Supercomputer

high-performance computingsupercomputinghigh performance computingsupercomputersHPCsuper computerhigh performance computershigh performancehigh-performancehigh-performance computers
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.wikipedia
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TOP500

fastest supercomputerstop 500fastest
Since November 2017, all of the world's fastest 500 supercomputers run Linux-based operating systems. As of November 2018, the fastest supercomputer on the TOP500 supercomputer list is the Summit, in the United States, with a LINPACK benchmark score of 143.5 PFLOPS, followed by, Sierra, by around 48.860 PFLOPS.
The project was started in 1993 and publishes an updated list of the supercomputers twice a year.

Linux

GNU/LinuxLinLinux operating system
Since November 2017, all of the world's fastest 500 supercomputers run Linux-based operating systems.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, and the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers (since November 2017, having gradually eliminated all competitors).

Computational science

scientific computingscientific computationscientific
Supercomputers play an important role in the field of computational science, and are used for a wide range of computationally intensive tasks in various fields, including quantum mechanics, weather forecasting, climate research, oil and gas exploration, molecular modeling (computing the structures and properties of chemical compounds, biological macromolecules, polymers, and crystals), and physical simulations (such as simulations of the early moments of the universe, airplane and spacecraft aerodynamics, the detonation of nuclear weapons, and nuclear fusion).
In some cases, these models require massive amounts of calculations (usually floating-point) and are often executed on supercomputers or distributed computing platforms.

Control Data Corporation

CDCControl DataControl Data Corporation (CDC)
Supercomputers were introduced in the 1960s, and for several decades the fastest were made by Seymour Cray at Control Data Corporation (CDC), Cray Research and subsequent companies bearing his name or monogram.
Control Data Corporation (CDC) was a mainframe and supercomputer firm.

Seymour Cray

Cray Computer CorporationCray, Seymourthe inventor
Supercomputers were introduced in the 1960s, and for several decades the fastest were made by Seymour Cray at Control Data Corporation (CDC), Cray Research and subsequent companies bearing his name or monogram. The CDC 6600, designed by Seymour Cray, was finished in 1964 and marked the transition from germanium to silicon transistors.
Seymour Roger Cray (September 28, 1925 – October 5, 1996 ) was an American electrical engineer and supercomputer architect who designed a series of computers that were the fastest in the world for decades, and founded Cray Research which built many of these machines.

Exascale computing

exascaleexascale supercomputersexascale computer
Additional research is being conducted in China, the United States, the European Union, Taiwan and Japan to build even faster, more powerful and more technologically superior exascale supercomputers.
(One exaflop is a thousand petaflops or a quintillion, 10 18, floating point operations per second.) At a supercomputing conference in 2009, Computerworld projected exascale implementation by 2018.

Parallel computing

parallelparallel processingparallelism
Through the 1960s, they began to add increasing amounts of parallelism with one to four processors being typical.
Parallelism has long been employed in high-performance computing, but it's gaining broder interest due to the physical constraints preventing frequency scaling.

Cray-1

CrayCray 1Cray supercomputer
A notable example is the highly successful Cray-1 of 1976.
The Cray-1 was a supercomputer designed, manufactured and marketed by Cray Research.

Summit (supercomputer)

SummitIBM SummitSummit OLCF-4 Supercomputer
As of November 2018, the fastest supercomputer on the TOP500 supercomputer list is the Summit, in the United States, with a LINPACK benchmark score of 143.5 PFLOPS, followed by, Sierra, by around 48.860 PFLOPS.
Summit or OLCF-4 is a supercomputer developed by IBM for use at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which as of November 2018 is the fastest supercomputer in the world, capable of 200 petaflops.

Vector processor

vector processingvectorarray processor
From the 1970s, vector processors operating on large arrays of data came to dominate.
Vector machines appeared in the early 1970s and dominated supercomputer design through the 1970s into the 1990s, notably the various Cray platforms.

IBM 7030 Stretch

STRETCHIBM 70307030
Also among the first supercomputers was the IBM 7030 Stretch.
The IBM 7030, also known as Stretch, was IBM's first transistorized supercomputer.

Sierra (supercomputer)

Sierra
As of November 2018, the fastest supercomputer on the TOP500 supercomputer list is the Summit, in the United States, with a LINPACK benchmark score of 143.5 PFLOPS, followed by, Sierra, by around 48.860 PFLOPS.
Sierra or ATS-2 is a supercomputer built for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use by the National Nuclear Security Administration as the second Advanced Technology System.

Atlas (computer)

AtlasAtlas ComputerFerranti Atlas
The third pioneering supercomputer project in the early 1960s was the Atlas at the University of Manchester, built by a team led by Tom Kilburn.
The Atlas Computer was one of the world's first supercomputers, in use from 1962 until 1971.

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
The Atlas operating system swapped data in the form of pages between the magnetic core and the drum.
For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers.

CDC 6600

60-bit floating-point format6000 family6600
The CDC 6600, designed by Seymour Cray, was finished in 1964 and marked the transition from germanium to silicon transistors.
Generally considered to be the first successful supercomputer, it outperformed the industry's prior recordholder, the IBM 7030 Stretch, by a factor of three.

Supercomputer architecture

supercomputerSupercomputer memory
It had eight central processing units (CPUs), liquid cooling and the electronics coolant liquid fluorinert was pumped through the supercomputer architecture.
Early supercomputer architectures pioneered by Seymour Cray relied on compact innovative designs and local parallelism to achieve superior computational peak performance.

Computer

computerscomputer systemdigital computer
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
Supercomputer

Los Alamos National Laboratory

Los AlamosLos Alamos Scientific LaboratoryLos Alamos Laboratory
The IBM 7030 was built by IBM for the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which in 1955 had requested a computer 100 times faster than any existing computer.
It conducts multidisciplinary research in fields such as national security, space exploration, nuclear fusion, renewable energy, medicine, nanotechnology, and supercomputing.

Connection Machine

CM-2Connection Machine 2hypercube
But by the early 1980s, several teams were working on parallel designs with thousands of processors, notably the Connection Machine (CM) that developed from research at MIT.
A Connection Machine (CM) is a member of a series of massively parallel supercomputers that grew out of doctoral research on alternatives to the traditional von Neumann architecture of computers by Danny Hillis at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the early 1980s.

Supercomputing in Japan

LINKS-1 Computer Graphics Systemsupercomputer centers in Japan
In 1982, Osaka University's LINKS-1 Computer Graphics System used a massively parallel processing architecture, with 514 microprocessors, including 257 Zilog Z8001 control processors and 257 iAPX 86/20 floating-point processors.
The K computer's performance is impressive, according to professor Jack Dongarra who maintains the TOP500 list of supercomputers, and it surpasses its next 5 competitors combined.

Microprocessor

microprocessorsprocessorchip
In 1982, Osaka University's LINKS-1 Computer Graphics System used a massively parallel processing architecture, with 514 microprocessors, including 257 Zilog Z8001 control processors and 257 iAPX 86/20 floating-point processors. The CM-1 used as many as 65,536 simplified custom microprocessors connected together in a network to share data.
Continued increases in microprocessor capacity have since rendered other forms of computers almost completely obsolete (see history of computing hardware), with one or more microprocessors used in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and supercomputers.

InfiniBand

InfiniBand 12X QDRInfiniBand topologyMellanox FDR InfiniBand network
In such a centralized massively parallel system the speed and flexibility of the interconnect becomes very important and modern supercomputers have used various approaches ranging from enhanced Infiniband systems to three-dimensional torus interconnects.
InfiniBand (IB) is a computer-networking communications standard used in high-performance computing that features very high throughput and very low latency.

Intel Paragon

ParagonIntel Touchstone DeltaParagon XP/S
The Intel Paragon could have 1000 to 4000 Intel i860 processors in various configurations and was ranked the fastest in the world in 1993.
The Intel Paragon is a discontinued series of massively parallel supercomputers that was produced by Intel in the 1990s.

Goodyear MPP

MPPMassively Parallel Processor
Similar designs using custom hardware were made by many companies, including the Evans & Sutherland ES-1, MasPar, nCUBE, Intel iPSC and the Goodyear MPP.
massively parallel processing supercomputer built by Goodyear Aerospace

Evans & Sutherland ES-1

ES-1
Similar designs using custom hardware were made by many companies, including the Evans & Sutherland ES-1, MasPar, nCUBE, Intel iPSC and the Goodyear MPP.
The ES-1 was Evans & Sutherland's abortive attempt to enter the supercomputer market.