Sulfate

sulfatessulphateSO 4 hydrogen sulfatebisulfatesulfate ionsulphatesSO 4 2− SOS 2 O 8
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.wikipedia
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Sulfuric acid

sulphuric acidsulfuricH 2 SO 4
Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid. The sulfate ion carries an overall charge of −2 and it is the conjugate base of the bisulfate (or hydrogen sulfate) ion, which is in turn the conjugate base of, sulfuric acid.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid), also known as vitriol, is a mineral acid composed of the elements sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen, with molecular formula H 2 SO 4.

Salt (chemistry)

saltsaltspotassium salt
Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid.
These component ions can be inorganic, such as chloride (Cl − ), or organic, such as acetate ; and can be monatomic, such as fluoride (F − ) or polyatomic, such as sulfate.

Polyatomic ion

molecular ionpolyatomicpolyatomic anion
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
For example, the conjugate base of sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) is the polyatomic hydrogen sulfate anion (HSO4-).

Organosulfate

sulfate esteralkyl sulfatealkyl sulphates
Organic sulfate esters, such as dimethyl sulfate, are covalent compounds and esters of sulfuric acid.
The SO 4 core is a sulfate group and the R group is any organic residue.

Dimethyl sulfate

dimethylsulfate(CH 3 O) 2 SO 2 (CH 3 ) 2 SO 4
Organic sulfate esters, such as dimethyl sulfate, are covalent compounds and esters of sulfuric acid.
As the diester of methanol and sulfuric acid, its formula is often written as (CH 3 ) 2 SO 4 or even Me 2 SO 4, where CH 3 or Me is methyl.

Sulfur

sulphurSbrimstone
The sulfate anion consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four equivalent oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement.
Sulfur trioxide and sulfates are related to sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ).

Oxidation state

oxidation numberoxidation statesoxidation
The sulfur atom is in the +6 oxidation state while the four oxygen atoms are each in the −2 state.
Consider the sulfate anion ( with 32 valence electrons; 24 from oxygens, 6 from sulfur, 2 of the anion charge obtained from the implied cation).

Tetrahedral molecular geometry

tetrahedraltetrahedral geometryinverted tetrahedral geometry
The tetrahedral molecular geometry of the sulfate ion is as predicted by VSEPR theory.
Often tetrahedral molecules feature multiple bonding to the outer ligands, as in xenon tetroxide (XeO 4 ), the perchlorate ion, the sulfate ion, the phosphate ion.

Sulfide

sulphidesulfidesS
Depending on the conditions, the oxidation can produce elemental sulfur, polysulfides, polythionates, sulfite, or sulfate.

Barium sulfate

BaSO 4 barium sulphatebaryta
Exceptions include calcium sulfate, strontium sulfate, lead(II) sulfate, and barium sulfate, which are poorly soluble.
Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO 4.

Ion

cationanionions
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.

American and British English spelling differences

spelling differencesorsee spelling differences
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.

Polyhalite

Polyhalite is an evaporite mineral, a hydrated sulfate of potassium, calcium and magnesium with formula: K 2 Ca 2 Mg(SO 4 ) 4 ·2H 2 O. Polyhalite crystallizes in the triclinic system, although crystals are very rare.

Conjugate acid

conjugate baseconjugateconjugate bases
The sulfate ion carries an overall charge of −2 and it is the conjugate base of the bisulfate (or hydrogen sulfate) ion, which is in turn the conjugate base of, sulfuric acid.

Iron(II) sulfate

ferrous sulfatecopperasiron sulphate
Green vitriol is iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O; blue vitriol is copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O and white vitriol is zinc sulfate heptahydrate, ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O. Alum, a double sulfate of potassium and aluminium with the formula K 2 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 4 ·24H 2 O, figured in the development of the chemical industry.
Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO 4 ·xH 2 O. These compounds exist most commonly as the heptahydrate (x = 7) but are known for several values of x.

VSEPR theory

VSEPRAXE methodVSEPR model
The tetrahedral molecular geometry of the sulfate ion is as predicted by VSEPR theory.

Copper(II) sulfate

copper sulfateblue vitriolcopper sulphate
Green vitriol is iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O; blue vitriol is copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O and white vitriol is zinc sulfate heptahydrate, ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O. Alum, a double sulfate of potassium and aluminium with the formula K 2 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 4 ·24H 2 O, figured in the development of the chemical industry.
Copper(II) sulfate, also known as copper sulphate, are the inorganic compounds with the chemical formula CuSO 4 (H 2 O) x, where x can range from 0 to 5.

Alum

AlaunAllumalum compounds
Green vitriol is iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O; blue vitriol is copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O and white vitriol is zinc sulfate heptahydrate, ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O. Alum, a double sulfate of potassium and aluminium with the formula K 2 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 4 ·24H 2 O, figured in the development of the chemical industry.
An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.

Aluminium

aluminumAlall-metal
Green vitriol is iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O; blue vitriol is copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O and white vitriol is zinc sulfate heptahydrate, ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O. Alum, a double sulfate of potassium and aluminium with the formula K 2 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 4 ·24H 2 O, figured in the development of the chemical industry.
The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium.

Barium chloride

BaCl 2 bariumbarium chloride dihydrate
The barium derivative is useful in the gravimetric analysis of sulfate: if one adds a solution of, perhaps, barium chloride to a solution containing sulfate ions, the appearance of a white precipitate, which is barium sulfate, indicates that sulfate anions are present.
Its solutions react with sulfate ion to produce a thick white precipitate of barium sulfate.

Particulates

particulate matterparticulatefine particulate matter
Sulfates occur as microscopic particles (aerosols) resulting from fossil fuel and biomass combustion.
Sea salt is considered the second-largest contributor in the global aerosol budget, and consists mainly of sodium chloride originated from sea spray; other constituents of atmospheric sea salt reflect the composition of sea water, and thus include magnesium, sulfate, calcium, potassium, etc. In addition, sea spray aerosols may contain organic compounds, which influence their chemistry.

Zinc sulfate

zinc sulphateZnSO 4 white vitriol
Green vitriol is iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O; blue vitriol is copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O and white vitriol is zinc sulfate heptahydrate, ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O. Alum, a double sulfate of potassium and aluminium with the formula K 2 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 4 ·24H 2 O, figured in the development of the chemical industry.
It has the formula ZnSO 4 as well as any of three hydrates.

Solubility

solubleinsolublewater-soluble
Many examples of ionic sulfates are known, and many of these are highly soluble in water.

Magnesium sulfate

Epsom saltsEpsom saltmagnesium sulphate
In agriculture, magnesium sulfate is used to increase magnesium or sulfur content in soil.

Sodium bisulfate

sodium hydrogen sulfateSodium bisulphateNaHSO
An example of a salt containing the group is sodium bisulfate, NaHSO 4.
Sodium bisulfate, also known as sodium hydrogen sulfate, is the sodium salt of the bisulfate anion, with the molecular formula NaHSO 4.