A report on Sulfur

As a solid, sulfur is a characteristic lemon yellow; when burned, sulfur melts into a blood-red liquid and emits a blue flame.
Sulfur vat from which railroad cars are loaded, Freeport Sulphur Co., Hoskins Mound, Texas (1943)
Most of the yellow and orange hues of Io are due to elemental sulfur and sulfur compounds deposited by active volcanoes.
Sulfur extraction, East Java
A man carrying sulfur blocks from Kawah Ijen, a volcano in East Java, Indonesia, 2009
The structure of the cyclooctasulfur molecule, S8
Lapis lazuli owes its blue color to a trisulfur radical anion
Two parallel sulfur chains grown inside a single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT, a). Zig-zag (b) and straight (c) S chains inside double-wall CNTs
Pharmaceutical container for sulfur from the first half of the 20th century. From the Museo del Objeto del Objeto collection
Traditional sulfur mining at Ijen Volcano, East Java, Indonesia. This image shows the dangerous and rugged conditions the miners face, including toxic smoke and high drops, as well as their lack of protective equipment. The pipes over which they are standing are for condensing sulfur vapors.
Sulfur recovered from hydrocarbons in Alberta, stockpiled for shipment in North Vancouver, British Columbia
Production and price (US market) of elemental sulfur
Sulfuric acid production in 2000
Sulfur candle originally sold for home fumigation
Schematic representation of disulfide bridges between two protein helices
Effect of acid rain on a forest, Jizera Mountains, Czech Republic
Allicin, a chemical compound in garlic
(R)-cysteine, an amino acid containing a thiol group
Methionine, an amino acid containing a thioether
Diphenyl disulfide, a representative disulfide
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, a surfactant
Dibenzothiophene, a component of crude oil
Penicillin, an antibiotic where "R" is the variable group

Chemical element with the symbol S and atomic number 16.

- Sulfur
As a solid, sulfur is a characteristic lemon yellow; when burned, sulfur melts into a blood-red liquid and emits a blue flame.

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Deposit of sulfur on a rock, caused by volcanic gas

Hydrogen sulfide

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Chemical compound with the formula .

Chemical compound with the formula .

Deposit of sulfur on a rock, caused by volcanic gas
Process flow diagram of a typical amine treating process used in petroleum refineries, natural gas processing plants and other industrial facilities
Sludge from a pond; the black color is due to metal sulfides
A hydrogen sulfide bloom (green) stretching for about 150km along the coast of Namibia. As oxygen-poor water reaches the coast, bacteria in the organic-matter rich sediment produce hydrogen sulfide which is toxic to fish.

At high temperatures or in the presence of catalysts, sulfur dioxide reacts with hydrogen sulfide to form elemental sulfur and water.

Two resonance structures of sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide

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Chemical compound with the formula.

Chemical compound with the formula.

Two resonance structures of sulfur dioxide
The blue auroral glows of Io's upper atmosphere are caused by volcanic sulfur dioxide.
A collection of estimates of past and future anthropogenic global sulfur dioxide emissions. The Cofala et al. estimates are for sensitivity studies on SO2 emission policies, CLE: Current Legislation, MFR: Maximum Feasible Reductions. RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways) are used in CMIP5 simulations for latest (2013–2014) IPCC 5th assessment report.
US Geological Survey volunteer tests for sulfur dioxide after the 2018 lower Puna eruption.
A sulfur dioxide plume from Halemaʻumaʻu, which glows at night
Sulfur dioxide in the world on April 15, 2017. Note that sulfur dioxide moves through the atmosphere with prevailing winds and thus local sulfur dioxide distributions vary day to day with weather patterns and seasonality.

Most sulfur dioxide is produced by the combustion of elemental sulfur.

Drops of concentrated sulfuric acid rapidly decompose a piece of cotton towel by dehydration.

Sulfuric acid

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Drops of concentrated sulfuric acid rapidly decompose a piece of cotton towel by dehydration.
Solid state structure of the [D3SO4]+ ion present in [D3SO4]+[SbF6]−, synthesized by using DF in place of HF. (see text)
Rio Tinto with its highly acidic water
Sulfuric acid production in 2000
Acidic drain cleaners usually contain sulfuric acid at a high concentration which turns a piece of pH paper red and chars it instantly, demonstrating both the strong acidic nature and dehydrating property.
An acidic drain cleaner can be used to dissolve grease, hair and even tissue paper inside water pipes.
John Dalton's 1808 sulfuric acid molecule shows a central sulfur atom bonded to three oxygen atoms, or sulfur trioxide, the anhydride of sulfuric acid.
Drops of 98% sulfuric acid char a piece of tissue paper instantly. Carbon is left after the dehydration reaction staining the paper black.
Superficial chemical burn caused by two 98% sulfuric acid splashes (forearm skin)
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Sulfuric acid (American spelling and the preferred IUPAC name) or sulphuric acid (Commonwealth spelling), known in antiquity as oil of vitriol, is a mineral acid composed of the elements sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen, with the molecular formula H2SO4.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table

Chemical element

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Species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

Species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table
Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled "atoms" is composed of chemical elements.
Periodic table showing the cosmogenic origin of each element in the Big Bang, or in large or small stars. Small stars can produce certain elements up to sulfur, by the alpha process. Supernovae are needed to produce "heavy" elements (those beyond iron and nickel) rapidly by neutron buildup, in the r-process. Certain large stars slowly produce other elements heavier than iron, in the s-process; these may then be blown into space in the off-gassing of planetary nebulae
Abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar System. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (Li, Be, B) are rare because they are poorly synthesized in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers (the Oddo-Harkins rule), and (2) a general decrease in abundance as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table: An experiment on a system of elements. Based on their atomic weights and chemical similarities.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley

The history of the discovery and use of the elements began with primitive human societies that discovered native minerals like carbon, sulfur, copper and gold (though the concept of a chemical element was not yet understood).

Natural gas burner on a natural-gas-burning stove

Natural gas

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Naturally occurring mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons consisting primarily of methane in addition to various smaller amounts of other higher alkanes.

Naturally occurring mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons consisting primarily of methane in addition to various smaller amounts of other higher alkanes.

Natural gas burner on a natural-gas-burning stove
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Natural gas drilling rig in Texas, USA
Countries by natural gas proven reserves (2014), based on data from The World Factbook
The location of shale gas compared to other types of gas deposits
Natural gas processing plant in Aderklaa, Lower Austria
Schematic flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant
Natural gas extraction by countries in cubic meters per year around 2013
Polyethylene plastic main being placed in a trench
Construction close to high pressure gas transmission pipelines is discouraged, often with standing warning signs.
Peoples Gas Manlove Field natural gas storage area in Newcomb Township, Champaign County, Illinois. In the foreground (left) is one of the numerous wells for the underground storage area, with an LNG plant, and above ground storage tanks are in the background (right).
Manhole for domestic gas supply, London, UK
A Washington, D.C. Metrobus, which runs on natural gas
The warming influence (called radiative forcing) of long-lived greenhouse gases has nearly doubled in 40 years, with carbon dioxide and methane being the dominant drivers of global warming.
A pipeline odorant injection station
Gas network emergency vehicle responding to a major fire in Kyiv, Ukraine
Natural gas prices at the Henry Hub in US dollars per million BTUs
Comparison of natural gas prices in Japan, United Kingdom, and United States, 2007–2011
US Natural Gas Marketed Production 1900 to 2012 (US EIA data)
Trends in the top five natural gas-producing countries (US EIA data)

Hydrogen sulfide (which may be converted into pure sulfur), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sometimes helium and nitrogen must also be removed.

Structure of a generic L-amino acid in the "neutral" form needed for defining a systematic name, without implying that this form actually exists in detectable amounts either in aqueous solution or in the solid state.

Amino acid

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Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino (\sNH3+) and carboxylic acid (\sCO2H) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino (\sNH3+) and carboxylic acid (\sCO2H) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

Structure of a generic L-amino acid in the "neutral" form needed for defining a systematic name, without implying that this form actually exists in detectable amounts either in aqueous solution or in the solid state.
The 21 proteinogenic α-amino acids found in eukaryotes, grouped according to their side chains' pKa values and charges carried at physiological pH (7.4)
Structure of -proline
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Ionization and Brønsted character of N-terminal amino, C-terminal carboxylate, and side chains of amino acid residues
Composite of titration curves of twenty proteinogenic amino acids grouped by side chain category
Share of amino acid in various human diets and the resulting mix of amino acids in human blood serum. Glutamate and glutamine are the most frequent in food at over 10%, while alanine, glutamine, and glycine are the most common in blood.
The Strecker amino acid synthesis
The condensation of two amino acids to form a dipeptide. The two amino acid residues are linked through a peptide bond
Catabolism of proteinogenic amino acids. Amino acids can be classified according to the properties of their main degradation products: 
 * Glucogenic, with the products having the ability to form glucose by gluconeogenesis
 * Ketogenic, with the products not having the ability to form glucose. These products may still be used for ketogenesis or lipid synthesis.
 * Amino acids catabolized into both glucogenic and ketogenic products.
Composite of titration curves of twenty proteinogenic amino acids grouped by side chain category

The elements present in every amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N) (CHON); in addition sulfur (S) is present in the side chains of cysteine and methionine, and selenium (Se) in the less common amino acid selenocysteine.

Periodic table highlighting the first row of each block. Helium (He), as a noble gas, is normally shown over neon (Ne) with the rest of the noble gases. The elements within scope of this article are inside the thick black borders. The status of oganesson (Og, element 118) is not yet known.

Nonmetal

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[[File:Nonmetals in the periodic table.png|thumb|upright=0.85|

[[File:Nonmetals in the periodic table.png|thumb|upright=0.85|

Periodic table highlighting the first row of each block. Helium (He), as a noble gas, is normally shown over neon (Ne) with the rest of the noble gases. The elements within scope of this article are inside the thick black borders. The status of oganesson (Og, element 118) is not yet known.
Electronegativity values of the group 16 chalcogen elements showing a W-shaped alternation or secondary periodicity going down the group
Modern periodic table extract showing nonmetal subclasses.
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† moderately strong oxidising agent
‡ strong oxidising agent
A small (about 2 cm long) piece of rapidly melting argon ice
A cluster of purple fluorite, a fluorine mineral, between two quartzes
Selenium conducts electricity around 1,000 times better when light falls on it, a property used since the mid-1870s in light-sensing applications.
A crystal of realgar, also known as "ruby sulphur" or "ruby of arsenic", an arsenic sulfide mineral As4S4
Brownish crystals of buckminsterfullerene С60, a semiconducting allotrope of carbon
Germanium occurs in some zinc-copper-lead ore bodies, in quantities sufficient to justify extraction. The pure form costs $360 per 100 grams, as at February 2022.
The Alchemist Discovering Phosphorus (1771) by Joseph Wright. The alchemist is Hennig Brand; the glow emanates from the combustion of phosphorus inside the flask.

Fourteen effectively always recognized as such are hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; the corrosive halogens fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine; and the noble gases helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon; see e.g. Larrañaga et al. While the same authors recognized carbon, phosphorus and selenium as nonmetals, Vernon had earlier reported that these three elements were instead sometimes counted as metalloids.

Intergrowth of lustrous, cubic crystals of pyrite, with some surfaces showing characteristic striations, from Huanzala mine, Ancash, Peru. Specimen size: 7.0 × 5.0 × 2.5 cm

Pyrite

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Intergrowth of lustrous, cubic crystals of pyrite, with some surfaces showing characteristic striations, from Huanzala mine, Ancash, Peru. Specimen size: 7.0 × 5.0 × 2.5 cm
Pyrite cubic crystals on marl from Navajún, La Rioja, Spain (size: 95 by, 512 g; main crystal: 31 mm on edge)
Pyrite under normal and polarized light
An abandoned pyrite mine near Pernek in Slovakia
Crystal structure of pyrite. In the center of the cell a S22− pair is seen in yellow
Pyritohedron-shaped crystals from Italy
A pyrite cube (center) has dissolved away from a host rock, leaving behind trace gold
As a replacement mineral in an ammonite from France
Pyrite from Ampliación a Victoria Mine, Navajún, La Rioja, Spain
Pyrite from the Sweet Home Mine, with golden striated cubes intergrown with minor tetrahedrite, on a bed of transparent quartz needles
Radiating form of pyrite
Paraspirifer bownockeri in pyrite
Pink fluorite perched between pyrite on one side and metallic galena on the other side
SEM image of intergrowth of pyrite cuboctahedral crystals (yellow) and pyrrhotite (pinkish yellow)

The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron (II) disulfide).

Appearance of real linear polymer chains as recorded using an atomic force microscope on a surface, under liquid medium. Chain contour length for this polymer is ~204 nm; thickness is ~0.4 nm.

Polymer

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A polymer ( Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part")

A polymer ( Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part")

Appearance of real linear polymer chains as recorded using an atomic force microscope on a surface, under liquid medium. Chain contour length for this polymer is ~204 nm; thickness is ~0.4 nm.
Cartoon schematic of polymer molecules
Structure of a styrene-butadiene chain, from a molecular simulation.
Some memorable milestones in the history of polymers
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Microstructure of part of a DNA double helix biopolymer
Branch point in a polymer
A polyethylene sample that has necked under tension.
Thermal transitions in (A) amorphous and (B) semicrystalline polymers, represented as traces from differential scanning calorimetry. As the temperature increases, both amorphous and semicrystalline polymers go through the glass transition (Tg). Amorphous polymers (A) do not exhibit other phase transitions, though semicrystalline polymers (B) undergo crystallization and melting (at temperatures Tc and Tm, respectively).
Phase diagram of the typical mixing behavior of weakly interacting polymer solutions, showing spinodal curves and binodal coexistence curves.
A plastic item with thirty years of exposure to heat and cold, brake fluid, and sunlight. Notice the discoloration, swelling, and crazing of the material
Chlorine attack of acetal resin plumbing joint
Ozone-induced cracking in natural rubber tubing

Prominent examples include the reaction of nitric acid and cellulose to form nitrocellulose and the formation of vulcanized rubber by heating natural rubber in the presence of sulfur.

A farmer spreading manure to improve soil fertility

Fertilizer

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Any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soil or to plant tissues to supply plant nutrients.

Any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soil or to plant tissues to supply plant nutrients.

A farmer spreading manure to improve soil fertility
World population supported with and without synthetic nitrogen fertilizers.
Founded in 1812, Mirat, producer of manures and fertilizers, is claimed to be the oldest industrial business in Salamanca (Spain).
Six tomato plants grown with and without nitrate fertilizer on nutrient-poor sand/clay soil. One of the plants in the nutrient-poor soil has died.
Inorganic fertilizer use by region
Total nitrogenous fertilizer consumption per region, measured in tonnes of total nutrient per year.
An apatite mine in Siilinjärvi, Finland.
Compost bin for small-scale production of organic fertilizer
A large commercial compost operation
Applying superphosphate fertilizer by hand, New Zealand, 1938
Fertilizer burn
N-Butylthiophosphoryltriamide, an enhanced efficiency fertilizer.
Fertilizer use (2018). From FAO's World Food and Agriculture – Statistical Yearbook 2020
The diagram displays the statistics of fertilizer consumption in western and central European counties from data published by The World Bank for 2012.
Runoff of soil and fertilizer during a rain storm
Large pile of phosphogypsum waste near Fort Meade, Florida.
Red circles show the location and size of many dead zones.
Global methane concentrations (surface and atmospheric) for 2005; note distinct plumes

three secondary macronutrients: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S);