Suffering

paindistresssufferdispleasureunpleasantagonysuffererstormentaffictionaffliction
Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.wikipedia
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Emotion

emotionsemotionalemotional state
The word suffering is sometimes used in the narrow sense of physical pain, but more often it refers to mental pain, or more often yet it refers to pain in the broad sense, i.e. to any unpleasant feeling, emotion or sensation.
Emotion is a mental state associated with the nervous system brought on by chemical changes variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or displeasure.

Psychological pain

emotional painmental painmental suffering
The word suffering is sometimes used in the narrow sense of physical pain, but more often it refers to mental pain, or more often yet it refers to pain in the broad sense, i.e. to any unpleasant feeling, emotion or sensation.
Psychological pain, mental pain, or emotional pain is an unpleasant feeling (a suffering) of a psychological, non-physical origin.

Valence (psychology)

valenceemotional valencepositively-valenced
Suffering is the basic element that makes up the negative valence of affective phenomena.
Valence, as used in psychology, especially in discussing emotions, means the intrinsic attractiveness/"good"-ness (positive valence) or averseness/"bad"-ness (negative valence) of an event, object, or situation.

Hedonism

hedonistichedonisthedonic
Hedonism, as an ethical theory, claims that good and bad consist ultimately in pleasure and pain.
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues pleasure and suffering are the only components of well-being.

Pain

physical painacute painnociceptive pain
The word suffering is sometimes used in the narrow sense of physical pain, but more often it refers to mental pain, or more often yet it refers to pain in the broad sense, i.e. to any unpleasant feeling, emotion or sensation. Philosophy of pain is a philosophical speciality that focuses on physical pain and is, through that, relevant to suffering in general.
Although unpleasantness is an essential part of the IASP definition of pain, it is possible to induce a state described as intense pain devoid of unpleasantness in some patients, with morphine injection or psychosurgery.

Affect (psychology)

affectaffectiveaffects
Suffering is the basic element that makes up the negative valence of affective phenomena.
In this view, such affective reactions as liking, disliking, evaluation, or the experience of pleasure or displeasure each result from a different prior cognitive process that makes a variety of content discriminations and identifies features, examines them to find value, and weighs them according to their contributions (Brewin, 1989).

Negative utilitarianism

negative utilitarian
Karl Popper, in The Open Society and Its Enemies, proposed a negative utilitarianism, which prioritizes the reduction of suffering over the enhancement of happiness when speaking of utility: "I believe that there is, from the ethical point of view, no symmetry between suffering and happiness, or between pain and pleasure. human suffering makes a direct moral appeal for help, while there is no similar call to increase the happiness of a man who is doing well anyway."
Negative utilitarianism is a form of negative consequentialism that can be described as the view that we should minimize the total amount of aggregate suffering, or that we should minimize suffering and then, secondarily, maximize the total amount of happiness.

Pleasure

pleasantpleasurablerewarding
Hedonism, as an ethical theory, claims that good and bad consist ultimately in pleasure and pain. The opposite of suffering is pleasure or happiness.
The early psychological concept of pleasure, the pleasure principle, describes it as a positive feedback mechanism that motivates the organism to recreate the situation it has just found pleasurable, and to avoid past situations that caused pain.

Humane society

The Humane Societyhumane societiesOregon Humane Society
Another doctrine related to the relief of suffering is humanitarianism (see also humanitarian principles, humanitarian aid, and humane society).
A humane society is a group that aims to stop animal suffering due to cruelty or other reasons.

Humanitarian aid

humanitarian assistancehumanitarianhumanitarian relief
Another doctrine related to the relief of suffering is humanitarianism (see also humanitarian principles, humanitarian aid, and humane society).
The primary objective of humanitarian aid is to save lives, alleviate suffering, and maintain human dignity.

Humanitarian principles

humanitarian imperativeHumanitarian neutralityprinciple of humanity
Another doctrine related to the relief of suffering is humanitarianism (see also humanitarian principles, humanitarian aid, and humane society).
Here humanitarian pertains to the practice of saving lives and alleviating suffering.

Pain (philosophy)

Philosophy of painpain
Philosophy of pain is a philosophical speciality that focuses on physical pain and is, through that, relevant to suffering in general.
Philosophy of pain may be about suffering in general or more specifically about physical pain.

Animal Liberation (book)

Animal Liberation1975 bookAnimal Liberation'' (book)
Peter Singer's writings, especially the book Animal Liberation, represent the leading edge of this kind of utilitarianism for animals as well as for people.
Following Jeremy Bentham, Singer argued that the interests of animals should be considered because of their ability to experience suffering and that the idea of rights was not necessary in order to consider them.

Sentience

sentientsentient beingssentient being
Suffering occurs in the lives of sentient beings in numerous manners, often dramatically.
In the philosophies of animal welfare and rights, sentience implies the ability to experience pleasure and pain.

Duḥkha

dukkhasufferingduhkha
The 'Four Noble Truths' of Buddhism are about dukkha, a term often translated as suffering.
Duḥkha (Sanskrit; Pāli; : dukkha) is an important Buddhist concept, commonly translated as "suffering", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress".

Compassion

humanitycompassionateDayā
Suffering plays an important role in a number of religions, regarding matters such as the following: consolation or relief; moral conduct (do no harm, help the afflicted, show compassion); spiritual advancement through life hardships or through self-imposed trials (mortification of the flesh, penance, ascetism); ultimate destiny (salvation, damnation, hell).
Suffering has been defined as the perception of a person's impending destruction or loss of integrity, which continues until the threat is vanished or the person's integrity can be restored.

Redemptive suffering

sufferingsufferingsWestern Notion of Suffering
For Christianity, redemptive suffering is the belief that human suffering, when accepted and offered up in union with the Passion of Jesus, can remit the just punishment for sins and allow to grow in the love of God, others and oneself.
Redemptive suffering is the Christian belief that human suffering, when accepted and offered up in union with the Passion of Jesus, can remit the just punishment for one's sins or for the sins of another, or for the other physical or spiritual needs of oneself or another.

Problem of evil

the problem of evilevidential problem of evilevidential argument from evil
Theodicy deals with the problem of evil, which is the difficulty of reconciling the existence of an omnipotent and benevolent god with the existence of evil: a quintessential form of evil, for many people, is extreme suffering, especially in innocent children, or in creatures destined to an eternity of torments (see problem of hell).
It has been discussed by John Hick, and the Irenaean theodicy asserts that evil and suffering are necessary for spiritual growth, for man to discover his soul, and God allows evil for spiritual growth of human beings.

Moksha

liberationmuktimoksa
Thus the soul or true self, which is eternally free of any suffering, may come to manifest itself in the person, who then achieves liberation (moksha).
By release from this cycle, the suffering involved in this cycle also ended.

Will to live

wants to survivewill to lifewill-to-live
Arthur Schopenhauer recommends us to take refuge in things like art, philosophy, loss of the will to live, and tolerance toward 'fellow-sufferers'.
In psychotherapy, Sigmund Freud termed the pleasure principle, which is the seeking of pleasure and avoiding of pain.

Stoicism

StoicStoicsStoic philosophy
For Stoicism, the greatest good lies in reason and virtue, but the soul best reaches it through a kind of indifference (apatheia) to pleasure and pain: as a consequence, this doctrine has become identified with stern self-control in regard to suffering.
The idea was to be free of suffering through apatheia (Greek: ἀπάθεια; literally, "without passion") or peace of mind, where peace of mind was understood in the ancient sense—being objective or having "clear judgment" and the maintenance of equanimity in the face of life's highs and lows.

Karma in Hinduism

karmakarmasHinduism
Hinduism holds that suffering follows naturally from personal negative behaviors in one's current life or in a past life (see karma in Hinduism).
Swami Sivananda also notes that God is free from charges of partiality and cruelty which are brought against him because of social inequality, fate, and universal suffering in the world.

Aversives

aversiveaversive stimuliaversive stimulus
The evolutionary role of physical and mental suffering, through natural selection, is primordial: it warns of threats, motivates coping (fight or flight, escapism), and reinforces negatively certain behaviors (see punishment, aversives).
In psychology, aversives are unpleasant stimuli that induce changes in behavior via negative reinforcement or positive punishment.

Pain and suffering

mental anguish
In law, "Pain and suffering" is a legal term that refers to the mental distress or physical pain endured by a plaintiff as a result of injury for which the plaintiff seeks redress.
Pain and suffering is the legal term for the physical and emotional stress caused from an injury (see also pain and suffering).

Salvation

redemptionsavedsaviour
Suffering plays an important role in a number of religions, regarding matters such as the following: consolation or relief; moral conduct (do no harm, help the afflicted, show compassion); spiritual advancement through life hardships or through self-imposed trials (mortification of the flesh, penance, ascetism); ultimate destiny (salvation, damnation, hell).
Since human existence on Earth is said to be "given to sin", salvation also has connotations that deal with the liberation of human beings from sin, and the suffering associated with the punishment of sin—i.e., "the wages of sin are death."