Suebi

SueviSuevicSuevesSuebianSuebicSueve dominationSuevianSwabian409 invasion of the NW of the Iberian peninsulaAllemanian
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.wikipedia
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Ariovistus

Ernst
They are first mentioned by Julius Caesar in connection with the invasion of Gaul by the Suebian chieftain Ariovistus during the Gallic Wars.
Ariovistus was a leader of the Suebi and other allied Germanic peoples in the second quarter of the 1st century BC.

Germanic peoples

GermanicGermanic tribeGermanic tribes
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group of Northern European origin identified by their use of the Germanic languages.

Irminones

IrminonicElbe GermanicElbe-Germanic
In the broadest sense, the Suebi are associated with the early Germanic tribal group Irminones, also mentioned by classical authors.
Notably this included the large sub-group of the Suevi, that itself contained many different tribal groups, but the Irminones also for example included the Chatti.

Baltic Sea

BalticBaltic coastthe Baltic
Beginning in the 1st century BC, various Suebian tribes moved south-westwards from the Baltic Sea and the Elbe and came into conflict with Ancient Rome.
Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people of the Suebi, and Ptolemy Sarmatian Ocean after the Sarmatians, but the first to name it the Baltic Sea (Mare Balticum) was the eleventh-century German chronicler Adam of Bremen.

Marcomanni

MarcomaniiMarcomannic federation
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi. Caesar placed the Suebi east of the Ubii apparently near modern Hesse, in the position where later writers mention the Chatti, and he distinguished them from their allies the Marcomanni.
According to Tacitus and Strabo they were Suebian.

Kingdom of the Suebi

SuebiSuebic KingdomGalicia
By the late 4th century AD, many Suebi were migrating westwards under Hunnic pressure, and in 406 AD, Suebian tribes led by Hermeric crossed the Rhine and briefly overran Hispania, where they eventually established the Kingdom of the Suebi.
Based in the former Roman provinces of Gallaecia and northern Lusitania, the de facto kingdom was established by the Suebi about 409, and during the 6th century it became a formally declared kingdom identifying with Gallaecia.

Crossing of the Rhine

crossed the Rhinecrossedcross the Rhine
By the late 4th century AD, many Suebi were migrating westwards under Hunnic pressure, and in 406 AD, Suebian tribes led by Hermeric crossed the Rhine and briefly overran Hispania, where they eventually established the Kingdom of the Suebi.
The crossing of the Rhine by a mixed group of barbarians which included Vandals, Alans and Suebi is traditionally considered to have occurred on 31 December 406.

Gallic Wars

conquest of GaulGallic WarGaul
They are first mentioned by Julius Caesar in connection with the invasion of Gaul by the Suebian chieftain Ariovistus during the Gallic Wars.
Around 62 BC, when a Roman client state, the Arverni, conspired with the Sequani and the Suebi nations east of the Rhine to attack the Aedui, a strong Roman ally, Rome turned a blind eye.

Thuringii

ThuringianThuringianscollapse of the Thuringian kingdoms
The Alammani, Bavarii and Thuringii who remained in Germania gave their name to the German regions of Swabia, Bavaria and Thuringia respectively.
The Thuringians do not appear in classical Roman texts under that name, but some have suggested that they were the remnants of the Suebic Hermanduri, the last part of whose name (-duri) could represent corrupted (-thuri) and the Germanic suffix -ing, suggests a meaning of "descendants of (the [Herman]duri)".

Semnones

SemnoneSemnonian
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
"The Semnones give themselves out to be the most ancient and renowned branch of the Suevi. Their antiquity is strongly attested by their religion. At a stated period, all the tribes of the same race assemble by their representatives in a grove consecrated by the auguries of their forefathers, and by immemorial associations of terror. Here, having publicly slaughtered a human victim, they celebrate the horrible beginning of their barbarous rite. Reverence also in other ways is paid to the grove. No one enters it except bound with a chain, as an inferior acknowledging the might of the local divinity. If he chance to fall, it is not lawful for him to be lifted up, or to rise to his feet; he must crawl out along the ground. All this superstition implies the belief that from this spot the nation took its origin, that here dwells the supreme and all-ruling deity, to whom all else is subject and obedient.

Hermunduri

Hermunduri-Chatti War
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
Strabo treats the Hermunduri as a nomadic Suebian people, living east of the Elbe.

Bohemia

BohemianCzechČechy
During this time, Maroboduus of the Marcomanni established the first confederation of Germanic tribes in Bohemia.
Another part of the nation moved west with the Helvetii into southern France, which was one of the events leading to the interventions of Julius Caesar's Gaulish campaign of 58 BC. The emigration of the Helvetii and Boii left southern Germany and Bohemia a lightly inhabited "desert" into which Suebic peoples arrived, speaking Germanic languages, and became dominant over remaining Celtic groups.

Ricimer

Flavius Ricimer
During the last years of the decline of the Western Roman Empire, the Suebian general Ricimer was its de facto ruler.
Ricimer was the son of Rechila, the Suevic King of Galicia.

Germanic Wars

Roman-Germanic WarsGermanic invasionsBarbarian invasions
Beginning in the 1st century BC, various Suebian tribes moved south-westwards from the Baltic Sea and the Elbe and came into conflict with Ancient Rome.
58 BC, Caesar decisively defeats the Helvetii in the Battle of the Arar and the Battle of Bibracte, Caesar decisively defeats the Suevi, led by Ariovistus, in the Battle of Vosges.

Cherusci

CheruscanCheruscCheruski
Although no classical authors explicitly call the Chatti Suevic, Pliny the Elder (23 AD – 79 AD), reported in his Natural History that the Irminones were a large grouping of related Germanic gentes or "tribes" including not only the Suebi, but also the Hermunduri, Chatti and Cherusci.
The Cherusci were a Germanic tribe that inhabited parts of the plains and forests of northwestern Germany, in the area possibly near present-day Hanover, during the first centuries BC and AD. Ethnically, Pliny the Elder groups them with their neighbours, the Suebi and Chatti, as well as the Hermunduri, as Hermiones, one of the Germanic groupings said to descend from an ancestor named Mannus.

Bavarians

BavarianBavariiBaiuvarii
The Alammani, Bavarii and Thuringii who remained in Germania gave their name to the German regions of Swabia, Bavaria and Thuringia respectively.
"Bohemia" (Boiohaemum), apparently meaning "Boii home" in a Germanic language, was a term already mentioned by Tacitus in his Germania at the end of the 1st century AD, by which time the Celtic Boii had already long left the area, leaving it to be settled by Suevic Germanic groups in close contact with the Romans, such as the Marcomanni.

Quadi

Gabinius
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
The Quadi were a Suebian Germanic tribe who lived approximately in the area of modern Moravia in the time of the Roman Empire.

Vandals

VandalVandalicVandal Kingdom
Whereas Tacitus reported three main kinds of German peoples, Irminones, Istvaeones, and Ingaevones, Pliny specifically adds two more genera or "kinds", the Bastarnae and the Vandili (Vandals).
After the Visigoths invaded Iberia in 418, the Iranian Alans and Silingi Vandals voluntarily subjected themselves to the rule of Hasdingian leader Gunderic, who was pushed from Gallaecia to Baetica by a Roman-Suebi coalition in 419.

Silingi

SilingSiling VandalsSilinger
The Vandals were tribes east of the Elbe, including the well-known Silingi, Goths, and Burgundians, an area that Tacitus treated as Suebic.
The Silingi are first mentioned by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the 2nd century, who wrote that they had lived south of the Suevic Semnone tribe and north of the Carpathian Mountains, around what now is Silesia:

Juthungi

Invasion of Raetia by the Juthungi
By the Crisis of the Third Century, new Suebian groups had emerged, and Italy was invaded again by the Juthungi, while the Alamanni ravaged Gaul and settled the Agri Decumates.
The meaning of their name is “descendants”, and refers to the ancient Suebian tribe of the Semnoni.

Chatti

ChattenCattiChaci (Chatti)
Caesar placed the Suebi east of the Ubii apparently near modern Hesse, in the position where later writers mention the Chatti, and he distinguished them from their allies the Marcomanni.
He did make note of the Suebi though, and suggested that they had previously driven out the Celts to the south of the region corresponding to modern north Hesse in the prior centuries BC (cfr. the early medieval Hessengau).

Hispania

SpainRomanRomans
By the late 4th century AD, many Suebi were migrating westwards under Hunnic pressure, and in 406 AD, Suebian tribes led by Hermeric crossed the Rhine and briefly overran Hispania, where they eventually established the Kingdom of the Suebi.
Even after the fall of Rome and the invasion of the Germanic Visigoths and Suebi, Latin was spoken by nearly all of the population, but in its common form known as Vulgar Latin, and the regional changes which led to the modern Iberian Romance languages had already begun.

Lombards

LombardLombardicLangobards
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
In the 1st century AD, they formed part of the Suebi, in northwestern Germany.

Bastarnae

BasterniConflict with Rome
Whereas Tacitus reported three main kinds of German peoples, Irminones, Istvaeones, and Ingaevones, Pliny specifically adds two more genera or "kinds", the Bastarnae and the Vandili (Vandals).
Pliny locates the Bastarnae between the Suebi and the Dacians (contermini Dacis). The Peutinger Map (produced in ca. 400 AD, but including material from as early as the 1st century) shows the Bastarnae (mis-spelt Blastarni) north of the Carpathian mountains and appears to name the Galician Carpathians as the Alpes Bastarnicae.

Hermeric

By the late 4th century AD, many Suebi were migrating westwards under Hunnic pressure, and in 406 AD, Suebian tribes led by Hermeric crossed the Rhine and briefly overran Hispania, where they eventually established the Kingdom of the Suebi.
While Theodore Mommsen believed the Suevi were foederati and Ernst Stein seconded the notion by believing they had made an agreement with the Roman usurper Magnus Maximus whereby they received the western half of Iberia, there is no primary evidence for any alliance between the Suevi and Rome.