Superior tarsal muscle

superior tarsalMüller muscleMüller's muscle
Not to be confused with the orbitalis muscle or the circular fibres of the ciliary muscle, both of which are also known as Müller's muscle.wikipedia
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Levator palpebrae superioris muscle

levator palpebrae superiorislevator palpebraelevator
The superior tarsal muscle is a smooth muscle adjoining the levator palpebrae superioris muscle that helps to raise the upper eyelid. The superior tarsal muscle originates on the underside of levator palpebrae superioris and inserts on the superior tarsal plate of the eyelid.
The superior tarsal muscle, a smooth muscle, is attached to the levator palpebrae superioris, and inserts on the superior tarsal plate as well.

Tarsus (eyelids)

tarsiSuperior tarsustarsal plate
The superior tarsal muscle originates on the underside of levator palpebrae superioris and inserts on the superior tarsal plate of the eyelid.
It is adjoined by the superior tarsal muscle.

Ptosis (eyelid)

ptosisblepharoptosisdrooping eyelid
Damage to some elements of the sympathetic nervous system can inhibit this muscle, causing a drooping eyelid (partial ptosis).
Ptosis occurs due to dysfunction of the muscles that raise the eyelid or their nerve supply (oculomotor nerve for levator palpebrae superioris and sympathetic nerves for superior tarsal muscle).

Horner's syndrome

horner syndromeHorner’s syndromeBernard syndrome
This is seen in Horner's syndrome.
It inactivates the superior tarsal muscle which produces ptosis.

Orbitalis muscle

However, the same term is also used for the circular fibres of the ciliary muscle, and also for the orbitalis muscle that covers the inferior orbital fissure.
Enophthalmos in Horner's syndrome is an illusion created by the subtle ptosis of the upper eyelid caused by paralysis of the superior tarsal muscle.

Smooth muscle

smooth muscle cellssmooth musclessmooth muscle cell
The superior tarsal muscle is a smooth muscle adjoining the levator palpebrae superioris muscle that helps to raise the upper eyelid.

Eyelid

eyelidspalpebralpalpebra
The superior tarsal muscle is a smooth muscle adjoining the levator palpebrae superioris muscle that helps to raise the upper eyelid.

Sympathetic nervous system

sympatheticsympathetic nervesympathetic nerves
Damage to some elements of the sympathetic nervous system can inhibit this muscle, causing a drooping eyelid (partial ptosis). The superior tarsal muscle receives its innervation from the sympathetic nervous system.

Superior cervical ganglion

superior cervical gangliasuperior
Postganglionic sympathetic fibers originate in the superior cervical ganglion, and travel via the internal carotid plexus, where small branches communicate with the oculomotor nerve as it passes through the cavernous sinus.

Internal carotid plexus

carotid plexus
Postganglionic sympathetic fibers originate in the superior cervical ganglion, and travel via the internal carotid plexus, where small branches communicate with the oculomotor nerve as it passes through the cavernous sinus.

Oculomotor nerve

oculomotorIIIcranial nerve III
Postganglionic sympathetic fibers originate in the superior cervical ganglion, and travel via the internal carotid plexus, where small branches communicate with the oculomotor nerve as it passes through the cavernous sinus.

Cavernous sinus

cavernouscavernous sinusescavernous sinus syndrome
Postganglionic sympathetic fibers originate in the superior cervical ganglion, and travel via the internal carotid plexus, where small branches communicate with the oculomotor nerve as it passes through the cavernous sinus.

Oculomotor nerve palsy

oculomotor palsyimpairment of cranial nerve IIIocculomotor nerve palsy
The ptosis seen in Horner's syndrome is of a lesser degree than is seen with an oculomotor nerve palsy.

Ciliary muscle

ciliary musclesciliaryciliaris
However, the same term is also used for the circular fibres of the ciliary muscle, and also for the orbitalis muscle that covers the inferior orbital fissure.

Inferior orbital fissure

Fissura orbitalis inferiorinferior orbitalsphenomaxillary fissure
However, the same term is also used for the circular fibres of the ciliary muscle, and also for the orbitalis muscle that covers the inferior orbital fissure.

Blinking

blinkBlinksreflex blink
The Müller’s muscle, or the superior tarsal muscle, in the upper eyelid and the inferior palpebral muscle in the lower 3 eyelid are responsible for widening the eyes.

Mongoloid

MongolianMongolian raceEast Asian
Jeong et al. said that the cause of the "Asian single eyelid" was that "the orbital septum fuses to the levator aponeurosis at variable distances below the superior tarsal border; (2) preaponeurotic fat pad protusion and a thick subcutaneous fat layer prevent levator fibers from extending toward the skin near the superior tarsal border; and (3) the primary insertion of the levator aponeurosis into the orbicularis muscle and into the upper eyelid skin occurs closer to the eyelid margin in Asians."

Carotid canal

They have several motor functions: raise the eyelid (superior tarsal muscle), dilate pupil, innervate sweat glands of face and scalp and constricts blood vessels in the head.

Dennie–Morgan fold

Dennie-Morgan infraorbital fold
One proposed mechanism is that continuous spasm of the superior tarsal muscle and skin edema could be due to hypoxia from poor circulation.