic of South SudanSouth Sudanese
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east, and the Red Sea to the northeast.
It gained independence from the Republic of the Sudan in 2011, making it the most recent sovereign state with widespread recognition.

Chad

Republic of ChadTchadChadian
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east, and the Red Sea to the northeast.
It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west.

Central African Republic

Central AfricanCARCentral Africa Republic
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east, and the Red Sea to the northeast.
It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest and Cameroon to the west.

Eritrea

State of EritreaEritreanERI
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east, and the Red Sea to the northeast.
It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast.

Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east, and the Red Sea to the northeast.
It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, the de facto state of Somaliland and Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west and Sudan to the northwest.

Khartoum

Khartoum, SudanKhartumKhartoum-based
The capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile.
Khartoum or Khartum is the capital of Sudan.

Kingdom of Kush

KushKushiteKushites
undefined 1500 BC–1070 BC) and the rise of the kingdom of Kush (c.
The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the Sudanese and southern Egyptian Nile Valley.

Kerma culture

Kingdom of KermaKermaBronze age
Sudan's history goes back to the Pharaonic period, witnessing the kingdom of Kerma (c.
The Kerma culture or Kerma kingdom was an early civilization centered in Kerma, Sudan.

Alodia

AlwaAlodia/AlwaAloudia
After the fall of Kush, the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia, with the latter two lasting until around 1500.
Alodia, also known as Alwa (, Aroua; علوة, ʿAlwa), was a medieval Nubian kingdom in what is now central and southern Sudan.

Makuria

Kingdom of MakuriaEarly ChristianMakouria
After the fall of Kush, the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia, with the latter two lasting until around 1500.
Makuria (Old Nubian: ⲇⲱⲧⲁⲩⲟ, Dotawo; Greek: Μακογρια, Makouria; المقرة, al-Muqurra) was a Nubian kingdom located in what is today Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt.

Sultanate of Darfur

DarfurDarfur SultanateFur Sultanate
From the 16th–19th centuries, central and eastern Sudan were dominated by the Funj sultanate, while Darfur ruled the west and the Ottomans the far north.
The Sultanate of Darfur was a pre-colonial state in present-day Sudan.

Arabization

ArabizedArabisationArabised
This period saw extensive Islamisation and Arabisation.
Arabization also continued in modern times, most prominently being enforced by the Arab nationalist regimes of Iraq, Syria, Sudan, Mauritania, Algeria and Libya and adoption of Arab identity and culture by non-Arab populations.

Muhammad Ahmad

MahdiMuhammad Ahmedthe Mahdi
Between 1881 and 1885, the harsh Egyptian reign was eventually met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman.
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله; 12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885) was a Nubian religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, as a youth, combined orthodox religious study with a mystical interpretation of Islam.

Gaafar Nimeiry

Jaafar NimeiryNimeiriNimeiry
Under Gaafar Nimeiry, Sudan instituted Islamic law in 1983.
Jaafar Muhammad an-Nimeiry (otherwise spelled in English as Jaafar Nimeiry, Jaafar Nimeiry or Ja'far Muhammad Numayri; جعفر محمد نميري; 26 April 1930 – 30 May 2009 ) was the President of Sudan from 1969 to 1985.

Muhammad Ali dynasty

House of Muhammad AliMuhammad AliEgyptian Royal Family
From 1820 to 1874 the entirety of Sudan was conquered by the Muhammad Ali dynasty.
The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century.

Omar al-Bashir

Omar Hassan al-BashirOmar Hasan Ahmad al-BashirOmar al Bashir
Between 1989 and 2019, Sudan experienced a 30-year-long military dictatorship led by Omar al-Bashir.
Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir (عمر حسن أحمد البشير, pronounced ; born 1 January 1944) is a Sudanese politician who served as the seventh President of Sudan from 1989 to 2019, when he was deposed in a coup d'état.

2019 Sudanese coup d'état

military coupcoup d'état11 April 2019 Sudanese coup d'état
Protests erupted in late 2018, demanding Bashir’s resignation, which resulted in a successful coup d’état on April 11, 2019.
On the morning of 11 April 2019, Sudanese dictator Omar al-Bashir was removed from power by the Sudanese Armed Forces amid ongoing protests after holding the office for nearly 30 years.

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

SudanSudan Political ServiceAnglo-Egyptian Condominium
This state was eventually destroyed in 1898 by the British, who would then govern Sudan together with Egypt.
It attained independence as the Republic of the Sudan, which since 2011 has been split into Sudan and South Sudan.

Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt

25th DynastyTwenty-fifth Dynasty25th Dynasty of Egypt
undefined 785 BC–350 AD), which would in turn control Egypt itself for nearly a century.
It was during the 25th dynasty that the Nile valley saw the first widespread construction of pyramids (many in what is now Sudan) since the Middle Kingdom.

Sahara

Sahara DesertSaharanSaharan Desert
The country's name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa.
The desert comprises much of North Africa, excluding the fertile region on the Mediterranean Sea coast, the Atlas Mountains of the Maghreb, and the Nile Valley in Egypt and Sudan.

Mahdi

Imam MahdiMahdīMahdism
Between 1881 and 1885, the harsh Egyptian reign was eventually met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman.
These have included Muhammad Jaunpuri, founder of the Mahdavia sect; the Báb (Siyyid Ali Muhammad), founder of Bábism; Muhammad Ahmad, who established the Mahdist State in Sudan in the late 19th century; Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya movement; and Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi.

Military dictatorship

juntamilitary regimemilitary junta
Between 1989 and 2019, Sudan experienced a 30-year-long military dictatorship led by Omar al-Bashir.

Black people

blackblacksBlack African
The name derives from the Arabic, or "the lands of the Blacks".
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother who was a dark-skinned Nubian Sudanese (Sudanese Arab) woman and a father who was a lighter-skinned Egyptian.