Sudeten Germans

Sudeten GermanGermanEthnic GermanSudetenBohemian GermanGermansGerman BohemianGerman ethnicityBohemian-Germanethnic German minority
German Bohemians, later known as the Sudeten Germans, were ethnic Germans living in the lands of the Bohemian Crown, which later became an integral part of the state of Czechoslovakia.wikipedia
499 Related Articles

Sudetenland

SudetenSudeten crisisSudeten Germans
Ethnic Germans migrated into the Kingdom of Bohemia, an electoral territory of the Holy Roman Empire, from the 11th century, mostly in the border regions of what would later be called the "Sudetenland", named after the Sudeten Mountains.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.

Sudetes

SudetenSudeten MountainsSudetes Mountains
Ethnic Germans migrated into the Kingdom of Bohemia, an electoral territory of the Holy Roman Empire, from the 11th century, mostly in the border regions of what would later be called the "Sudetenland", named after the Sudeten Mountains. These names were derived from the Sudeten Mountains, which form the northern border of the Bohemian lands.
The Sudeten Germans (the German-speaking inhabitants of Czechoslovakia) as well as the Sudetenland (the border regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia they inhabited) are named after the Sudetes.

Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia

expelledexpulsion of Germansexpelled from Czechoslovakia
After 1945, most ethnic Germans were expelled from Czechoslovakia to Germany and Austria.
On June 22, 1942, after plans for the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans had become known, Wenzel Jaksch (a Sudeten German Social Democrat in exile) wrote a letter to Edvard Beneš protesting the proposed plans.

Czechs

CzechBohemianCzech people
After the revolutions of 1848, and the rise of ethnic nationalism, nervousness about ethnic tensions within the Austro-Hungarian Empire resulted in a prevailing equality between Czechs and German Bohemians.
The post-war expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia and the immediate reprisals against Germans and Nazi collaborators by Czech resistance and the Czechoslovak state authorities, made Czechs—especially in the early 1950s—settle alongside Slovaks and Romani people in the former lands of the Sudeten Germans, who had been deported to East Germany, West Germany and Austria according to the Potsdam Conference and Yalta Conference.

Czech lands

Czechhistorical landRegion
These names were derived from the Sudeten Mountains, which form the northern border of the Bohemian lands.
From the second part of the 13th century onwards, German colonists ("German Bohemians") settled in the mountainous border area on the basis of the kings' invitation during the Ostsiedlung (in Prague they lived already from the early 12th century) and lived alongside the Slavs.

Farmers' League

BdL
The historian Katrin Bock wrote: "A lot of the Germans felt that the new constitution didn't fulfill what the Czechs had promised in Paris, because they thought there were not enough minority rights in it. (But they did gradually get used to being Czechoslovak citizens.) They took part in the first elections of 1920, and six years later in 1926 the first German was a minister (Robert Mayr-Harting and Franz Spina) and the first German party was part of the government (German Christian Social People's Party and Farmers' League), so they just got used to feeling themselves as Czechoslovak citizens."
Farmers' League (Bund der Landwirte, BdL, Německý svaz zemědělců) was an ethnic German agrarian political party in Czechoslovakia.

Wenzel Jaksch

Jaksch
After Seliger's untimely death in 1920, Ludwig Czech became party chairman, who was succeeded in 1938 by Wenzel Jaksch.
Wenzel Jaksch (25 September 1896 – 27 November 1966) was a Sudeten German Socialdemocrat politician and the President of the Federation of Expellees in 1964-66.

Bohemia

BohemianCzechČechy
The Upper Palatine Forest, which extends along the Bavarian frontier and into the agricultural areas of southern Bohemia, was an area of German settlement.
Under its first president, Tomáš Masaryk, Czechoslovakia became a liberal democratic republic but serious issues emerged regarding the Czech majority's relationship with the native German and Hungarian minorities.

Konrad Henlein

HenleinHENLEIN, Konrad
On 1 October 1933, Konrad Henlein with his deputy Karl Hermann Frank, aided by other members of the Kameradschaftsbund, a youth organization of mystical orientation, created a new political organization.
Konrad Ernst Eduard Henlein (6 May 1898 – 10 May 1945) was a leading Sudeten German politician in Czechoslovakia.

Karl Hermann Frank

Karl FrankFRANK, Karl HermannK.H.Frank
On 1 October 1933, Konrad Henlein with his deputy Karl Hermann Frank, aided by other members of the Kameradschaftsbund, a youth organization of mystical orientation, created a new political organization.
Karl Hermann Frank (24 January 1898 – 22 May 1946) was a prominent Sudeten German Nazi official in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia prior to and during World War II.

German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia)

German National Socialist Workers' PartyDNSAPGerman National Socialist Worker's Party
By 1929 only a small number of Sudeten German deputies, most of them members of the German National Party (propertied classes) and the German National Socialist Workers' Party (Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei), remained in opposition to the Czechoslovak government.
The German National Socialist Workers' Party (Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei, DNSAP, Německá národně socialistická strana dělnická) was a protofascist party of Germans in Czechoslovakia, successor of the German Workers' Party (DAP) from Austria-Hungary.

German Christian Social People's Party

DCVPGerman Christian Socialists
The historian Katrin Bock wrote: "A lot of the Germans felt that the new constitution didn't fulfill what the Czechs had promised in Paris, because they thought there were not enough minority rights in it. (But they did gradually get used to being Czechoslovak citizens.) They took part in the first elections of 1920, and six years later in 1926 the first German was a minister (Robert Mayr-Harting and Franz Spina) and the first German party was part of the government (German Christian Social People's Party and Farmers' League), so they just got used to feeling themselves as Czechoslovak citizens."
German Christian Social People's Party (Deutsche Christlich-Soziale Volkspartei, DCVP, Německá křesťansko sociální strana lidová) was an ethnic German political party in Czechoslovakia, formed as a continuation from the Austrian Christian Social Party.

Czechization

Czechized
Whereas previously Czechs had feared Germanization, the Germans now worried about Czechization.
This concept is especially relevant in relation to the Germans of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia as well as the Poles of Zaolzie who have come under increased pressure of Czechization after the breakup of Austria-Hungary and the formation of a Czechoslovak nation state in 1919 (see Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918-1938)); to a smaller extent, it has also occurred with Slovaks and Rusyns.

Sudeten German Party

Sudetendeutsche HeimatfrontGerman National Socialist Workers PartyHenlein followers
In 1935 the Sudeten German Home Front became the Sudeten German Party (Sudetendeutsche Partei) (SdP) and embarked on an active propaganda campaign.
In 1903, a group of Sudeten Germans living in the Bohemian crown lands of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy created the German Workers' Party (DAP).

Cheb

EgerEger (Cheb)Cheb (Eger)
To the west, a triangle of historic ethnic German settlement surrounding the town Eger was the most active area for pan-German nationalism.
The terms of the 1919 Treaty of St. Germain triggered civil unrest between the Sudeten German population and the new Czechoslovak administration, just as in the rest of the Sudetenland.

Kameradschaftsbund (Czechoslovakia)

Kameradschaftsbund
On 1 October 1933, Konrad Henlein with his deputy Karl Hermann Frank, aided by other members of the Kameradschaftsbund, a youth organization of mystical orientation, created a new political organization. Nationalist sentiment flourished, however, among Sudeten German youths, who were organized in a variety of organizations, such as the older Deutsche Turnverband and Schutzvereine, the Kameradschaftsbund, the Nazi Volkssport (1929), and the Bereitschaft.
It was a meeting ground of Sudeten German intellectuals, preparing them for taking up leadership roles in a possible future independent Sudetenland.

Czech Republic

🇨🇿CzechCZE
In theory, with the accession of the Czech Republic into the European Union, refugee Sudeten Germans and their descendants (or for that matter, also Germans with no previous link to the Bohemian lands) could have moved back there without needing the Czech government's permission - but in practice such a move did not materialize in any significant numbers, as they could not reclaim property and many were well established in Germany.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war.

Franconia

FrankenFranconianDuchy of Franconia
In the late 12th and in the 13th century the Přemyslid rulers promoted the colonization of certain areas of their lands by German settlers from the adjacent lands of Bavaria, Franconia, Upper Saxony and Austria during the Ostsiedlung migration.
The Free State of Bavaria counts Franconians as one of the "four tribes of Bavaria" (vier Stämme Bayerns), alongside Bavarians, Swabians and Sudeten Germans.

Franz Spina

The historian Katrin Bock wrote: "A lot of the Germans felt that the new constitution didn't fulfill what the Czechs had promised in Paris, because they thought there were not enough minority rights in it. (But they did gradually get used to being Czechoslovak citizens.) They took part in the first elections of 1920, and six years later in 1926 the first German was a minister (Robert Mayr-Harting and Franz Spina) and the first German party was part of the government (German Christian Social People's Party and Farmers' League), so they just got used to feeling themselves as Czechoslovak citizens."
Franz Spina (October 5, 1868, Markt Thurnau, Margraviate of Moravia, Austria-Hungary – September 17, 1938, Prague, Czechoslovakia) was German-Czechoslovakian right-wing and activist politician of the First Republic Era.

Johann Böhm

Johann Böhm
Johann Böhm (20 January 1895 – 27 November 1952) was a German Bohemian chemist who focused on photochemistry and radiography.

Rudolf Dellinger

Rudolf Dellinger
Rudolf Dellinger (8 July 1857 – 24 September, 1910) was a German Bohemian composer and Kapellmeister.

Sudetendeutsche Landsmannschaft

The Sudetendeutsche Landsmannschaft claims to represent the German refugees from the former Czechoslovak Republic, but its conservative positions were and are discussed very controversially among the refugees themselves, with many choosing not to associate with the organization.
The Sudetendeutsche Landsmannschaft (Sudeten German Homeland Association) is an organization representing Sudeten German expellees and refugees from the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia.

Peter Ducke

PeterP. Ducke
Peter Ducke
Peter Ducke (born 14 October 1941) is a Sudeten German and a former East German football player.

Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919)

Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-LayeTreaty of Saint-GermainTreaty of St. Germain
The historian Katrin Bock wrote: "A lot of the Germans felt that the new constitution didn't fulfill what the Czechs had promised in Paris, because they thought there were not enough minority rights in it. (But they did gradually get used to being Czechoslovak citizens.) They took part in the first elections of 1920, and six years later in 1926 the first German was a minister (Robert Mayr-Harting and Franz Spina) and the first German party was part of the government (German Christian Social People's Party and Farmers' League), so they just got used to feeling themselves as Czechoslovak citizens." The Treaty of St Germain of 10 September 1919 made clear that German Bohemia would not become part of the new Austrian republic.
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, i.e. the Bohemia and Moravia crownlands (including small adjacent Lower Austrian territories around Feldsberg and Gmünd) formed the core of the newly created state of Czechoslovakia. The Austrian Silesia province upon the Polish–Czechoslovak War of January 1919 was split between Czech Silesia and Polish Cieszyn Silesia incorporated into Silesian Voivodeship. These cessions concerned a large German-speaking population in German Bohemia and Sudetenland.

Robert Mayr-Harting

The historian Katrin Bock wrote: "A lot of the Germans felt that the new constitution didn't fulfill what the Czechs had promised in Paris, because they thought there were not enough minority rights in it. (But they did gradually get used to being Czechoslovak citizens.) They took part in the first elections of 1920, and six years later in 1926 the first German was a minister (Robert Mayr-Harting and Franz Spina) and the first German party was part of the government (German Christian Social People's Party and Farmers' League), so they just got used to feeling themselves as Czechoslovak citizens."
Robert von Mayr-Harting (September 13, 1874 in Aspern, now a part of Vienna – March 12, 1948 in Prague) was an Austrian-born Sudeten German politician.