A report on Sulawesi

Mount Tongkoko is a volcano in North Sulawesi
Megalith in Central Sulawesi
Stencils of right hands in Pettakere Cave in Maros are among the oldest known examples of human artwork
Local chief (1872)
Toraja burial site. Tau-tau, the statue representing the buried people, can be seen in niches on the cliff.
The colorful bark of Eucalyptus deglupta
The north Sulawesi babirusa is endemic to Sulawesi.
The endemic ornate lorikeet
15 species of viviparous halfbeaks are endemic to Sulawesi, including 12 Nomorhamphus (depicted), Dermogenys orientalis, D. vogti, and Tondanichthys kottelati.
Orange delight shrimp (Caridina loehae) from Sulawesi.
Bunaken Island seen from Manado Tua island.
Tandako dancers and a musician in Pasere Maloku, Sulawesi.
Tandako pajogé dancers from Pasere Maloku, Celebes (now Sulawesi)
Padjogé dancers in Maros, Sulawesi, in the 1870s.
Tandako pajogé dancers and musicians in Gorontalo, North Celebes, circa 1870s.

One of the four Greater Sunda Islands.

- Sulawesi
Mount Tongkoko is a volcano in North Sulawesi

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Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

It consists of over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guinea.

Central Sulawesi

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Megalithic stone in Central Sulawesi
Dutch missionary in Poso, Central Sulawesi. Poso and the surrounding area has a significant Christian population
Hyorhinomys stuempkei is a species of rodent that can be found in Tolitoli Regency, Central Sulawesi
A Central Sulawesi traditional house in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta.
Barkcloth dress of Lore Bada people in Lore Valley, Poso Regency
Kadidiri Island in Kepulauan Togean National Park

Central Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Tengah) is a province of Indonesia located at the centre of the island of Sulawesi.

South Sulawesi

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A village in South Sulawesi 1929
Celebes Map 1905
Regent of Maros, Makassar, Sulawesi
Mangi Mangi Karaeng Bontonompo, king of Gowa, with the public and some dignitaries during the installation of acting governor of Celebes and dependencies, Mr. Bosselaar, 1937
Salt evaporation ponds in Jeneponto Regency, South Sulawesi
Passion fruit
Annona squamosa in Bulukumba, South Sulawesi
Catch of the day, Port of Bira, Bulukumba, South Sulawesi
Mountains in South Sulawesi (Gunung Nona)
Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport
Paraga dance performance.
Tamalate Palace of Gowa Sultanate
Ke'te' Kesu', Toraja Regency
A badik or badek is a knife or dagger developed by the Bugis and Makassar people of southern Sulawesi, Indonesia.

South Sulawesi (Sulawesi Selatan) is a province in the southern peninsula of Sulawesi.

Location map of Borneo in Maritime Southeast Asia, the Red River Fault is included in the map.


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Third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

Third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

Location map of Borneo in Maritime Southeast Asia, the Red River Fault is included in the map.
Mount Kinabalu in Malaysia, the highest summit of the island
Kapuas River in Indonesia; at 1000 km in length, it is the longest river in Borneo.
The critically endangered Bornean orangutan, a great ape endemic to Borneo
NASA satellite image of Borneo on 19 May 2002
Logging road in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Dayak, the main indigenous people in the island, were feared for their headhunting practices.
Territorial loss of the thalassocracy of the Sultanate of Brunei from 1400 to 1890 due to the beginning of Western imperialism
British flag hoisted for the first time on the island of Labuan on 24 December 1846
Map of the island divided between the British and the Dutch, 1898. The present boundaries of Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei are largely inherited from the British and Dutch colonial rules.
The Dayak tribe during an Erau ceremony in Tenggarong
Arab-Malay Sultan of Pontianak in 1930
Japanese troops march through the streets of Labuan on 14 January 1942.
American support craft moving towards Victoria and Brown beach to assist the landing of the members of Australian 24th Infantry Brigade on the island during Operation Oboe Six, 10 June 1945
Sukarno visiting Pontianak, West Kalimantan in 1963
Queen's Own Highlanders 1st Battalion conduct a patrol to search for enemy positions in the jungle of Brunei.
Balikpapan, a major city in Borneo
Political divisions of Borneo

At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, and east of Sumatra.

A couple donned in the neo-traditional costume, walking underneath a Lellu'  (traditional folding canopy) during their wedding ceremony


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A couple donned in the neo-traditional costume, walking underneath a Lellu'  (traditional folding canopy) during their wedding ceremony
Ancient hand axe found in Barru, c. 1965
The court ladies of Bone, unknown date
A palace owned by an aristocrat in the port city of Palopo, Luwu, South Sulawesi (c. 1900–1930)
The southwest arm of Celebes in 16th century. Parts of Kingdom of Luwu (Red), Mandar & Torajan Society (light yellow), Ajatappareng Confederation (Yellow), Tellumpocco'e Confederation (Striped), Gowa and Tallo (Orange)
The Bone Royal Family, 1912
Manuel Godinho de Erédia, a Portuguese Malaccan explorer of Bugis-Portuguese descent
From left to right: Ternate, Bali and Bugis soldiers, European illustration from the 17th century
Funeral ceremony for the Governor of Sawitto, 1932
Bugis pilgrims to Mecca, 19th century
The Conquest of Makassar in 1667
Arung Palakka, an illustration from the 17th century
A Bugis vessel in West Sulawesi during the early 20th century
Lontara, the traditional Bugis-Makassar writing script
Areas with high concentrations Bugis-speakers in Sulawesi; with its central core located in the lowland plains of South Sulawesi province
A Bugis poem with its font shaded in blue and a white background, located in the canal banks of Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies, Leiden, Netherlands
One of the Bugis-styled dagger
The early forms of recorded Bugis literature was primarily documented in a Lontar leave scroll, as can be seen in the Sure' Bawang
Kutika, a historical Bugis almanac with visible usage of Lontara and Arabic alphabets on the page.
Excerpt from La Galigo, written in the Lontara script
A group of girls clad in the Baju Bodo, sarong and traditional hair adornments
Kawari, a pendant commonly paired with the Baju Bodo and Baju La'bu
A few home-cooked Bugis classics during the Hari Raya celebration. Burasa' (center); clockwise from top: Goré-Goré Daging, Ayam Saus Merah, Nasu Kari and Nasu Likku'.
A Bugis Baju Zirah/Waju Rante from the 18th century in the National Museum of Malaysia; one of the armors that aided their historical political expansion throughout insular Southeast Asia.
The sword fighting art of Sigajang Laleng Lipa, commonly staged in a single sarong. Both of the contenders are holding a Badik
The Bugis-Makassar house in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
A traditional Bugis dwelling in South Sulawesi
Padewakang, historically used by the Bugis-Makassar-Mandar as a major trading ship before being eclipsed by the pinisi
A Pinisi shipmaking facility in Bulukumba
A map of Maritime Southeast Asia recorded in the Bugis-Makassar writing system (c.1820)
Terraced paddy fields as nestled in the agricultural landscape of the Bugis-Makassar region
The Maudu Lompoa (Grand Mawlid) procession by their Makassarese brethren, the Islamisation of the Bugis-Makassar states commenced in the 17th century
Horse racing remains as one of the popular traditional sports amongst the Bugis-Makassar-Mandar societies; in the past, the competitions were commonly held after the harvesting season
A South Sulawesi dance performance
Kecapi Bugis, one of the traditional musical instruments for songs and storytelling

The Bugis people, also known as Buginese, are an ethnicity—the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi (the others being Makassar and Toraja), in the south-western province of Sulawesi, third-largest island of Indonesia.

Map by Willem Blaeu (1630)

Maluku Islands

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Archipelago in the east of Indonesia.

Archipelago in the east of Indonesia.

Map by Willem Blaeu (1630)
Drawing of Ternate by a presumably Dutch artist. Inset shows Saint John Baptist Portuguese-built fort on the island
An orembai, a common traditional sailing vessel of the Maluku Islands
Fort Duurstede in Saparua, 1846
Tanimbar warriors
Map of Wallacea; upper right corner facing North. The red line denotes the western border of Wallacea. The eastern border corresponds to the light Australia–New Guinea shelf.
Ternate Island, as seen from Halmahera
From The Malay Archipelago by Alfred Wallace (1869): illustration of king and twelve-wired birds-of-paradise by John Gerrard Keulemans.
People of Tidore during visit by hospital ship USNS Mercy (T-AH-19)

Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, and north and east of Timor.


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Island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, in the north of the Timor Sea.

Island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, in the north of the Timor Sea.

Top: Political division of Timor between Indonesia and East Timor
Bottom: Location of Timor in Indonesia
Language map of Timor
Portrait of a Timorese warrior in the area of Kupang in 1875, from the report of the expedition of the German ship SMS Gazelle.
Boats along the Timor coast

Together with Sumba, Babar and associated smaller islands, Timor forms the southern outer archipelago of the Lesser Sunda Islands with the inner islands of Flores, Alor and Wetar to the north, and beyond them Sulawesi.


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Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

According to the Nagarakretagama, canto XIII and XIV mentioned several states in Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, New Guinea, Mindanao, Sulu Archipelago, Luzon and some parts of the Visayas islands as under the Majapahit realm of power.

Indigenous warrior from Ende, Flores.


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One of the Lesser Sunda Islands, a group of islands in the eastern half of Indonesia.

One of the Lesser Sunda Islands, a group of islands in the eastern half of Indonesia.

Indigenous warrior from Ende, Flores.
Some fishing boats on Flores
Komodo National Park
Saint Angela Church in Labuan Bajo
Jesus Statue in Maumere
The Lesser Sunda Islands with Flores in the upper right
Ruins belonging to a Portuguese fort, dating from the 16th century near Ende.
An ancient Ngada megalith
Dancers in Watublapi
Villager with a headress and chest ornamentation

To the south, across the Sumba Strait, is Sumba island and to the north, beyond the Flores Sea, is Sulawesi.

Hand prints in Pettakere Cave at Leang-Leang Prehistoric Site, Maros.

South Peninsula, Sulawesi

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Hand prints in Pettakere Cave at Leang-Leang Prehistoric Site, Maros.
South Peninsula Map 1905

The South Peninsula is one of the four principal peninsulas on the island of Sulawesi, stretching south from the central part of the island.