Suffragette

suffragettessuffragistsuffragette movementsuffragesuffragistsSuffrage Movementsuffragist movementagitation for women's suffrageanti-suffragettecolours of the suffragette movement
A suffragette was a member of militant women's organisations in the early 20th century who, under the banner "Votes for Women", fought for the right to vote in public elections, known as women's suffrage.wikipedia
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Emmeline Pankhurst

EmmelinePankhurstMrs. Pankhurst
The term refers in particular to members of the British Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), a women-only movement founded in 1903 by Emmeline Pankhurst, which engaged in direct action and civil disobedience.
Emmeline Pankhurst (circa 15 July 1858 – 14 June 1928) was a British political activist and helper of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote.

Women's Social and Political Union

WSPUWomen’s Social and Political UnionWomen's Social and Political Union (WSPU)
The term refers in particular to members of the British Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), a women-only movement founded in 1903 by Emmeline Pankhurst, which engaged in direct action and civil disobedience.
Known from 1906 as the suffragettes, its membership and policies were tightly controlled by Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters Christabel and Sylvia (although Sylvia was eventually expelled).

Women's suffrage

suffragistfemale suffragesuffrage movement
A suffragette was a member of militant women's organisations in the early 20th century who, under the banner "Votes for Women", fought for the right to vote in public elections, known as women's suffrage.
One major division, especially in Britain, was between suffragists, who sought to create change constitutionally, and suffragettes, led by English political activist Emmeline Pankhurst, who in 1903 formed the more militant Women's Social and Political Union.

Suffrage

right to votevoting rightsfranchise
Women had won the right to vote in several countries by the end of the 19th century; in 1893 New Zealand became the first self-governing country to grant the vote to all women over the age of 21. When by 1903 women in Britain had not been enfranchised, Pankhurst decided that women had to "do the work ourselves"; the WSPU motto became "deeds, not words".
This was the goal of the suffragists, who believed in using legal means and the suffragettes, who used extremist measures.

Force-feeding

force-fedforce fedforce feeding
When imprisoned they went on hunger strike, to which the government responded by force-feeding them.
Suffragettes who had been imprisoned while campaigning for votes for women went on hunger strike and were force fed. (This lasted until the Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill Health) Act of 1913, better known as the Cat and Mouse Act, whereby debilitated prisoners would be released, allowed to recover, and then re-arrested.) Rubber tubes were inserted through the mouth (only occasionally through the nose) and into the stomach, and food poured down; the suffragettes were held down by force while the instruments were inserted into their bodies, an experience which has been likened to rape.

National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies

suffragistssuffragistfemale suffragists
In 1897 the Manchester Women's Suffrage committee had merged with the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) but Emmeline Pankhurst, who was a member of the original Manchester committee, and her eldest daughter Christabel had become impatient with the ILP and on 10 October 1903, Emmeline Pankhurst held a meeting at her home in Manchester to form a breakaway group, the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU).
The National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS), also known as the suffragists (not to be confused with the suffragettes) was an organisation of women's suffrage societies around the United Kingdom.

Christabel Pankhurst

ChristabelBrittaniasister, Christabel
In 1897 the Manchester Women's Suffrage committee had merged with the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) but Emmeline Pankhurst, who was a member of the original Manchester committee, and her eldest daughter Christabel had become impatient with the ILP and on 10 October 1903, Emmeline Pankhurst held a meeting at her home in Manchester to form a breakaway group, the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU).
Dame Christabel Harriette Pankhurst, (22 September 1880 – 13 February 1958), was a British suffragette born in Manchester, England.

Annie Kenney

At a political meeting in Manchester in 1905, Christabel Pankhurst and millworker, Annie Kenney, disrupted speeches by prominent Liberals Winston Churchill and Sir Edward Grey, asking where Churchill and Grey stood with regards to women's political rights.
Ann "Annie" Kenney (13 September 1879 – 9 July 1953) was an English working-class suffragette who became a leading figure in the Women's Social and Political Union.

Representation of the People Act 1918

Representation of the People Act1918Representation of the People Bill
After the war, the Representation of the People Act 1918 gave the vote to women over the age of 30 who met certain property qualifications.
The Suffragettes and Suffragists had pushed for their right to be represented prior to the war, but felt too little had changed, despite violent agitation by the likes of Emmeline Pankhurst and the Women's Social and Political Union.

Sylvia Pankhurst

SylviaPankhurst
Sylvia Pankhurst said at the time: "Many suffragists spend more money on clothes than they can comfortably afford, rather than run the risk of being considered outré, and doing harm to the cause". Women eagerly volunteered to take on many traditional male roles – leading to a new view of what women were capable of. The war also caused a split in the British suffragette movement; the mainstream, represented by Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst's WSPU calling a ceasefire in their campaign for the duration of the war, while more radical suffragettes, represented by Sylvia Pankhurst's Women's Suffrage Federation continued the struggle.
Estelle Sylvia Pankhurst (5 May 1882 – 27 September 1960) was an English campaigner for the suffragette movement, a prominent left communist and, later, an activist in the cause of anti-fascism.

Manchester

Manchester, EnglandMancunianCity of Manchester
In October 1866 amateur scientist, Lydia Becker, attended a meeting of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science held in Manchester and heard one of the organisors of the petition, Barbara Bodichon, read a paper entitled Reasons for the Enfranchisement of Women.
Manchester was an important cradle of the Labour Party and the Suffragette Movement.

Sophia Duleep Singh

Princess Sophia Alexandra Duleep SinghSophia AlexandraSophia Alexandra Duleep Singh
Sophia Duleep Singh, the third daughter of the exiled, Maharaja Duleep Singh, had made a trip from her home in London to India, in 1903, to see the celebrations for the accession of King Edward VII as emperor of India and was shocked by the brutality of life under British rule.
Princess Sophia Alexandrovna Duleep Singh (8 August 1876 – 22 August 1948) was a prominent suffragette in the United Kingdom.

Winston Churchill

ChurchillSir Winston ChurchillChurchill, Winston
At a political meeting in Manchester in 1905, Christabel Pankhurst and millworker, Annie Kenney, disrupted speeches by prominent Liberals Winston Churchill and Sir Edward Grey, asking where Churchill and Grey stood with regards to women's political rights.
Reflecting a mix of reformist and conservative perspectives, he supported the promotion of secular, non-denominational education while opposing women's suffrage, referring to the Suffragettes as "a ridiculous movement".

Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom

women's suffragewomen's suffrage movementsuffragist
In 1906 a reporter writing in the Daily Mail coined the term suffragette for the WSPU, from suffragist, in an attempt to belittle the women advocating women's suffrage.
At this point, all campaigners were suffragists, not suffragettes.

Marion Wallace Dunlop

Marion Dunlop
The first woman to refuse food was Marion Wallace Dunlop, a militant suffragette who was sentenced to a month in Holloway for vandalism in July 1909.
Marion Wallace Dunlop (22 December 1864 – 12 September 1942) was the first and one of the most well known British suffragettes to go on hunger strike, on 5 July 1909, after being arrested in July 1909 for militancy.

1913 Epsom Derby

1913 Derby
The death of one suffragette, Emily Davison, when she ran in front of the king's horse at the 1913 Epsom Derby, made headlines around the world.
The race itself was shadowed by the death of suffragette Emily Davison, who was killed when she ran out in front of King George V's horse, Anmer.

Black Friday (1910)

Black FridayBlack Friday Riot
Inciting incidents included Black Friday, during which a deputation of 300 suffragettes were physically prevented by police from entering the House of Commons, sparking a near-riot and allegations of both common and sexual assault.
Black Friday was a suffragette demonstration in London on 18November 1910, in which 300 women marched to the Houses of Parliament as part of their campaign to secure voting rights for women.

Gertrude Harding

Gert Harding
Known members included Katherine Willoughby Marshall, Leonora Cohen and Gertrude Harding; Edith Margaret Garrud was their jujitsu trainer.
Gertrude Menzies Harding (1889-1977) was a suffragette born on a farm in rural Canada.

Leonora Cohen

Known members included Katherine Willoughby Marshall, Leonora Cohen and Gertrude Harding; Edith Margaret Garrud was their jujitsu trainer.
Leonora Cohen OBE born Leonora Throp (15 June 1873 – 4 September 1978) was a militant British suffragette and trade unionist.

Constance Markievicz

Countess MarkieviczConstance Gore-BoothConstance Markiewicz
At that election, the first woman to be elected an MP was Constance Markievicz but, in line with Sinn Féin abstentionist policy, she declined to take her seat in the British House of Commons.
Constance Georgine Markievicz, known as Countess Markievicz (Markiewicz ; née Gore-Booth; 4 February 1868 – 15 July 1927), was an Irish politician, revolutionary, nationalist, suffragette and socialist who served as Minister for Labour from 1919 to 1922.

Workers' Socialist Federation

Communist Workers' PartyEast London Federation of SuffragettesCommunist Workers Party
Women eagerly volunteered to take on many traditional male roles – leading to a new view of what women were capable of. The war also caused a split in the British suffragette movement; the mainstream, represented by Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst's WSPU calling a ceasefire in their campaign for the duration of the war, while more radical suffragettes, represented by Sylvia Pankhurst's Women's Suffrage Federation continued the struggle.
It originated as the East London Federation of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU, better known as the Suffragettes).

Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill Health) Act 1913

Cat and Mouse Actwent on hunger-strikePrisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill Health) Act
The Liberal government of the day led by Asquith responded with the Cat and Mouse Act.
Some members of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU, commonly referred to as suffragettes) had been imprisoned for acts of vandalism in support of women's suffrage.

Coronation Chair

Chair of EstateRoyal throne of Englandthe coronation chair
In 1914, at least seven churches were bombed or set on fire across the United Kingdom, including Westminster Abbey, where an explosion aimed at destroying the 700-year-old Coronation Chair, only caused minor damage.
At 5:40 pm on 11 June 1914, the chair was the object of a bomb attack thought to have been organised by the Suffragettes.

Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst Memorial

Emmeline's statueher statuestatue
After Emmeline Pankhurst's death in 1928, money was raised to commission a statue, and on 6 March 1930 the statue in Victoria Tower Gardens was unveiled.
The Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst Memorial is a memorial in London to Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughter Christabel, two of the foremost British suffragettes.

Vida Goldstein

In 1903 Australian suffragist Vida Goldstein adopted the WSPU colours for her campaign for the Senate in 1910 but got them slightly wrong, thinking they were purple, green and lavender.
Vida Jane Mary Goldstein (13 April 1869 – 15 August 1949) was an Australian suffragette and social reformer.