Sufism

SufiSufisTasawwufIslamic mysticismSufi MuslimSufi IslammysticmysticismSufi mysticSufi mysticism
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf, variously defined as "Islamic mysticism", "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam", is mysticism in Islam, "characterized ... [by particular] values, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions" which began very early in Islamic history and represents "the main manifestation and the most important and central crystallization of" mystical practice in Islam.wikipedia
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Wali

awliyasaintsaints
Historically, Sufis have often belonged to different ṭuruq or "orders" – congregations formed around a grand master referred to as a wali who traces a direct chain of successive teachers back to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.
Since the first Muslim hagiographies were written during the period when the Islamic mystical trend of Sufism began its rapid expansion, many of the figures who later came to be regarded as the major saints in orthodox Sunni Islam were the early Sufi mystics, like Hasan of Basra (d.

Khanqah

tekketekkesKhanaqa
These orders meet for spiritual sessions (majalis) in meeting places known as zawiyas, khanqahs or tekke.
A khanqah or khaniqah (also transliterated as khankahs, khaneqa, khanegah or khaneqah ), also known as a ribat – among other terms – is a building designed specifically for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood or tariqa and is a place for spiritual retreat and character reformation.

Dhikr

zikrzikirDhakir
Sufis have been characterized by their asceticism, especially by their attachment to dhikr, the practice of remembrance of God, often performed after prayers.
are devotional acts, primarily in Sufi Islam, in which short phrases or prayers are repeatedly recited silently within the mind or aloud.

Naqshbandi

NaqshbandiyyaNaqshbandiyyahNakshbandi
All Sufi orders trace most of their original precepts from Muhammad through his cousin and son-in-law Ali, with the notable exception of the Naqshbandi order, who trace their original precepts to Muhammad through his companion and father-in-law, Abu Bakr.
The Naqshbandi or Naqshbandiyah is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism.

Asceticism

asceticasceticsascetical
Sufis have been characterized by their asceticism, especially by their attachment to dhikr, the practice of remembrance of God, often performed after prayers.
Sufi tradition has included strict asceticism throughout history.

Sunni Islam

SunniSunni MuslimSunni Muslims
Although the overwhelming majority of Sufis, both pre-modern and modern, were and are adherents of Sunni Islam, there also developed certain strands of Sufi practice within the ambit of Shia Islam during the late medieval period, particularly after the forced conversion of Iran from majority Sunni to Shia.
One common mistake is to assume that Sunni Islam represents a normative Islam that emerged during the period after Muhammad's death, and that Sufism and Shi'ism developed out of Sunni Islam.

Bayazid Bastami

Khwaja '''Bayazid BastamiAbu Yazid al-BistamiBayazid Bistami
Many have asserted Sufism to be unique within the confines of the Islamic religion, and contend that Sufism developed from people like Bayazid Bastami, who, in his utmost reverence to the sunnah, refused to eat a watermelon because he did not find any proof that Muhammad ever ate it.
261/874–5 or 234/848–9), commonly known in the Iranian world as Bāyazīd Bisṭāmī, was a Persian Sufi from north-central Iran.

Jami

JāmīAbdurahman JamiAbd al-Rahmân Jâmî
According to the late medieval mystic Jami, Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (died c. 716) was the first person to be called a "Sufi".
Nūr ad-Dīn 'Abd ar-Rahmān Jāmī, also known as Mawlanā Nūr al-Dīn 'Abd al-Rahmān or Abd-Al-Rahmān Nur-Al-Din Muhammad Dashti, or simply as Jami or Djāmī and in Turkey as Molla Cami (7 November 1414 – 9 November 1492), was a Persian Sunni poet who is known for his achievements as a prolific scholar and writer of mystical Sufi literature.

Ruwaym

Ruwaym, from the second generation of Sufis in Baghdad, was also an influential early figure, as was Junayd of Baghdad; a number of early practitioners of Sufism were disciples of one of the two.
He was one of the second generation of practitioners of Sufism.

Ali Hujwiri

Ali HajweriData Ganj BakhshHujwiri
Eminent Sufis such as Ali Hujwiri refer to Ali as having a very high ranking in Tasawwuf.
1009-1072/77), known as ʿAlī al-Hujwīrī or al-Hujwīrī (also spelt Hajweri, Hajveri, or Hajvery) for short, or reverentially as Shaykh Syed ʿAlī al-Hujwīrī or as Dātā Ganj Bakhsh by Muslims of the Indian subcontinent, was an 11th-century Iranian Sunni Muslim mystic, theologian, and preacher from Ghazna, who became famous for composing the Kashf al-maḥjūb (Unveiling of the Hidden), which is considered the "earliest formal treatise" on Sufism in Persian.

Chishti Order

ChishtiChishtiyaChishtiyya
Sufi orders include Ba 'Alawiyya, Badawiyya, Bektashi, Burhaniyya, Chishti, Khalwati, Mevlevi, Naqshbandi, Ni'matullāhī, Uwaisi, Qadiriyya, Qalandariyya, Rifa'i, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya, Suhrawardiyya, Tijaniyyah, Zinda Shah Madariya, and others.
The Chishtī Order ( chishtī) is a Sunni Sufi order within the mystic Sufi tradition of Islam.

Qalandariyya

QalandarQalandariQalandariyah
Sufi orders include Ba 'Alawiyya, Badawiyya, Bektashi, Burhaniyya, Chishti, Khalwati, Mevlevi, Naqshbandi, Ni'matullāhī, Uwaisi, Qadiriyya, Qalandariyya, Rifa'i, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya, Suhrawardiyya, Tijaniyyah, Zinda Shah Madariya, and others.
The Qalandariyyah, Qalandaris, Qalandars or Kalandars are wandering ascetic Sufi dervishes.

Bektashi Order

BektashiBektashisBektashism
Sufi orders include Ba 'Alawiyya, Badawiyya, Bektashi, Burhaniyya, Chishti, Khalwati, Mevlevi, Naqshbandi, Ni'matullāhī, Uwaisi, Qadiriyya, Qalandariyya, Rifa'i, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya, Suhrawardiyya, Tijaniyyah, Zinda Shah Madariya, and others.
The Bektashi Order (Tarikati Bektashi; Bektaşi Tarîkatı), short for Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah is a Sufi dervish order (tariqat) named after the 13th century Alevi Wali (saint) Haji Bektash Veli from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan.

Safavid order

SafaviyyaSafaviyehSafaviya
Over the years, Sufi orders have influenced and been adopted by various Shi'i movements, especially Isma'ilism, which led to the Safaviyya order's conversion to Shia Islam from Sunni Islam and the spread of Twelverism throughout Iran.
The Safavid order, also called the Safaviyya, was a tariqa (Sufi order) founded by the Kurdish mystic Safi-ad-din Ardabili (1252–1334).

Badawiyya

Badawiyyah
Sufi orders include Ba 'Alawiyya, Badawiyya, Bektashi, Burhaniyya, Chishti, Khalwati, Mevlevi, Naqshbandi, Ni'matullāhī, Uwaisi, Qadiriyya, Qalandariyya, Rifa'i, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya, Suhrawardiyya, Tijaniyyah, Zinda Shah Madariya, and others.
The Badawiyyah, Sufi tarika, was founded in the thirteenth century in Egypt by Ahmad al-Badawi (1199-1276).

History of Islam

Islamic historyMuslim historyhistory
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf, variously defined as "Islamic mysticism", "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam", is mysticism in Islam, "characterized ... [by particular] values, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions" which began very early in Islamic history and represents "the main manifestation and the most important and central crystallization of" mystical practice in Islam.
This era also saw the rise of classical Sufism.

Burhaniyya

BurhaniyaBurhani
Sufi orders include Ba 'Alawiyya, Badawiyya, Bektashi, Burhaniyya, Chishti, Khalwati, Mevlevi, Naqshbandi, Ni'matullāhī, Uwaisi, Qadiriyya, Qalandariyya, Rifa'i, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya, Suhrawardiyya, Tijaniyyah, Zinda Shah Madariya, and others.
The Tariqa Burhāniyya (الطريقة البرهانية الدسوقية الشاذلية Ṭarīqa al burhāniyya al disūqiyyah al shādhliyyah; also written al-Burhāniyya or Burhāniyyah) is a Sufi order founded by Sayyidi Abul Hasan ash-Shadhuli and Sayyidi Ibrahim al Disuqi in the 13th century.

Uwaisi

OveysiOwaisiUwaiysi
Sufi orders include Ba 'Alawiyya, Badawiyya, Bektashi, Burhaniyya, Chishti, Khalwati, Mevlevi, Naqshbandi, Ni'matullāhī, Uwaisi, Qadiriyya, Qalandariyya, Rifa'i, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya, Suhrawardiyya, Tijaniyyah, Zinda Shah Madariya, and others.
The Uwaisī is a form of spiritual transmission in the vocabulary of Islamic mysticism that was named after Awais Malik (Owais al-Qarni).

Ni'matullāhī

NimatullahiNi'matullahiGonabadi
Sufi orders include Ba 'Alawiyya, Badawiyya, Bektashi, Burhaniyya, Chishti, Khalwati, Mevlevi, Naqshbandi, Ni'matullāhī, Uwaisi, Qadiriyya, Qalandariyya, Rifa'i, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya, Suhrawardiyya, Tijaniyyah, Zinda Shah Madariya, and others.
The Ni'matullāhī or Ne'matollāhī (also spelled as "Nimatollahi", "Nematollahi" or "Ni'matallahi) is a Sufi order (or tariqa) originating in Iran. According to Moojan Momen, the number of Ni'matullāhī in Iran in 1980 was estimated to be between 50,000 and 350,000. Following the emigration of Javad Nurbakhsh and other dervishes after the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the tariqa has attracted numerous followers outside Iran, mostly in Europe, West Africa and North America, although the first khaniqa outside Iran was formed in San Francisco, California, United States in 1975, a few years before the revolution in Iran.

Rifa`i

Rifa'iRifa'iyyaRifai
Sufi orders include Ba 'Alawiyya, Badawiyya, Bektashi, Burhaniyya, Chishti, Khalwati, Mevlevi, Naqshbandi, Ni'matullāhī, Uwaisi, Qadiriyya, Qalandariyya, Rifa'i, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya, Suhrawardiyya, Tijaniyyah, Zinda Shah Madariya, and others.
Rifa`i (also Rufa`i, Rifa`iyya, Rifa`iya, Arabic, الرفاعية) is an eminent Sufi order (tariqa) founded by Ahmed ar-Rifa'i and developed in the Lower Iraq marshlands between Wasit and Basra.

Islam

IslamicMuslimMuslims
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf, variously defined as "Islamic mysticism", "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam", is mysticism in Islam, "characterized ... [by particular] values, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions" which began very early in Islamic history and represents "the main manifestation and the most important and central crystallization of" mystical practice in Islam.
Some Muslim authorities, especially among the Shi'a and Sufis, distinguish between the "greater jihad", which pertains to spiritual self-perfection, and the "lesser jihad", defined as warfare.

Abu Nasr as-Sarraj

Important contributions in writing are attributed to Uwais al-Qarani, Hasan of Basra, Harith al-Muhasibi, Abu Nasr as-Sarraj and Said ibn al-Musayyib.
Abū Naṣr ‘Abd Allāh ibn ‘Alī al-Sarrāj (in Arabic: أبو نصرعبدالله ابن علي السرَّاج, in Persian: ابونصر عبدالله بن علی بن محمد بن یحیی سرّاج) (died 988) was a Sufi sheikh and ascetic born in Tūs, Iran.

Ibrahim ibn Adham

Ibrahim Bin AdhamIbrāhīm bin AdhamAbou Ben Adhem
He cites the early shaykhs (shuyukh al-salaf) such as Al-Fuḍayl ibn ‘Iyāḍ, Ibrahim ibn Adham, Ma`ruf al-Karkhi, Sirri Saqti, Junayd of Baghdad, and others of the early teachers, as well as Abdul-Qadir Gilani, Hammad, Abu al-Bayan and others of the later masters— that they do not permit the followers of the Sufi path to depart from the divinely legislated command and prohibition.
Ibrahim ibn Adham also called Ibrahim Balkhi ; c. 718 – c. 782 / AH c. 100 – c. 165 is one of the most prominent of the early ascetic Sufi saints.

Suhrawardiyya

SuhrawardiSoharwardiSuhrawardiyyah
Sufi orders include Ba 'Alawiyya, Badawiyya, Bektashi, Burhaniyya, Chishti, Khalwati, Mevlevi, Naqshbandi, Ni'matullāhī, Uwaisi, Qadiriyya, Qalandariyya, Rifa'i, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya, Suhrawardiyya, Tijaniyyah, Zinda Shah Madariya, and others.
The Suhrawardiyya is a Sufi order founded by the Sufi Diya al-din Abu 'n-Najib as-Suhrawardi (1097 – 1168 CE).

Al-Qushayri

Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin QushayriAbd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin al-QushayriQushayri
Al-Qushayri and Ibn Khaldun both rejected all possibilities other than on linguistic grounds.
As a young man he received the education of a country squire of the time: adab, the Arabic language, chivalry and weaponry (istiʿmāl al-silāḥ), but that all changed when he journeyed to the city of Nishapur and was introduced to the Sufi shaykh Abū ʿAlī al-Daqqāq.