Suleiman the Magnificent

Portrait of Suleiman by Titian c. 1530
Suleiman by Nakkaş Osman.
Suleiman during the siege of Rhodes in 1522
Ottoman siege of Esztergom (1543)
King John Sigismund of Hungary with Suleiman in 1556
Miniature depicting Suleiman marching with an army in Nakhchivan, summer 1554
Ottoman fleet in the Indian Ocean in the 16th century
Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeats the Holy League under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza in 1538
France's King Francis I never met Suleiman but they created a Franco-Ottoman alliance from the 1530s.
The siege of Malta in 1565: arrival of the Turkish fleet, by Matteo Perez d'Aleccio
Suleiman I plate at al-Masjid al-Nabawi – Medina
Suleiman the Magnificent receives an ambassador (painting by Matrakçı Nasuh)
Ottoman miniature from the Süleymanname depicting the execution by elephant of defeated enemy in Belgrade
Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, built by Mimar Sinan, Suleiman's chief architect.
16th-century oil painting of Hurrem Sultan
Suleiman awaits the arrival of his Grand Vizier Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha at Buda, 1529.
Ottoman sultani minted during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent
The Ottoman Empire at the time of the death of Suleiman I
Burial place of Suleiman I at Süleymaniye Mosque
Suleiman's marble portrait in the US Capitol

The tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 until his death in 1566.

- Suleiman the Magnificent
Portrait of Suleiman by Titian c. 1530

500 related topics


Selim's portrait 1570

Selim II

Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى Selīm-i s ānī, II.

Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى Selīm-i s ānī, II.

Selim's portrait 1570
Selim ascends the throne.
Equestrian portrait of Sultan Selim II by Lambert de Vos, 1574

He was a son of Suleiman the Magnificent and his wife Hurrem Sultan.

Portrait by Titian titled La Sultana Rossa, c. 1550

Hurrem Sultan

Portrait by Titian titled La Sultana Rossa, c. 1550
Suleiman the Magnificent
Statue of Roxolana (Nastia Lisovska) in Rohatyn, Ukraine
16th century Latin oil painting of Hurrem Sultan titled Rosa Solymanni Vxor (Rosa, Süleyman's Wife)
Letter of Hurrem Sultan to Sigismund II Augustus, congratulating him on his accession to the Polish throne in 1549.
Haseki Sultan Complex designed by the architect Mimar Sinan.
The türbe (mausoleum) of Hurrem Sultan at Süleymaniye Mosque in Fatih, Istanbul.
Anon., published by Matteo Pagani, Portrait of Roxelana, 1540–50. The inscription describes her as "the most beautiful and favorite wife of the Grand Turk, called la Rossa."
The son of Hurrem Sultan and Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II
18th century portrait of Hurrem Sultan kept at Topkapı Palace.
A portrait of Roxelana in the British Royal Collection, c. 1600–70
A painting of Hurrem Sultan by a follower of Titian, 16th century
Roxelana and Süleyman the Magnificent by the German baroque painter Anton Hickel, (1780)
Engraving by Johann Theodor de Bry, (1596)
16th century oil on wood painting of Hurrem Sultan
Tribute to Roxelana on 1997 Ukrainian postage stamp
thumb|Serlevha (illuminated frontispiece) from the Endowment Charter (Waqfiyya) pertaining to the architectural complex commissioned by Hürrem Sultan in the Aksaray district of Istanbul. 1540. Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts
The Hagia Sophia Hurrem Sultan Bathhouse built in 1556

Hurrem Sultan (,, Hürrem Sultan; c. undefined 1502 – 15 April 1558), also known as Roxelana (Роксолана; ), was the chief consort and official wife of the Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.



Position with several historical meanings.

Position with several historical meanings.

Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV attended by a eunuch and two pages.
H.M. Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said, from the Al Said dynasty, ruled Oman for nearly 50 years.
Sultan Abd al-Hafid of Morocco.
19th century map of central Somaliland showing the territory of Sultan Nur of the Habr Yunis
Sultan of Adal and his forces (right) battling the Abyssinian King and his men (Le Livre des Merveilles, 15th century).
The eighth Sultan of Zanzibar, Ali bin Hamud. Photograph taken between 1902 and 1911.
In the former Kingdom of Afghanistan "Sultan" was a high title of honour, superior to Amir and Sardar, but ranking below Shah. Sultan Masood Dakik is a notable holder of this title, also in regards to his post as current Hazrat Ishaan
Hamengkubuwono X, the incumbent Sultan of Yogyakarta
Pakubuwono XII, last undisputed Susuhunan of Surakarta
Sultan Saifuddin of Tidore
Mohammed Mahakuttah Abdullah Kiram, last recognised Sultan of Sulu
The valide sultan (sultana mother) of the Ottoman Empire

The 16th-century Ottoman scholar and jurist, Ebüssuûd Mehmet Efendi, recognized the Ottoman sultan (Suleiman the Magnificent at the time) as the caliph and universal leader of all Muslims.

Selim I by Nakkaş Osman

Selim I

The Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.

The Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.

Selim I by Nakkaş Osman
Selim I at the Battle of Chaldiran: artwork at the Chehel Sotoun Pavilion in Isfahan
Outline of the Ottoman Empire, from the Theatro d'el Orbe de la Tierra de Abraham Ortelius, Antwerp, 1602, updated from the 1570 edition.
A painting depicting Selim I during the Egypt campaign, located in Army Museum, Istanbul.
Selim I on his deathbed.
The türbe of Selim I in his mosque.
Yavuz Selim Mosque
Selim I
Selim I with a mace
Selim I by an unknown European painter
16th century miniature of Selim I
Selim I and Piri Mehmed Pasha
Selim I by Aşık Çelebi

Selim died and was brought to Istanbul, so he could be buried in Yavuz Selim Mosque which Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent commissioned in loving memory of his father.

Gate of Salutation

Topkapı Palace

Large museum in the east of the Fatih district of Istanbul in Turkey.

Large museum in the east of the Fatih district of Istanbul in Turkey.

Gate of Salutation
Sultan Mehmed II ordered the initial construction around the 1460s
Inside the Harem.
The Imperial Gate (Bâb-ı Hümâyûn)
Layout of the second courtyard: the gilded door leads to the domed Imperial Council Chamber and in the background is the Tower of Justice
Interior of the Imperial Council
Entrance of the Imperial Council
The palace kitchens with the tall chimneys
Interior of the Imperial Council
Interior of the Imperial Council
The former Imperial Treasury houses the armoury collection today.
Detail of the Gate of Felicity
The Third Courtyard, depiction from the Hünername in 1584
Arz Odası, the Audience Chamber
Main entrance to the Audience Chamber, with the small fountain of Suleiman I to the right, and the large gifts window to the left
The Conqueror's Pavilion (Fatih Köşkü) houses the Imperial Treasury
Hallway of the Conqueror's Pavilion
Door to the Imperial Treasury (Hazine-i Âmire)
Scene from the Surname-ı Vehbi, located in the palace
Enderûn Library, or Library of Sultan Ahmed III
İznik tiles decorate the interior
Layout of the Harem and the Sultan's Private Apartments. (click on image for details)
The Courtyard of the Eunuchs
Reconstruction of an Ottoman style library, in the Topkapı Palace museum
Courtyard of the Apartments of the Queen Mother (Valide Sultan Dairesi)
Exhibit representing the Queen Mother and her attendants in her apartments
Baths of the Sultan with gilded grill
Imperial Hall with the throne of the sultan
Dome ceiling of the Imperial Hall
The fountain of the Privy Chamber of Murat III
The Fruit Room with painted walls
Outside view of the Twin Kiosk
Stained-glass windows decorate the interior
The Courtyard of the Favourites
The Golden Road
Interior of the Circumcision Room
Entrance of the Circumcision Room
Open recess (iwan) of the Yerevan Kiosk
Upper terrace with fountain, İftar bower and Baghdad Kiosk
Tower of the Head Tutor / Chamber of the Chief Physician
Panoramic view of the Marmara Sea from the palace
Terrace Mosque
One of the hollow trees, in the Third Court
Overview map of the courtyards
Painting of Sultan Selim III holding audience in front of the Gate of Felicity
View of Galata Tower from Harem of Topkapı Palace
The Seraglio Point, 1838
Partial view of Seraglio Point with Topkapı Palace and Incirli Kiosk, 1559
The Gate of Salutation, entrance to the Second courtyard of Topkapı Palace
Tughra of Mehmed II on the Gate of Salutation
The Imperial Mint of the Ottoman Empire
Byzantine Church Hagia Irene
Hagia Irene interior

The palace was significantly expanded between 1520 and 1560, during the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent.

Tahmasp I in the mountains (detail), by Farrukh Beg

Tahmasp I

The second Shah of Safavid Iran from 1524 to 1576.

The second Shah of Safavid Iran from 1524 to 1576.

Tahmasp I in the mountains (detail), by Farrukh Beg
Persian miniature, attributable to Mo'en Mosavver, of a young Tahmasp and his courtiers. Album leaf from Bijan's Tarikh-i Jahangusha-yi Khaqan Sahibqiran (A History of Shah Ismail I), c. 1670
Suleiman the Magnificent marching towards Nakhchivan. Miniature from the Süleymanname, with poems in Persian
Alqas Mirza and Suleiman the Magnificent. Illustration from the Süleymanname
Tahamsp and Humayun at a Nowruz festival (Chehel Sotoun, Isfahan)
An aged Tahmasp, painted c. 1575
Flag of Tahmasp I
The Chehel Sotoun pavilion in Qazvin
A Quran probably belonging to Tahmasp I, dated July–August 1552
alt=Ornate 1590s portrait of Tahmasp|Print of Tahmasp by Johann Theodor de Bry
alt=Black and white 1810's drawing of Tahmasp|Tahmasp I by Charles Heath

The Ottomans, under Suleiman the Magnificent, tried to put their favoured candidates on the Safavid throne.

Battle of Mohacs by Bertalan Szekely

Battle of Mohács

Battle of Mohacs by Bertalan Szekely
Kingdom of Hungary before 1526, and the 3 parts into which it was divided after the Battle of Mohács: Royal Hungary, Transylvania, and the part that was annexed by the Ottoman Empire.
Louis II of Hungary, who died at the Battle of Mohács, painted by Titian
The battle of Mohács, on an Ottoman miniature
General Pál Tomori, the captain of the army, in his golden Renaissance armour (1526)
Discovery of the Corpse of King Louis II
Sallet of king Louis
Janissary uniform
Battle Monument in Mohács
Markers at the Mohacs Monument show where bodies of nobles, knights, soldiers, and horses were found

The Battle of Mohács (mohácsi csata, Mohaç Muharebesi or Mohaç Savaşı) was fought on 29 August 1526 near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary, between the forces of the Kingdom of Hungary and its allies, led by Louis II, and those of the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent.

Ottoman Empire

Empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

Empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

The Ottoman Empire in 1683
The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, depicted in an Ottoman miniature from 1523
The Ottoman Empire in 1683
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror's entry into Constantinople; painting by Fausto Zonaro (1854–1929)
An Ottoman miniature of the Battle of Mohács in 1526
Map of Ottoman territorial acquisitions up to 1683
The Second Siege of Vienna in 1683, by Frans Geffels (1624–1694).
Austrian troops led by Prince Eugene of Savoy captured Belgrade in 1717. Austrian control in Serbia lasted until the Turkish victory in the Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–1739). With the 1739 Treaty of Belgrade, the Ottoman Empire regained northern Bosnia, Habsburg Serbia (including Belgrade), Oltenia and the southern parts of the Banat of Temeswar.
Ottoman troops attempting to halt the advancing Russians during the Siege of Ochakov in 1788
Selim III receiving dignitaries during an audience at the Gate of Felicity, Topkapı Palace. Painting by Konstantin Kapıdağlı.
The siege of the Acropolis in 1826–1827 during the Greek War of Independence
Opening ceremony of the First Ottoman Parliament at the Dolmabahçe Palace in 1876. The First Constitutional Era lasted only two years until 1878. The Ottoman Constitution and Parliament were restored 30 years later with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908.
Ottoman troops storming Fort Shefketil during the Crimean War of 1853–1856
The Empire in 1875 under sultan Abdul-Aziz
Declaration of the Young Turk Revolution by the leaders of the Ottoman millets in 1908
Admiral Wilhelm Souchon, who commanded the Black Sea Raid on 29 October 1914, and his officers in Ottoman naval uniforms
The Armenian genocide was the result of the Ottoman government's deportation and ethnic cleansing policies regarding its Armenian citizens after the Battle of Sarikamish (1914–1915) and the collapse of the Caucasus Front against the Imperial Russian Army and Armenian volunteer units during World War I. An estimated 600,000 to more than 1 million, or up to 1.5 million people were killed.
Mehmed VI, the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, leaving the country after the abolition of the Ottoman sultanate, 17 November 1922
Ambassadors at the Topkapı Palace
Inside Harem, the private residence of the sultan in Topkapı Palace
Yusuf Ziya Pasha, Ottoman ambassador to the United States, in Washington, 1913
An Ottoman trial, 1877
An unhappy wife complains to the Qadi about her husband's impotence as depicted in an Ottoman miniature.
Ottoman sipahis in battle, holding the crescent banner (by Józef Brandt)
Selim III watching the parade of his new army, the Nizam-ı Cedid (New Order) troops, in 1793
A German postcard depicting the Ottoman Navy at the Golden Horn in the early stages of World War I. At top left is a portrait of Sultan Mehmed V.
Ottoman pilots in early 1912
Administrative divisions in 1899 (year 1317 Hijri)
A European bronze medal from the period of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, 1481
The Ottoman Bank was founded in 1856 in Constantinople. On 26 August 1896, the bank was occupied by members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.
Smyrna under Ottoman rule in 1900
View of Galata (Karaköy) and the Galata Bridge on the Golden Horn, c. 1880–1893
1911 Ottoman calendar shown in several different languages such as: Ottoman Turkish, Greek, Armenian, Hebrew, Bulgarian and French.
Abdülmecid II was the last caliph of Islam and a member of the Ottoman dynasty.
Mehmed the Conqueror and Patriarch Gennadius II
The original Church of St. Anthony of Padua, Istanbul was built in 1725 by the local Italian community of Istanbul.
Depiction of a hookah shop in Lebanon, Ottoman Empire
Beyazıt State Library was founded in 1884.
Ahmet Nedîm Efendi, one of the most celebrated Ottoman poets
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, designed by Sinan in the 16th century and a major example of the Classical Ottoman style
Ottoman miniature lost its function with the Westernization of Ottoman culture.
Turkish women baking bread, 1790
Observatory of Taqi ad-Din in 1577
Girl Reciting the Qurān (Kuran Okuyan Kız), an 1880 painting by the Ottoman polymath Osman Hamdi Bey, whose works often showed women engaged in educational activities.
Members of Beşiktaş J.K. in 1903
Members of Galatasaray S.K. (football) in 1905
Miniature from Surname-i Vehbi showing the Mehteran, the music band of the Janissaries
The shadow play Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire.
Musicians and dancers entertain the crowds, from Surname-i Hümayun, 1720.
A Musical Gathering - 18th century
Acrobacy in Surname-i Hümayun

Under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire marked the peak of its power and prosperity, as well as the highest development of its governmental, social, and economic systems.

Contemporary 1529 engraving of clashes between the Austrians and Ottomans outside Vienna, by Bartel Beham

Siege of Vienna (1529)

The first attempt by the Ottoman Empire to capture the city of Vienna, Austria.

The first attempt by the Ottoman Empire to capture the city of Vienna, Austria.

Contemporary 1529 engraving of clashes between the Austrians and Ottomans outside Vienna, by Bartel Beham
Portrait of Suleiman the Magnificent by Cristofano dell'Altissimo
Panoramic view of Vienna during the first Turkish siege, by Nikolaus Meldemann, 1530, Wien Museum
St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, used as the informal headquarters of the Austrian resistance by Niklas Graf Salm, appointed head of the mercenary relief force.
Depiction of German Landsknechts circa 1530, renowned mercenary infantry of the Renaissance period, famous for their pikes, long halberds, and Zweihänder swords.
An Ottoman depiction of the siege from the 16th century, housed in the Istanbul Hachette Art Museum

Suleiman the Magnificent, sultan of the Ottomans, attacked the city with over 100,000 men, while the defenders, led by Niklas Graf Salm, numbered no more than 21,000.

German illustration of Süleyman Çelebi from 1648 with the title "Sultan Suleiman Khan"

Süleyman Çelebi

Ottoman prince (şehzade) and a co-ruler of the Ottoman Empire for several years during the Ottoman Interregnum.

Ottoman prince (şehzade) and a co-ruler of the Ottoman Empire for several years during the Ottoman Interregnum.

German illustration of Süleyman Çelebi from 1648 with the title "Sultan Suleiman Khan"
Map of the southern Balkans and western Anatolia in 1410, shortly before Süleyman's defeat. Ottoman and Turkish territories are marked in shades of brown, Byzantine territory in pink, and Venetian and Venetian-influenced areas in green

There is a tradition of western origin, according to which Suleiman the Magnificent was "Suleiman II", but that tradition has been based on an erroneous assumption that Süleyman Çelebi was to be recognised as a legitimate sultan.