A report on Sugar

Sugars (clockwise from top-left): white refined, unrefined, unprocessed cane, brown
German sugar sculpture, 1880
Sugar cane plantation
Two elaborate sugar triomfi of goddesses for a dinner given by the Earl of Castlemaine, British Ambassador in Rome, 1687
Close-up image of sugar cane; demand for sugar contributed to creating colonial systems in areas where cultivation of sugar cane was profitable.
Hacienda La Fortuna. A sugar mill complex in Puerto Rico, painted by Francisco Oller in 1885, Brooklyn Museum
German chemists Andreas Sigismund Marggraf and Franz Karl Achard (pictured) both laid the foundation of the modern sugar industry
Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right), important molecules in the body.
Magnification of grains of refined sucrose, the most common free sugar.
World production of raw sugar, main producers
Misri crystals
Rock candy coloured with green dye.
Sugar cubes
Brown sugar examples: Muscovado (top), dark brown (left), light brown (right)
A jar of honey with a dipper and a biscuit
Brown sugar crystals
Whole date sugar
Whole cane sugar (grey), vacuum-dried
Whole cane sugar (brown), vacuum-dried
alt=raw sugar closeup|Raw crystals of unrefined, unbleached sugar

Generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

- Sugar
Sugars (clockwise from top-left): white refined, unrefined, unprocessed cane, brown

75 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Mutarotation: -glucose molecules exist as cyclic hemiacetals that are epimeric (= diastereomeric) to each other. The epimeric ratio α:β is 36:64. In the α-D-glucopyranose (left), the blue-labelled hydroxy group is in the axial position at the anomeric centre, whereas in the β-D-glucopyranose (right) the blue-labelled hydroxy group is in equatorial position at the anomeric centre.

Glucose

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Mutarotation: -glucose molecules exist as cyclic hemiacetals that are epimeric (= diastereomeric) to each other. The epimeric ratio α:β is 36:64. In the α-D-glucopyranose (left), the blue-labelled hydroxy group is in the axial position at the anomeric centre, whereas in the β-D-glucopyranose (right) the blue-labelled hydroxy group is in equatorial position at the anomeric centre.
Glucose can exist in both a straight-chain and ring form.
Widely proposed arrow-pushing mechanism for acid-catalyzed dynamic equilibrium between the α- and β- anomers of D-glucopyranose
Glucose-Fructose-Mannose-isomerisation
Glucose metabolism and various forms of it in the process.Glucose-containing compounds and isomeric forms are digested and taken up by the body in the intestines, including starch, glycogen, disaccharides and monosaccharides.Glucose is stored in mainly the liver and muscles as glycogen. It is distributed and used in tissues as free glucose.
Diagram showing the possible intermediates in glucose degradation; Metabolic pathways orange: glycolysis, green: Entner-Doudoroff pathway, phosphorylating, yellow: Entner-Doudoroff pathway, non-phosphorylating
Glucose, 5% solution for infusions
Glucose tablets
Relative sweetness of various sugars in comparison with sucrose

Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

A sugarloaf was a traditional form for sugar from the 17th to 19th centuries. Sugar nips were required to break off pieces.

Sucrose

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A sugarloaf was a traditional form for sugar from the 17th to 19th centuries. Sugar nips were required to break off pieces.
A table sugar factory in England. The tall diffusers are visible to the middle left where the harvest transforms into a sugar syrup. The boiler and furnace are in the center, where table sugar crystals form. An expressway for transport is visible in the lower left.
Harvested sugarcane from Venezuela ready for processing
Sugar beets
Grainy raw sugar
Sugars; clockwise from top left: Refined, unrefined, brown, unprocessed cane
Brown sugar crystals
Granulated sucrose

Sucrose, a disaccharide, is a sugar composed of glucose and fructose subunits.

The molecular structure of α-lactose, as determined by X-ray crystallography.

Lactose

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The molecular structure of α-lactose, as determined by X-ray crystallography.
Lactose crystals, viewed under polarized light

Lactose, a disaccharide, is a sugar composed of galactose and glucose subunits and has the molecular formula C12H22O11.

- and -glucose

Monosaccharide

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- and -glucose
Conversion between the furanose, acyclic, and pyranose forms of -glucose
Pyranose forms of some pentose sugars
Pyranose forms of some hexose sugars
α-{{sc|D}}-Glucopyranose
β-{{sc|D}}-Glucopyranose

Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the simplest forms of sugar and the most basic units (monomers) from which all carbohydrates are built.

Sucrose, a disaccharide formed from condensation of a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose

Disaccharide

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Sucrose, a disaccharide formed from condensation of a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose

A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or biose ) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage.

French honey from different floral sources, with visible differences in color and texture

Honey

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Sweet, viscous food substance made by honey bees and some other bees.

Sweet, viscous food substance made by honey bees and some other bees.

French honey from different floral sources, with visible differences in color and texture
A honey bee on calyx of goldenrod with its proboscis extended
Honeycomb displaying hexagonal prismatic wax cells in which honey bees store honey
Sealed frame of honey
Extraction from a honeycomb
Filtering from a honeycomb
Crystallized honey: The inset shows a close-up of the honey, showing the individual glucose grains in the fructose mixture.
Pouring raw honey. The sheet-like appearance of the flow is the result of high viscosity and low surface tension, contributing to the stickiness of honey.
Creamed honey: the honey on the left is fresh, and the honey on the right has been aged at room temperature for two years. The Maillard reaction produces considerable differences in the color and flavor of the aged honey, which remains edible.
A variety of honey flavors and container sizes and styles from the 2008 Texas State Fair
Honey seeker depicted in an 8000-year-old cave painting at Coves de L'Aranya, Bicorp in València

Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants (floral nectar) or from secretions of other insects (such as honeydew), by regurgitation, enzymatic activity, and water evaporation.

Sweet foods, such as this strawberry shortcake, are often eaten for dessert.

Sweetness

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Sweet foods, such as this strawberry shortcake, are often eaten for dessert.
Boys Pilfering Molasses – On The Quays, New Orleans, 1853 painting by George Henry Hall
Sweetness is perceived by the taste buds.
Lugduname is the sweetest chemical known.

Sweetness is a basic taste most commonly perceived when eating foods rich in sugars.

Lactose is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage.

Carbohydrate

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Biomolecule consisting of carbon , hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water) and thus with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may or may not be different from n).

Biomolecule consisting of carbon , hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water) and thus with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may or may not be different from n).

Lactose is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage.
D-glucose is an aldohexose with the formula (C·H2O)6. The red atoms highlight the aldehyde group and the blue atoms highlight the asymmetric center furthest from the aldehyde; because this -OH is on the right of the Fischer projection, this is a D sugar.
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Glucose can exist in both a straight-chain and ring form.
Sucrose, also known as table sugar, is a common disaccharide. It is composed of two monosaccharides: D-glucose (left) and D-fructose (right).
Grain products: rich sources of carbohydrates
Glucose tablets

The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose.

Sugar beet

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A geneticist evaluates sugar beet plants, resistant to the fungal disease Rhizoctonia root rot, for pollen fertility (United States, c. 2013).
French sugar beet mill in operation in the 1840s
A sugar beet farm in Switzerland
Worldwide sugar beet production
A sugar beet harvest in progress, Germany
Sugar beet output in 2009
Dried sugar beet cossettes
A beet harvester
A sugar beet farm in Belgium: Beyond the field is the sugar factory.
A sugar refinery in Allscott in Shropshire, England
Tuzemák, a sugar-beet-based alcohol brand from Czech Republic, is golden red in color.
Sugar beet molasses in France, used as cattle fodder supplement
Sugar beet farming using dam culture method. Used in Russia, Germany, France, Ukraine, Turkey, China, Poland, and sometimes Egypt.

A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.

Erythritol is a sugar alcohol. It is 60–70% as sweet as sugar and almost noncaloric.

Sugar alcohol

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Erythritol is a sugar alcohol. It is 60–70% as sweet as sugar and almost noncaloric.

Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compounds, typically derived from sugars, containing one hydroxyl group (–OH) attached to each carbon atom.