Suleiman the Magnificent

Suleiman ISuleimanSüleyman the MagnificentSultanSultan SuleimanSuleymanSuleyman the MagnificentSultan Suleiman ISultan Suleiman the MagnificentSüleyman I
Suleiman I ( '; Birinci Süleyman, Kanunî Sultan Süleyman or Muhteşem Süleyman; 6 November 1494 – 6 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Kanunî Sultan Süleyman''' ("The Lawgiver Suleiman") in his realm, was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 until his death in 1566.wikipedia
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Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
Suleiman I ( '; Birinci Süleyman, Kanunî Sultan Süleyman or Muhteşem Süleyman; 6 November 1494 – 6 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Kanunî Sultan Süleyman''' ("The Lawgiver Suleiman") in his realm, was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 until his death in 1566.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa.

Siege of Vienna

Viennabesieging ViennaFirst Turkish Siege
Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies in conquering the Christian strongholds of Belgrade and Rhodes as well as most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529.
The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria.

Belgrade

BeogradBelgrade, SerbiaCity of Belgrade
Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies in conquering the Christian strongholds of Belgrade and Rhodes as well as most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529.
Seven decades after the initial siege, on 28 August 1521, the fort was finally captured by Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his 250,000 soldiers and over 100 ships subsequently, most of the city was razed to the ground and its entire Orthodox Christian population was deported to Istanbul, to an area that has since become known as the Belgrade forest.

Transformation of the Ottoman Empire

generalized political and economic crisisTransformation of the Ottoman Empire (1550–1700)transformed
In the decades after Suleiman, the empire began to experience significant political, institutional, and economic changes, a phenomenon often referred to as the Transformation of the Ottoman Empire.
1700, spanning roughly from the end of the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent to the Treaty of Karlowitz at the conclusion of the War of the Holy League.

Şehzade Bayezid

BayezidŞehzade BeyazıtShahzade Bayazit
His other son Bayezid was executed in 1561 on Suleiman's orders, along with his four sons, after a rebellion.
Şehzade Bayezid (1525 – 25 September 1561) was an Ottoman prince as the son of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his legal wife Hürrem Sultan.

Selim II

SelimSultan Selim IISultan Selim
Their son Selim II succeeded Suleiman following his death in 1566 after 46 years of rule.
He was a son of Suleiman the Magnificent and Haseki Hürrem Sultan.

Şehzade Mustafa

MustafaMustapha
Suleiman's other potential heirs, Mehmed and Mustafa, had died; the former had died from smallpox, and the latter had been strangled to death 13 years earlier at the sultan's order.
Şehzade Mustafa Muhlisi ( 1515 – 6 October 1553) was the eldest son of the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his consort Mahidevran Sultan.

Şehzade Mehmed

MehmedŞehzade Sultan Mehmed
Suleiman's other potential heirs, Mehmed and Mustafa, had died; the former had died from smallpox, and the latter had been strangled to death 13 years earlier at the sultan's order.
Şehzade Mehmed (1521–1543) was an Ottoman prince (şehzade), son of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and Hürrem Sultan.

Ottoman decline thesis

declinedeclinedOttoman decline paradigm
Although scholars no longer believe that the empire declined after his death, the end of Suleiman's reign is still frequently characterized as a watershed in Ottoman history.
Donald Quataert, "Ottoman History Writing and Changing Attitudes towards the Notion of 'Decline,'" History Compass 1 (2003) historical narrative which once played a dominant role in the study of the history of the Ottoman Empire. According to the decline thesis, following a golden age associated with the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566), the empire gradually entered into a period of all-encompassing stagnation and decline from which it was never able to recover, lasting until the empire's dissolution in 1923. This thesis was used throughout most of the twentieth century as the basis of both Western and Republican Turkish understanding of Ottoman history. However, by 1978, historians had begun to reexamine the fundamental assumptions of the decline thesis. After the publication of numerous new studies throughout the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, and the reexamination of Ottoman history through the use of previously untapped sources and methodologies, academic historians of the Ottoman Empire achieved a consensus that the entire notion of Ottoman decline was a myth – that in fact, the Ottoman Empire did not stagnate or decline at all, but rather continued to be a vigorous and dynamic state long after the death of Suleiman the Magnificent. The decline thesis has been criticized as "teleological", "regressive", "Orientalist", "simplistic", and "one-dimensional", and described as "a concept which has no place in historical analysis". Scholars have thus "learned better than to discuss [it]."

Hafsa Sultan (wife of Selim I)

Hafsa SultanHafsaAyşe Hafsa Sultan
His mother was Hafsa Sultan, a convert to Islam of unknown origins, who died in 1534.
Hafsa Sultan (‎; died 19 March 1534) was the wife of Selim I and the first valide sultan of the Ottoman Empire as the mother of Suleiman the Magnificent.

Ottoman Navy

Ottoman fleetNavyOttoman
Under his rule, the Ottoman fleet dominated the seas from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea and through the Persian Gulf.
In 1522 the strategic island of Rhodes, then the seat of the Knights of St. John, was conquered by the naval fleet of Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis; Suleiman I let the Knights leave the island, and they relocated their base first to Sicily and later to Malta.

Siege of Belgrade (1521)

BelgradeSiege of Belgrade1521
Suleiman soon made preparations for the conquest of Belgrade from the Kingdom of Hungary—something his great-grandfather Mehmed II had failed to achieve because of John Hunyadi's strong defense in the region.
Sultan Suleiman laid siege to the Hungarian fortress of Belgrade.

Ottoman architecture

OttomanTurkish architectureOttoman architectural
He was a distinguished poet and goldsmith; he also became a great patron of culture, overseeing the "Golden" age of the Ottoman Empire in its artistic, literary and architectural development.
His second significant work was the Süleymaniye Mosque and the surrounding complex, built for Suleiman the Magnificent.

Istanbul

İstanbulConstantinopleIstanbul, Turkey
At the age of seven, Suleiman was sent to study science, history, literature, theology and military tactics in the schools of the imperial Topkapı Palace in Constantinople (modern Istanbul).
Suleiman the Magnificent's reign from 1520 to 1566 was a period of especially great artistic and architectural achievement; chief architect Mimar Sinan designed several iconic buildings in the city, while Ottoman arts of ceramics, stained glass, calligraphy, and miniature flourished.

Topkapı Palace

TopkapiTopkapıTopkapi Palace
At the age of seven, Suleiman was sent to study science, history, literature, theology and military tactics in the schools of the imperial Topkapı Palace in Constantinople (modern Istanbul).
The palace was significantly expanded between 1520 and 1560, during the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent.

Qanun (law)

Kanunqanunqanuns
His reforms, carried out in conjunction with the empire's chief judicial official Ebussuud Efendi, harmonized the relationship between the two forms of Ottoman law; sultanic (Kanun) and religious (Sharia).
The 10th sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Suleiman was known in the Ottoman Empire as Suleiman Kanuni ("the Lawgiver"), due to his code of laws.

Battle of Mohács

MohácsMohács disaster1526 Battle of Mohács
As relations between Hungary and the Ottoman Empire deteriorated, Suleiman resumed his campaign in Central Europe, and on 29 August 1526 he defeated Louis II of Hungary (1506–1526) at the Battle of Mohács.
It was fought on 29 August 1526 near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary, between the forces of the Kingdom of Hungary, led by Louis II, and those of the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent.

Culture of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman cultureOttoman artculture
He was a distinguished poet and goldsmith; he also became a great patron of culture, overseeing the "Golden" age of the Ottoman Empire in its artistic, literary and architectural development.
It was invented by Housam Roumi, reaching its greatest development under Süleyman I the Magnificent (1520–66).

Turkish literature

TurkishliteratureOttoman literature
He was a distinguished poet and goldsmith; he also became a great patron of culture, overseeing the "Golden" age of the Ottoman Empire in its artistic, literary and architectural development.
Bâkî (1526–1600); a poet of great rhetorical power and linguistic subtlety whose skill in using the pre-established tropes of the Divan tradition is quite representative of the poetry in the time of Süleyman the Magnificent

Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed IIMehmed II, the ConquerorMehmet the Conqueror
Suleiman soon made preparations for the conquest of Belgrade from the Kingdom of Hungary—something his great-grandfather Mehmed II had failed to achieve because of John Hunyadi's strong defense in the region.
A period of relative peace ensued in the region until the Fall of Belgrade in 1521, during the reign of Mehmed's great-grandson, known as Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.

Harem

haremsharimamongst others
Breaking with Ottoman tradition, Suleiman married Hurrem Sultan, a woman from his harem, a Christian of Ruthenian origin who converted to Islam, and who became famous in the West by the name Roxelana, purportedly due to her red hair.
Hürrem Sultan (wife of Suleiman the Magnificent, mother of Selim II), was one of the most powerful women in Ottoman history.

Trabzon

TrebizondTrapezusafter 1461
Suleiman was born in Trabzon along the east coast of the Black Sea to Şehzade Selim (later Selim I), probably on 6 November 1494, although this date is not known with absolute certainty.
During the reign of Sultan Bayezid II, his son Prince Selim (later Sultan Selim I) was the sancakbeyi of Trabzon, and Selim I's son Suleiman the Magnificent was born in Trabzon on November 6, 1494.

Rhodes

RhodianRhodiansRodos
Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies in conquering the Christian strongholds of Belgrade and Rhodes as well as most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529.
Eventually, however, Rhodes fell to the large army of Suleiman the Magnificent in December 1522.

Manisa

MagnesiaSaruhanManisa, Turkey
From the age of seventeen, he was appointed as the governor of first Kaffa (Theodosia), then Manisa, with a brief tenure at Edirne.
In a practice started by Murad II in 1437, fifteen members of the Ottoman dynasty, including two among the most notable, namely Mehmed II and Süleyman I, held the administration of the city and of its dependencies in seventeen near-continuous periods until 1595.

Siege of Güns

Siege of KőszegdefenceGüns
His second attempt to conquer Vienna failed in 1532, as Ottoman forces were delayed by the siege of Güns and failed to reach Vienna.
The defenders prevented the advance of the Ottoman army of 120,000–200,000 toward Vienna, under the leadership of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent ( Süleymān) and Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha.