Sukhothai Kingdom

SukhothaiSukhothai Kingdom (Siam)Sukhothai periodKingdom of SukhothaiSukhothai eraSukhothai dynastySiamSukhotaiperiods of Sukhothai12th century
The Kingdom of Sukhothai was an early kingdom in the area around the city Sukhothai, in north central Thailand.wikipedia
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Thailand

ThaiSiamTHA
The Kingdom of Sukhothai was an early kingdom in the area around the city Sukhothai, in north central Thailand.
Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon kingdoms, Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as the Kingdoms of Ngoenyang, Sukhothai, Lan Na and Ayutthaya, which rivaled each other.

Sukhothai Historical Park

SukhothaiRamkhamhaeng National MuseumWat Aranyik, Sukhothai
The old capital, now 12 km outside Sukhothai in Tambon Mueang Kao, is in ruins and has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Historical Park.
Sukhothai Historical Park (อุทยานประวัติศาสตร์สุโขทัย ( Pronunciation)) covers the ruins of Sukhothai, literally 'dawn of happiness', capital of the Sukhothai Kingdom in the 13th and 14th centuries, in north central Thailand.

Sukhothai (city)

Sukhothairoyal city of Sukhothai
The Kingdom of Sukhothai was an early kingdom in the area around the city Sukhothai, in north central Thailand.
Sukhothai was the capital of the Sukhothai Kingdom.

Si Satchanalai Historical Park

Si Satchanalai
Modern historians stated that the secession of Sukhothai (also spelled Sukhodaya) from the Khmer empire began as early as 1180 during the reign of Pho Khun Sri Naw Namthom who was the ruler of Sukhothai and the peripheral city of Si Satchanalai (now a part of Sukhothai Province as Si Satchanalai District).
Si Satchanalai, which literally means "City of good people", was founded in 1250 as the second center of the Sukhothai Kingdom and as a residence of the crown prince in the 13th and 14th centuries.

Lan Na

LannaLanna KingdomKingdom of Lanna
Prior to the 13th century, Tai kingdoms had existed in the northern highlands including the Ngoenyang Kingdom of the Tai Yuan people (centred on Chiang Saen and the predecessor of the Lan Na), and the Heokam Kingdom of the Tai Lue people (centred on Chiang Hung (today Jinghong in China).
Claimed territories of Mangrai's Lan Na include modern northern Thailand provinces (with exception of Phrae – which was under vassalhood of Sukhothai– and Phayao and Nan), Kengtung, Mong Nai, and Chiang Hung (modern Jinghong in Yunnan).

Si Inthrathit

Sri IndradityaBangklanghaoIndraditya
Two friends, Pho Khun Bangklanghao and Pho Khun Pha Mueang revolted against the Khmer Empire governor of Sukhothai.
Si Inthrathit (ศรีอินทราทิตย์, ; also spelt Sri Indraditya) ruled the Sukhothai Kingdom, a historical kingdom of Thailand, from 1238 until around 1270.

Sukhothai Province

SukhothaiKamphaeng PhetSukhothai District
Modern historians stated that the secession of Sukhothai (also spelled Sukhodaya) from the Khmer empire began as early as 1180 during the reign of Pho Khun Sri Naw Namthom who was the ruler of Sukhothai and the peripheral city of Si Satchanalai (now a part of Sukhothai Province as Si Satchanalai District).
The modern-day province of Sukhothai was named after the Sukhothai Kingdom that once ruled the area, which in turn borrowed its name from the Sanskrit terms sukha (सुख 'happiness') + udaya (उदय 'rise', 'emergence'), meaning 'dawn of happiness'.

13th century

13ththirteenth centuryOther events of the 13th century
Prior to the 13th century, Tai kingdoms had existed in the northern highlands including the Ngoenyang Kingdom of the Tai Yuan people (centred on Chiang Saen and the predecessor of the Lan Na), and the Heokam Kingdom of the Tai Lue people (centred on Chiang Hung (today Jinghong in China).

Pha Mueang

Pho Khun Pha MueangPhameung
Two friends, Pho Khun Bangklanghao and Pho Khun Pha Mueang revolted against the Khmer Empire governor of Sukhothai.
Pha Mueang (full name Pho Khun Pha Mueang, Thai: พ่อขุนผาเมือง; late 13th century – mid 14th century) was a Thai nobleman and general who was the Lord of Rad and played a significant role in the founding of the Sukhothai Kingdom.

Ram Khamhaeng

RamkhamhaengRam Khamhaeng the GreatRamkhamhaeng the Great
Pho Khun Ban Muang and his brother Ram Khamhaeng expanded the Sukhothai kingdom.
Ram Khamhaeng or Pho Khun Ram Khamhaeng Maharat, also spelled Ramkhamhaeng, was the third king of the Phra Ruang Dynasty, ruling the Sukhothai Kingdom (a historical kingdom of Thailand) from 1279 to 1298, during its most prosperous era.

Ban Mueang

Pho Khun Ban MuangBan Muang, King of Sukhothai
Pho Khun Ban Muang and his brother Ram Khamhaeng expanded the Sukhothai kingdom.
Ban Mueang was a king of Sukhothai, an ancient kingdom in Thailand.

Khmer Empire

KhmerAngkorAngkorian
Two friends, Pho Khun Bangklanghao and Pho Khun Pha Mueang revolted against the Khmer Empire governor of Sukhothai. Sukhothai had been a trade centre and part of Lavo (present day Lopburi), which was under the domination of the Khmer Empire.
In the west, his Thai subjects rebelled, establishing the first Thai kingdom at Sukhothai and pushing back the Khmer.

1238

The Kingdom existed from 1238 until 1438.

Wareru

Ma Gadu
To the west, Ramkhamhaeng helped the Mons under Wareru (who is said to have eloped with Ramkamhaeng's daughter) to free themselves from Pagan control and established a kingdom at Martaban (they later moved to Pegu).
Wareru, a commoner, seized the governorship of Martaban (Mottama) in 1285, and after receiving the backing of Sukhothai, he went on to declare independence from Pagan in 1287.

Ram Khamhaeng Inscription

Ramkhamhaeng steleRam Khamhaeng steleRamkamhaeng Stele
In 1283, the Thai script was invented by Ramkamhaeng, formulating into the controversial Ramkamhaeng Stele discovered by Mongkut 600 years later.
The text gives, among other things, a description of the Sukhothai Kingdom during the time of King Ram Khamhaeng, to whom it is usually attributed.

Loe Thai

Loethai
Ramkhamhaeng was succeeded by his son Loethai.
Loe Thai was the fourth king of the Sukhothai Kingdom (a historical kingdom of Thailand) from 1257 to 1323.

Chao Phraya River

Chao PhrayaChao Phraya WatershedChao Praya
The migration of Tai people into the upper Chao Phraya valley was somewhat gradual.
The slightly higher northern plains have been farmed for centuries and saw a major change from the 13th century during the Sukhothai Kingdom in the 13th and 14th centuries and the Ayutthaya Kingdom that succeeded it when rice growing intensified with the introduction of floating rice, a much faster-growing strain of rice from Bengal.

Lan Xang

Kingdom of Lan XangLan Xang KingdomLanxang
The vassal kingdoms, first Uttaradit in the north, then soon after the Laotian kingdoms of Luang Prabang and Vientiane (Wiangchan), liberated themselves from their overlord.
With the rise of the Sukhothai Kingdom the principal city-states of Muang Sua (Luang Prabang) and south to the twin cities of Vieng Chan Vieng Kham (Vientiane), came increasingly under Tai influence.

Ayutthaya Kingdom

Ayutthaya Kingdom (Siam)AyutthayaAyutthaya period
In 1349, the armies from Ayutthaya Kingdom invaded and put Sukhothai under her tributary.
By 1550, the kingdom's vassals included some city-states in the Malay Peninsula, Sukhothai, Lan Na and parts of Burma and Cambodia.

Tai Lue language

Tai LueTai LüTai Lü language
Prior to the 13th century, Tai kingdoms had existed in the northern highlands including the Ngoenyang Kingdom of the Tai Yuan people (centred on Chiang Saen and the predecessor of the Lan Na), and the Heokam Kingdom of the Tai Lue people (centred on Chiang Hung (today Jinghong in China).
One is Fak Kham script, a variety of Thai script of Sukhothai.

Si Satchanalai District

Si SatchanalaiSrisatchanalaiAmphoe Si Satchanalai
Modern historians stated that the secession of Sukhothai (also spelled Sukhodaya) from the Khmer empire began as early as 1180 during the reign of Pho Khun Sri Naw Namthom who was the ruler of Sukhothai and the peripheral city of Si Satchanalai (now a part of Sukhothai Province as Si Satchanalai District).
Si Satchanalai was the second-most important town of the Sukhothai Kingdom.

Uttaradit Province

UttaraditUttaradit Province, Thailand
The vassal kingdoms, first Uttaradit in the north, then soon after the Laotian kingdoms of Luang Prabang and Vientiane (Wiangchan), liberated themselves from their overlord.
In the Sukhothai era several city states (Mueang) subject to the king were in the area of the modern province.

Maha Thammaracha IV

BorommapanMahathammaracha IV
In 1424, after the death of Sailuethai, his sons Phaya Ram and Phaya Ban Muang (Mahathammaracha IV) fought for the throne.
Maha Thammaracha IV, born as Borommapan, was the last king of the Sukhothai Kingdom.

Lavo Kingdom

Lavokingdom of LopburiLopburi
Sukhothai had been a trade centre and part of Lavo (present day Lopburi), which was under the domination of the Khmer Empire.
In 1239, the Tai governor of Sukhothai rebelled and declared independence from Lavo – giving birth to the Sukhothai Kingdom.

Maha Thammaracha III

Sai Lue ThaiSaileuthaiSailuethai
In 1424, after the death of Sailuethai, his sons Phaya Ram and Phaya Ban Muang (Mahathammaracha IV) fought for the throne.
Maha Thammaracha III, born as Sai Lue Thai, was a king of the Sukhothai Kingdom.