Supercontinent

Although not a supercontinent, the current Afro-Eurasia landmass contains about 57% of Earth's land area.
As the slab is subducted into the mantle, the more dense material will break off and sink to the lower mantle creating a discontinuity elsewhere known as a slab avalanche
The effects of mantle plumes possibly caused by slab avalanches elsewhere in the lower mantle on the breakup and assembly of supercontinents
U–Pb ages of 5,246 concordant detrital zircons from 40 of Earth's major rivers

Assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.

- Supercontinent

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Jurassic

Geologic period and stratigraphic system that spanned from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period, approximately Mya.

Portrait of Alexandre Brongniart, who coined the term "Jurassic"
Folded Lower Jurassic limestone layers of the Doldenhorn nappe at Gasteretal, Switzerland
Middle Jurassic strata in Neuquén Province, Argentina
Tidwell Member of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic), Colorado
Base Aalenian GSSP at Fuentelsaz
Pangaea at the start of Jurassic
The breakup of Gondwanaland took place during the Late Jurassic, the Indian Ocean opened up as a result
Formation of the Pacific Plate during the Early Jurassic
Grainstone with calcitic ooids and sparry calcite cement; Carmel Formation, Middle Jurassic, of southern Utah, USA
Petrified Araucaria mirabilis cone from the Middle Jurassic of Argentina
Leaves of Ginkgo huttonii from the Middle Jurassic of England
Sagenopteris phillipsi (Caytoniales) from the Middle Jurassic of Yorkshire, England
Holotype specimen of Platysuchus, a telosaurid thalattosuchian
Thalassemys, a thalassochelydian sea turtle known from the Late Jurassic of Germany
Skeleton of Coeruleodraco
Fossil of Ichthyosaurus somersetensis at the Natural History Museum, London
Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni at the Natural History Museum
Skeleton of Rhamphorhynchus muensteri at Teylers Museum, Haarlem
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Skeleton of Heterodontosaurus, a primitive ornithischian from the Early Jurassic of South Africa
Skeleton of Mamenchisaurus sinocanadorum from the Middle-Late Jurassic of China
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Henkelotherium, a likely arboreal dyolestoid from the Late Jurassic of Portugal
Coelacanth from the Solnhofen Limestone
Head and forefin of Pachycormus, an extinct pachycormiform fish
Fossil of Palaeocarcharias, the oldest known lamniform shark
Lichnomesopsyche daohugouensis, an extinct mesopsychid scorpionfly from the Late Jurassic of China
Mongolarachne from the Late Jurassic of China
Eryon, a polychelidan decapod crustacean from the Late Jurassic of Germany.
Vadasaurus herzogi, a rynchocephalian from the Upper Jurassic Solnhofen Limestone of Germany
Homeosaurus maximiliani, a rynchocephalian from the Solnhofen Limestone
Pleurosaurus,, an aquatic rhynchocephalian from the Late Jurassic of Europe
Eichstaettisaurus schroederi,, an extinct lizard from the Solnhofen Limestone
Skeleton of Ceratosaurus, a ceratosaurid from the Late Jurassic of North America
Skeleton of Monolophosaurus, a basal tetanuran from the Middle Jurassic of China
Restoration of Yi qi, a scansoriopterygid from the Middle to Late Jurassic of China

By the beginning of the Jurassic, the supercontinent Pangaea had begun rifting into two landmasses: Laurasia to the north and Gondwana to the south.

Rodinia

Proposed reconstruction of Rodinia for 750 Ma, with orogenic belts of 1.1 Ga age highlighted in green. Red dots indicate 1.3–1.5 Ga A-type granites.
Rodinia at 900 Ma. "Consensus" reconstruction of Li et al. 2008.

Rodinia (from the Russian родина, rodina, meaning "motherland, birthplace" ) was a Neoproterozoic supercontinent that assembled 1.1–0.9 billion years ago and broke up 750–633 million years ago.

Mesoproterozoic

Geologic era that occurred from.

The rock cycle shows the relationship between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

The major events of this era are the breakup of the Columbia supercontinent, the formation of the Rodinia supercontinent, and the evolution of sexual reproduction.

Phanerozoic

Current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed.

Dalmanites limulurus, a species of Silurian trilobites
Cephalaspis, a jawless fish
Proterogyrinus, a Carboniferous amphibian (non-amniote tetrapod)
Dimetrodon grandis, a synapsid from the early Permian
Plateosaurus, an early sauropodomorph dinosaur
Sericipterus, a pterosaur
Stegosaurus, a large ornithischian dinosaur from the Late Jurassic
Tylosaurus, a type of large marine lizards known as mosasaurs
Basilosaurus was an early cetacean, related to modern whales
Megafauna of the Pleistocene (mammoths, cave lions, woolly rhinos, reindeer, horses)
During the Phanerozoic, biodiversity shows an overall but not monotonic increase from near zero to several thousands of genera
Global map reconstruction showing continents at 500 million years ago
Global maps showing continental movement from 250 million years ago to present day.

During this time span, tectonic forces which move the continents had collected them into a single landmass known as Pangaea (the most recent supercontinent), which then separated into the current continental landmasses.

Precambrian

Earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.

Weathered Precambrian pillow lava in the Temagami Greenstone Belt of the Canadian Shield
Map of Kenorland supercontinent 2.5 billion years ago
Map of Kenorland breaking up 2.3 billion years ago
The supercontinent Columbia about 1.6 billion years ago
Proposed reconstruction of Rodinia for 750 million years ago
Landmass positions near the end of the Precambrian

It is generally believed that small proto-continents existed before 4280 Ma, and that most of the Earth's landmasses collected into a single supercontinent around 1130 Ma. The supercontinent, known as Rodinia, broke up around 750 Ma. A number of glacial periods have been identified going as far back as the Huronian epoch, roughly 2400–2100 Ma. One of the best studied is the Sturtian-Varangian glaciation, around 850–635 Ma, which may have brought glacial conditions all the way to the equator, resulting in a "Snowball Earth".

Columbia (supercontinent)

The supercontinent Columbia about 1.6 billion years ago

Columbia, also known as Nuna or Hudsonland, was one of Earth's ancient supercontinents.

Siberia (continent)

Ancient craton in the heart of Siberia.

Current location in Asia

Around 1.1 billion years ago (Stenian), Siberia became part of the supercontinent of Rodinia, a state of affairs which lasted until the Cryogenian about 750 million years ago when it broke up, and Siberia became part of the landmass of Protolaurasia.

Afro-Eurasia

Landmass comprising the continents of Africa, Asia, and Europe.

Afro-Eurasia on a cylindrical projection, with the contiguous "World Island" landmass in dark green and islands in light green

Although Afro-Eurasia is typically considered to comprise two or three separate continents, it is not a proper supercontinent.

Pangaea

The supercontinent Pangaea in the early Mesozoic (at 200 Ma)
Alfred Wegener c. 1924–1930
World map of Pangaea created by Alfred Wegener to illustrate his concept
The distribution of fossils across the continents is one line of evidence pointing to the existence of Pangaea.
Appalachian orogeny
Dicroidium zuberi, an Early Triassic plant from Pangaea (present-day Argentina)
The four floristic provinces of the world at the Permian-Carboniferous boundary, 300 million years ago
Early Triassic Lystrosaurus fossil from South Africa
The breakup of Pangaea over time

Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.

Gondwana

Gondwana 420 million years ago (late Silurian). View centred on the South Pole.
Distribution of four Permian and Triassic fossil groups used as biogeographic evidence for continental drift, and land bridging
Eastern Gondwana. post-collisional extension of the East African Orogeny in blue and collisional metamorphism of the Kuunga orogeny in red.
Reconstruction showing final stages of assembly of Gondwana, 550 Mya
Gondwana formed part of Pangaea for c. undefined 150 Ma
Banksia, a grevilleoid Proteaceae, is an example of a plant from a family with a Gondwanan distribution
The plant genus Nothofagus provides a good example of a taxon with a Gondwanan distribution, having originated in the supercontinent and existing in present-day Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, and South America's Southern Cone. Fossils have also been found in Antarctica.

Gondwana was a large landmass, often referred to as a supercontinent, that formed during the late Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) and began to break up during the Jurassic (about 180 million years ago).