Sugar

sugarssugar tradesugar cubeRaw Sugarsugar moleculessugar productionwhite sugarsugar cubescane sugarManufacture & Marketing of Sugar
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.wikipedia
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Glucose

dextroseD-glucose D -glucose
Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, include glucose, fructose, and galactose.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula.

Sweetness

sweetsweetersweet-tasting
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sweetness is a basic taste most commonly perceived when eating foods rich in sugars.

Disaccharide

disaccharidesbiosidedi-
Compound sugars, also called disaccharides or double sugars, are molecules composed of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic bond.
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose ) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.

Lactose

milk sugarmilk sugarssugars
Common examples are sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (two molecules of glucose).
It is a sugar composed of galactose and glucose subunits and has the molecular formula C 12 H 22 O 11.

Honey

bee honeyforest honeyheather honey
Honey and fruit are abundant natural sources of unbounded simple sugars.
Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants (floral nectar) or from secretions of other insects (such as honeydew), by regurgitation, enzymatic activity, and water evaporation.

Sugar beet

sugar beetsbeet sugarsugarbeet
Sucrose is especially concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar.
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.

Sugar alcohol

sugar alcoholspolyhydric alcoholPolyalcohol
Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar.
Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compounds, typically derived from sugars, containing one hydroxyl group (–OH) attached to each carbon atom.

Added sugar

sweetenedaddedAdded sugars
Sucrose is used in prepared foods (e.g. cookies and cakes), is sometimes added to commercially available processed food and beverages, and may be used by people as a sweetener for foods (e.g. toast and cereal) and beverages (e.g. coffee and tea).
Added sugars are sugar carbohydrates (caloric sweeteners) added to food and beverages during their production (industrial processing).

Malt

malted barleymalt extractbarley malt
Maltose may be produced by malting grain.
Malting grain develops the enzymes (α-amylase, β-amylase) required for modifying the grains' starches into various types of sugar, including monosaccharide glucose, disaccharide maltose, trisaccharide maltotriose, and higher sugars called maltodextrines.

Food

foodsfoodstufffood products
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
This can be as simple as replacing some or all of the food's sugar with a sugar substitute as is common with diet soft drinks such as Coca-Cola (for example Diet Coke).

Brown sugar

raw sugarDemerara sugarturbinado sugar
The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin: Portuguese jágara from the Malayalam cakkarā, which is from the Sanskrit śarkarā.
It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content (natural brown sugar), or it is produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar (commercial brown sugar).

Saccharum officinarum

sugarcanesugar caneS. officinarum
Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea.
Its stout stalks are rich in sucrose, a simple sugar which accumulates in the stalk internodes.

Saccharum barberi

Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea.
It originates from northern India and has been exported to other countries and grown for the production of sugar.

Sugar sculpture

pastillagesugarcraftsometimes sculptural
Genoa, one of the centers of distribution, became known for candied fruit, while Venice specialized in pastries, sweets (candies), and sugar sculptures.
Sugar sculpture is the art of producing artistic centerpieces entirely composed of sugar and sugar derivatives.

Fructose

D-fructosefructose metabolism, inborn errors L -fructose
Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, include glucose, fructose, and galactose.
Sucrose-containing sugars include common table white granulated sugar and powdered sugar, as well as brown sugar.

Suriname

SurinamSurinameseRepublic of Suriname
By 1540, there were 800 cane-sugar mills in Santa Catarina Island and another 2,000 on the north coast of Brazil, Demarara, and Surinam.
As the chief sugar colony during the Dutch colonial period, it was primarily a plantation economy dependent on African slaves and, following the abolition of slavery in 1863, indentured servants from Asia.

Sugarloaf

loavessugar loafsugar loaves
Until the late nineteenth century, sugar was purchased in loaves, which had to be cut using implements called sugar nips.
A sugarloaf was the usual form in which refined sugar was produced and sold until the late 19th century, when granulated and cube sugars were introduced.

Brazil

BRABrasilBrazilian
The Portuguese took sugar cane to Brazil.
By the mid-16th century, cane sugar had become Brazil's most important export, and slaves purchased in Sub-Saharan Africa, in the slave market of Western Africa (not only those from Portuguese allies of their colonies in Angola and Mozambique), had become its largest import, to cope with plantations of sugarcane, due to increasing international demand for Brazilian sugar.

Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics
Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, and tooth decay.
Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk.

Tate & Lyle

Tate and LyleSilvertown Services LtdTate & Lyle PLC
Henry Tate of Tate & Lyle was another early manufacturer of sugar cubes at his refineries in Liverpool and London.
The company was formed in 1921 from a merger of two rival sugar refiners: Henry Tate & Sons and Abram Lyle & Sons.

Monosaccharide

monosaccharidessimple sugarsimple sugars
Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, include glucose, fructose, and galactose.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugar, are the simplest form of sugar and the most basic units of carbohydrates.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose.

Ketone

ketonesketoketo group
The acyclic mono- and disaccharides contain either aldehyde groups or ketone groups.
Examples include many sugars (ketoses) and the industrial solvent acetone, which is the smallest ketone.

Deoxyribose

2-deoxyribose-deoxyriboseDeoxyribofuranose
Most monosaccharides have a formula that conforms to with n between 3 and 7 (deoxyribose being an exception).
Its name indicates that it is a deoxy sugar, meaning that it is derived from the sugar ribose by loss of an oxygen atom.

Smoking (cooking)

smokedsmokingsmoke
Chinese tea-smoking uses a mixture of uncooked rice, sugar, and tea, heated at the base of a wok.