Suez Crisis

Damaged Egyptian vehicles
The location of the Suez Canal, which connects the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean via the Red Sea.
Port Said, at the entrance to the Suez Canal from the Mediterranean.
Australian Prime Minister Robert Menzies led an international committee in negotiations with Nasser in September 1956, which sought to achieve international management of the Suez Canal. The mission was a failure.
Israeli AMX-13, shown here from the rear and side
Anglo-French para drops on the Suez Canal and Israeli conquest of Sinai
Israeli M4A4 Shermans were also used in the Sinai campaign.
An Israeli Air Force Meteor in flight
Israeli paratrooper near the Mitla Pass
Israeli soldiers in the Sinai wave at a passing French plane
Israeli paratroopers dig in near the Parker Memorial
Israeli AMX-13 Light tank
Ibrahim el Awal after its capture by the Israeli Navy
A battle-damaged de Havilland Sea Venom on
A Hawker Sea Hawk of 899 Naval Air Squadron, armed with rockets, about to be launched from the aircraft carrier HMS Eagle for a strike on an Egyptian airfield
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Port Said, 5 November 1956.
Troops of the Parachute Regiment escort a captured Egyptian soldier at Port Said
2ème RPC paratroopers patrol in Port Said, October 1956
A British link up between the 3rd Battalion, The Parachute Regiment, and the Commandos at the Coast Guard barracks in Port Said. The paratroopers have with them a captured SU-100 tank destroyer, and the Commandos a Buffalo amphibious assault vehicle.
Presidents Eisenhower and Nasser meeting in New York, 1960
Statue of Ferdinand de Lesseps (a Frenchman who built the Suez Canal) was removed following the nationalisation of the Suez Canal in 1956.
An Israeli soldier stands next to an Egyptian gun that had blocked the Tiran Straits.

The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli war, also called the Tripartite Aggression (العدوان الثلاثي) in the Arab world and the Sinai War in Israel,

- Suez Crisis

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Suez Canal

Artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez and dividing Africa and Asia.

The southern terminus of the Suez Canal at Suez on the Gulf of Suez, at the northern end of the Red Sea
Aerial view of the Suez Canal at Suez
Canal of the Pharaohs, that followed Wadi Tumilat
Bathymetric chart, northern Gulf of Suez, route to Cairo, 1856
Suez Canal, 1869
Opening of the Suez Canal, 1869
1881 drawing of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal, Egypt. Early 1900s. Goodyear Archival Collection. Brooklyn Museum.
Nautical chart of the Suez Canal published shortly after the inauguration, with survey data from HMS Newport under George Nares.
Suez Canal, c. 1914
A ship sailing down the Suez Canal in 1955
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Port Said, 5 November 1956.
Egyptian vehicles crossing the Suez Canal on 7 October 1973, during the Yom Kippur War
Israeli tank crossing the Suez Canal, 1973
2015 additions to the canal
Satellite image of Ever Given blocking the canal in March 2021
The canal in 2015
The old port of Trieste, one of the economic hubs in the 19th century
A graphical comparison between the Northern Sea Route (blue) and an alternative route through Suez Canal (red)
Suez Canal Economic Zone (SCZONE)
Suez Canal in February 1934. Air photograph taken by Swiss pilot and photographer Walter Mittelholzer.
{{USS|America|CV-66}}, an American aircraft carrier in the Suez Canal
Container ship Hanjin Kaohsiung transiting the Suez Canal
Ships moored at El Ballah during transit
Predominant currents in the Mediterranean Sea for June
Post-deepening, a capesize bulk carrier approaches the Friendship Bridge
Northbound convoy waits in the Great Bitter Lake as southbound convoy passes, October 2014

While the canal was the property of the Egyptian government, European shareholders, mostly British and French, owned the concessionary company which operated it until July 1956, when President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized it—an event which led to the Suez Crisis of October–November 1956.

Suez Company (1858-1997)

Company formed by Ferdinand de Lesseps in 1858 to operate the concession of the Suez Canal, which the company built between 1859 and 1869.

Ferdinand de Lesseps in the 1870s, photographed by Nadar
1858 Suez Canal Company Equity Ownership
Ottoman Empire in 1862
Suez Company stamp, 1868
Suez Company security issued 1889/01/01
Suez Canal Company pavilion at the Exposition Universelle (1889)
Suez Company office built by Edmond Coignet in the early 1890s, now Suez Canal House in Port Said
Postcard of the Suez Canal Company office in Ismailia, early 20th century
Portal of the headquarters building in 2010, before the company's name was erased
Construction trains
right|Chalufa ridge work
Suez canal construction laborers
Dredge machine
Dredging operations
1869 inauguration, engraving
Illustration of the inauguration, by Édouard Riou in 1869

The Suez Company operated the canal until Egypt's new president Gamal Abdel Nasser revoked its concession in 1956 and transferred canal operation to the state-owned Suez Canal Authority, precipitating the Suez Crisis.

United Nations Emergency Force

UNEF soldiers from the Yugoslav People's Army in Sinai, January 1957
F/L Lynn Garrison crew with UNEF DHC-3 Otter, Sinai, 1962
UNEF DHC-4 Caribou at El Arish, 1962
Swedish peacekeepers evacuating their position at Hill 88 during the Six-Day War
Brazilian Army UNEF Soldiers in Sinai
UNEF postage stamp
UNEF soldiers resting
UNEF soldiers in Sinai
UNEF soldiers reading newspapers
UNEF soldiers in Sinai
UNEF soldiers in Sinai
UNEF soldier with a land mine

The United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was a military and peacekeeping operation established by the United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the Suez Crisis of 1956 through the establishment of international peacekeepers on the border between Egypt and Israel.

Anthony Eden

British Conservative Party politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.

Portrait photograph, 1941–1942
The Uffizi Society Oxford, ca. 1920. First row standing: later Sir Henry Studholme (5th from left). Seated: Lord Balniel, later 28th Earl of Crawford (2nd from left); Ralph Dutton, later 8th Baron Sherborne (3rd from left); Anthony Eden, later Earl of Avon (4th from left); Lord David Cecil (5th from left).
Eden with French Prime Minister Léon Blum in Geneva in 1936
Eden with Mackenzie King and Winston Churchill meeting Franklin D. Roosevelt at the Quebec Conference in 1943.
Potsdam Conference: The Foreign Ministers Vyacheslav Molotov, James F. Byrnes and Anthony Eden, July 1945.
Negotiations in London and Paris in 1954 ended the allied occupation of West Germany and allowed for its rearmament as a NATO member.
Geneva Conference, 21 July 1954. Last plenary session on Indochina in the Palais des Nations.
Tomb at St Mary's church, Alvediston, Wiltshire

Eden's worldwide reputation as a skilled diplomat was overshadowed in 1956 when the United States refused to support the Anglo-French military response to the Suez Crisis, which critics across party lines regarded as a historic setback for British foreign policy, signalling the end of British predominance in the Middle East.

Lester B. Pearson

Canadian scholar, statesman, diplomat, and politician who served as the 14th prime minister of Canada from 1963 to 1968.

Pearson in 1957
A memorial plaque on the location of his birthplace
Pearson serving with the Canadian Army Medical Corps in World War I in Salonika
Pearson with John Ross McLean, Vincent Massey and Georges Vanier, Canada House, London
Ice hockey in Europe; Oxford University vs. Switzerland, 1922. Future Canadian Prime Minister Lester Pearson is at right front. His nickname from the Swiss was "Herr Zig-Zag".
Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent (far left) and Pearson (far right) welcome UK Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill and Foreign Secretary Sir Anthony Eden at Rockcliffe Airport, Ottawa, on 29 June 1954.
Lester B. Pearson quote on the Peacekeeping Monument
Pearson presiding at a plenary session of the founding conference of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization in 1945.
Statue on Parliament Hill grounds
Pearson, and three of his cabinet ministers who later became Prime Ministers. From left to right, Pierre Trudeau, John Turner, Jean Chrétien, and Pearson.
Pearson's gravestone in Wakefield, Quebec
Lester B. Pearson, Canadian Ambassador to the United States, at University of Toronto convocation, 1945

However, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis, which earned him attention worldwide.

Sinai Peninsula

Peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.

Image from Gemini 11 spacecraft, featuring part of Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula in the foreground and the Levant in the background
St. Catherine's Monastery is the oldest working Christian monastery in the world and the most popular tourist attraction on the peninsula.
The first scientifically accurate map of the peninsula: the 1869 Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai
The wilderness of Sinai, 1862
Canadian and Panamanian UNEF UN peacekeepers in Sinai, 1974
Egypt-Israel border, looking north from the Eilat Mountains
The Sinai Peninsula security zones which delineate Egypt, Israel and Multinational Force and Observers' zone of operations
Two young Bedouins making bread in the desert
Dahab in Southern Sinai is a popular beach and diving resort
Gabal or Jebel Musa, identified by Christians with Mount Sinai

Israel invaded and occupied Sinai during the Suez Crisis (known in Egypt as the Tripartite Aggression due to the simultaneous coordinated attack by the UK, France and Israel) of 1956, and during the Six-Day War of 1967.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

American military officer and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

Official portrait, 1959
The Eisenhower family home in Abilene, Kansas
Eisenhower (third from left) and Omar Bradley (second from right) were members of the 1912 West Point football team.
Mamie Eisenhower, painted in 1953 by Thomas E. Stephens
Eisenhower (far right) with three friends (William Stuhler, Major Brett, and Paul V. Robinson) in 1919, four years after graduating from West Point
Eisenhower as a major general, 1942
General Eisenhower, General Patton (standing to the left) and President Roosevelt in Sicily, 1943
Eisenhower speaks with men of the 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment (PIR), part of the 101st "Screaming Eagles" Airborne Division, on June 5, 1944, the day before the D-Day invasion. The officer Eisenhower is speaking to is First Lieutenant Wallace Strobel.
From left, front row includes army officers Simpson, Patton, Spaatz, Eisenhower, Bradley, Hodges and Gerow in 1945
Eisenhower with Allied commanders following the signing of the German Instrument of Surrender at Reims
Eisenhower as General of the Army, 1945
General Eisenhower served as military governor of the American zone (highlighted) in Allied-occupied Germany from May through November 1945.
General Eisenhower (left) in Warsaw, Poland, 1945
Eisenhower lighting the Columbia University Yule Log, 1949
Eisenhower posing in front of Alma Mater at Columbia in 1953
As president of Columbia, Eisenhower presents an honorary degree to Jawaharlal Nehru.
Eisenhower button from the 1952 campaign
1952 electoral vote results
1956 electoral vote results
February 1959 White House portrait
Eisenhower meeting with Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser during Nasser's visit to United Nations in New York, September 1960
Eisenhower visits the Kingdom of Afghanistan and its king Mohammed Zahir Shah in Kabul.
Eisenhower with Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.
U.S. President Eisenhower visits the Republic of China and its President Chiang Kai-shek in Taipei.
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev during his 11-day U.S. visit as guest of President Eisenhower, September 1959.
President Eisenhower with Wernher von Braun, 1960
Eisenhower in Korea with General Chung Il-kwon, and Baik Seon-yup, 1952
Spanish dictator Francisco Franco and Eisenhower in Madrid in 1959.
Eisenhower with the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1959)
Eisenhower and Vice President Richard Nixon with their host, King Saud of Saudi Arabia, at the Mayflower Hotel (1957)
A U-2 reconnaissance aircraft in flight
Official White House Portrait of President Eisenhower, c. 1960
Eisenhower speaks to the press at the 1964 Republican National Convention
President Lyndon Johnson with Eisenhower aboard Air Force One in October 1965
Eisenhower with President Richard Nixon in February 1969
Eisenhower's funeral service
Graves of Dwight D. Eisenhower, Doud Dwight "Icky" Eisenhower and Mamie Eisenhower in Abilene, Kansas
Eisenhower signs the legislation that changes Armistice Day to Veterans Day, June 1, 1954
President John F. Kennedy meets with General Eisenhower at Camp David, April 22, 1961, three days after the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion
Eisenhower Interstate System sign south of San Antonio, Texas
Bronze statue of Eisenhower in the Capitol rotunda
The star of the Soviet Order of Victory awarded to Eisenhower
The coat of arms granted to Eisenhower upon his incorporation as a knight of the Danish Order of the Elephant in 1950. The anvil represents the fact that his name is derived from the German for "iron hewer", making these an example of canting arms.

During the Suez Crisis of 1956, he condemned the Israeli, British, and French invasion of Egypt, and he forced them to withdraw.


Military parachutist—someone trained to parachute into a military operation, and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.

Paratroopers of the armies of Britain, Italy and the United States during an exercise in Pordenone, Italy, 2019
U.S. Army paratroopers with the 82nd Airborne Division parachute from a C-130 Hercules aircraft during Operation Toy Drop 2007 at Pope Air Force Base
Alessandro Tandura
Military exhibition
Members of the 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment during the Second World War, (Free French SAS).
Members of the 1st Foreign Parachute Heavy Mortar Company in Indochina.
VBL (armoured light vehicle) of the 1st Parachute Hussar Regiment in Afghanistan.
Wiesel 1 MK20 (1991) of the Bundeswehr Fallschirmjägertruppe in the Military History Museum, Dresden
A German Bundeswehr soldier of 4th Paratrooper Company, 31st Paratrooper Regiment in 2016
Elite soldiers of Indian Army's 9 Para Commandos
35th Brigade during training.
Italian paratroopers of the Carabinieri Regiment "Tuscania"
Paratroopers of the Brigade Folgore
Polish paratrooper standard
Stanisław Sosabowski, the brigade's commander
Russian paratroopers
Parachute Qualification Course
British paratroopers inside one of the C-47 transport aircraft, September 1944
WWII U.S. paratroopers
Image representing a U.S. paratrooper at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Likely ca. 1940–1945
American paratroopers having made successful landings on the continent move cautiously through a French churchyard, at St. Marcouf, Utah Beach, France, 1944.

In 1956, the 2e Régiment de Parachutiste Coloniaux took part in the Suez Crisis.

Egyptian revolution of 1952

Period of profound political, economic, and societal change in Egypt that began on 23 July 1952 with the toppling of King Farouk in a coup d'etat by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Mohamed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.

The leaders of the Revolution, Mohammed Naguib (left) and Gamal Abdel Nasser (right) in a Cadillac
Members of the Free Officers gathered after the coup d'état. From left to right: Zakaria Mohieddin, Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Kamel el-Din Hussein, Gamal Abdel Nasser (seated), Abdel Hakim Amer, Muhammad Naguib, Youssef Seddik and Ahmed Shawki
Members of the Free Officers welcomed by crowds in Cairo in January 1953. Standing in the automobile, from left to right: Youssef Seddik, Salah Salem, Gamal Abdel Nasser and Abdel Latif Boghdadi

These two issues converged in the fifth year of the Revolution when Egypt was invaded by the United Kingdom, France, and the State of Israel in the Suez Crisis of 1956 (known in Egypt as the Tripartite Aggression).

Cold War

Period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc, which began following World War II.

Allied troops in Vladivostok, August 1918, during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin, 1945
Post-war Allied occupation zones in Germany
Clement Attlee, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, 1945
Post-war territorial changes in Europe and the formation of the Eastern Bloc, the so-called "Iron Curtain"
Remains of the "Iron Curtain" in the Czech Republic
C-47s unloading at Tempelhof Airport in Berlin during the Berlin Blockade
President Truman signs the North Atlantic Treaty with guests in the Oval Office.
Mao Zedong and Joseph Stalin in Moscow, December 1949
General Douglas MacArthur, UN Command CiC (seated), observes the naval shelling of Incheon, Korea from USS Mt. McKinley, 15 September 1950
US Marines engaged in street fighting during the liberation of Seoul, September 1950
NATO and Warsaw Pact troop strengths in Europe in 1959
From left to right: Soviet head of state Kliment Voroshilov, Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev and Finnish president Urho Kekkonen at Moscow in 1960.
The maximum territorial extent of Soviet influence, after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 and before the official Sino-Soviet split of 1961
Western colonial empires in Asia and Africa all collapsed in the years after 1945.
1961 Soviet stamp commemorating Patrice Lumumba, assassinated prime minister of the Republic of the Congo
The United States reached the Moon in 1969.
Che Guevara (left) and Fidel Castro (right) in 1961
Soviet and American tanks face each other at Checkpoint Charlie during the Berlin Crisis of 1961.
Aerial photograph of a Soviet missile site in Cuba, taken by a US spy aircraft, 1 November 1962
NATO and Warsaw Pact troop strengths in Europe in 1973
US combat operations during the Battle of Ia Drang, South Vietnam, November 1965
A manifestation of the Finlandization period: in April 1970, a Finnish stamp was issued in honor of the 100th anniversary of Vladimir Lenin's birth and the Lenin Symposium held in Tampere. The stamp was the first Finnish stamp issued about a foreign person.
The invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Soviet Union in 1968 was one of the biggest military operations on European soil since World War II.
Suharto of Indonesia attending funeral of five generals slain in 30 September Movement, 2 October 1965
Egyptian leader Anwar Sadat with Henry Kissinger in 1975
Chilean leader Augusto Pinochet shaking hands with Henry Kissinger in 1976
Cuban tank in the streets of Luanda, Angola, 1976
During the Khmer Rouge regime led by Pol Pot, 1.5 to 2 million people died due to the policies of his four-year premiership.
Mao Zedong and US President Richard Nixon, during his visit in China
Leonid Brezhnev and Jimmy Carter sign the SALT II treaty, 18 June 1979, in Vienna
Iranian people protesting against the Pahlavi dynasty, during the Iranian Revolution
Protest in Amsterdam against the deployment of Pershing II missiles in Europe, 1981
The Soviet invasion during Operation Storm-333 on 26 December 1979
President Reagan publicizes his support by meeting with Afghan mujahideen leaders in the White House, 1983.
President Reagan with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher during a working luncheon at Camp David, December 1984
The world map of military alliances in 1980
US and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945–2006
Delta 183 launch vehicle lifts off, carrying the Strategic Defense Initiative sensor experiment "Delta Star".
After ten-year-old American Samantha Smith wrote a letter to Yuri Andropov expressing her fear of nuclear war, Andropov invited Smith to the Soviet Union.
Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House, 1987.
The beginning of the 1990s brought a thaw in relations between the superpowers.
"Tear down this wall!" speech: Reagan speaking in front of the Brandenburg Gate, 12 June 1987
Otto von Habsburg, who played a leading role in opening the Iron Curtain.
Erich Honecker lost control in August 1989.
August Coup in Moscow, 1991
The human chain in Lithuania during the Baltic Way, 23 August 1989
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War
Since the end of the Cold War, the EU has expanded eastwards into the former Warsaw Pact and parts of the former Soviet Union.

Major crises of this phase included the 1948–1949 Berlin Blockade, the 1927–1949 Chinese Civil War, the 1950–1953 Korean War, the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, the 1956 Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961 and the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.