Supernova

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A supernova ( plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a powerful and luminous stellar explosion.wikipedia
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Explosion

explodeexplosionsexplosive
A supernova ( plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a powerful and luminous stellar explosion.
Most natural explosions arise from volcanic or stellar processes of various sorts.

SN 1987A

Supernova 1987ASN1987A1987A
The most recent naked-eye supernova was SN 1987A, the explosion of a blue supergiant star in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite of the Milky Way.
SN 1987A was a type II supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy satellite of the Milky Way.

Supernova remnant

supernova remnantsremnantSNR
The most recent directly observed supernova in the Milky Way was Kepler's Supernova in 1604, but the remnants of more recent supernovae have been found. This drives an expanding shock wave into the surrounding interstellar medium, sweeping up an expanding shell of gas and dust observed as a supernova remnant.
A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.

Stellar evolution

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This transient astronomical event occurs during the last evolutionary stages of a massive star or when a white dwarf is triggered into runaway nuclear fusion.
Stars with around ten or more times the mass of the Sun can explode in a supernova as their inert iron cores collapse into an extremely dense neutron star or black hole.

Star

starsstellarmassive star
This transient astronomical event occurs during the last evolutionary stages of a massive star or when a white dwarf is triggered into runaway nuclear fusion.
In 185 AD, they were the first to observe and write about a supernova, now known as the SN 185.

Transient astronomical event

transientastronomical eventastronomical transient
This transient astronomical event occurs during the last evolutionary stages of a massive star or when a white dwarf is triggered into runaway nuclear fusion.
Singularly, the term is used for violent deep-sky events, such as supernovae, novae, dwarf nova outbursts, gamma-ray bursts, and tidal disruption events, as well as gravitational microlensing, transits and eclipses.

Thermal runaway

runawayrunaway reactionthermal explosion
In the first class of events, the object's temperature is raised enough to trigger runaway nuclear fusion, completely disrupting it.
In astrophysics, runaway nuclear fusion reactions in stars can lead to nova and several types of supernova explosions, and also occur as a less dramatic event in the normal evolution of solar mass stars, the "helium flash".

Nova

recurrent novaclassical novanovae
Supernovae are more energetic than novae.
They occur far more frequently than galactic supernovae, averaging about ten per year.

Cosmic ray

cosmic rayscosmic radiationcosmic-ray
Supernova remnants might be a major source of cosmic rays.
Data from the Fermi Space Telescope (2013) have been interpreted as evidence that a significant fraction of primary cosmic rays originate from the supernova explosions of stars.

Nuclear fusion

fusionhydrogen fusionfusion reaction
Theoretical studies indicate that most supernovae are triggered by one of two basic mechanisms: the sudden re-ignition of nuclear fusion in a degenerate star; or the sudden gravitational collapse of a massive star's core.
The extreme astrophysical event of a supernova can produce enough energy to fuse nuclei into elements heavier than iron.

SN 1054

supernova of 10541054 Supernovaa 3-week long supernova in 1054
The widely observed supernova SN 1054 produced the Crab Nebula.
SN 1054 is a supernova that was first observed on 4 July 1054, and remained visible for around two years.

SN 1006

supernova of 1006supernova that occurred in 1006 CEthe 1006 supernova
The brightest recorded supernova was SN 1006, which occurred in 1006 AD and was described by observers across China, Japan, Iraq, Egypt, and Europe.
SN 1006 was a supernova that is likely the brightest observed stellar event in recorded history, reaching an estimated −7.5 visual magnitude, and exceeding roughly sixteen times the brightness of Venus.

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
Supernovae are a major source of elements in the interstellar medium from oxygen through to rubidium.
Elements with greater than 26 protons are formed by supernova nucleosynthesis in supernovae, which, when they explode, blast these elements as supernova remnants far into space, where they may become incorporated into planets when they are formed.

Gravitational wave

gravitational wavesgravitational radiationgravitational wave radiation
Supernovae might produce gravitational waves, though, thus far, gravitational waves have only been detected from the mergers of black holes and neutron stars.
Gravitational-wave astronomy is a branch of observational astronomy that uses gravitational waves to collect observational data about sources of detectable gravitational waves such as binary star systems composed of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes; and events such as supernovae, and the formation of the early universe shortly after the Big Bang.

Kepler's Supernova

SN 1604KeplerKepler's Star
The most recent directly observed supernova in the Milky Way was Kepler's Supernova in 1604, but the remnants of more recent supernovae have been found. Supernovae SN 1572 and SN 1604, the latest to be observed with the naked eye in the Milky Way galaxy, had notable effects on the development of astronomy in Europe because they were used to argue against the Aristotelian idea that the universe beyond the Moon and planets was static and unchanging.
SN 1604, also known as Kepler's Supernova, Kepler's Nova or Kepler's Star, was a supernova of Type Ia that occurred in the Milky Way, in the constellation Ophiuchus.

SN 1572

Tycho's Supernova1572Tycho's Nova
Supernovae SN 1572 and SN 1604, the latest to be observed with the naked eye in the Milky Way galaxy, had notable effects on the development of astronomy in Europe because they were used to argue against the Aristotelian idea that the universe beyond the Moon and planets was static and unchanging.
SN 1572 (Tycho's Supernova, Tycho's Nova), or B Cassiopeiae (B Cas), was a supernova of Type Ia in the constellation Cassiopeia, one of eight supernovae visible to the naked eye in historical records.

Walter Baade

W. BaadeBaadeBaade, Walter
The word supernova was coined by Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky in 1931.
Together with Fritz Zwicky, he identified supernovae as a new category of astronomical objects.

SN 185

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Later, SN 185 was viewed by Chinese astronomers in 185 AD.
SN 185 was a transient astronomical event observed in AD 185, likely a supernova.

SN 1885A

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The first such observation was of SN 1885A in the Andromeda Galaxy.
SN 1885A (also S Andromedae) was a supernova in the Andromeda Galaxy, the only one seen in that galaxy so far by astronomers.

Tycho Brahe

BraheTychoTyge Brahe
It was the second supernova to be observed in a generation (after SN 1572 seen by Tycho Brahe in Cassiopeia).
His precise measurements indicated that "new stars" (stellae novae, now known as supernovae), in particular that of 1572, lacked the parallax expected in sublunar phenomena and were therefore not tailless comets in the atmosphere as previously believed but were above the atmosphere and beyond the moon.

Interstellar medium

interstellar gasinterstellar matterinterstellar
This drives an expanding shock wave into the surrounding interstellar medium, sweeping up an expanding shell of gas and dust observed as a supernova remnant.
Stars form within the densest regions of the ISM, which ultimately contributes to molecular clouds and replenishes the ISM with matter and energy through planetary nebulae, stellar winds, and supernovae.

Cassiopeia A

Cas ACassieopeia A supernova remnant
There is some evidence that the youngest galactic supernova, G1.9+0.3, occurred in the late 19th century, considerably more recently than Cassiopeia A from around 1680.
The expanding cloud of material left over from the supernova now appears approximately 10 ly across from Earth's perspective.

Chinese astronomy

ChineseastronomyChinese astronomers
Later, SN 185 was viewed by Chinese astronomers in 185 AD.
The supernova that created the Crab Nebula observed in 1054, now known as the SN 1054, is an example of a guest star observed by Chinese astronomers, recorded also by the Arab astronomers, although it was not recorded by their European contemporaries.

SN 2013fs

Among the earliest detected since time of detonation, and for which the earliest spectra have been obtained (beginning at 6 hours after the actual explosion), is the Type II SN 2013fs (iPTF13dqy) which was recorded 3 hours after the supernova event on 6 October 2013 by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF).
SN 2013fs is a supernova, located in the spiral galaxy NGC 7610, discovered by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory sky survey at Palomar Observatory in October 2013 (and originally named iPTF 13dqy).

Fritz Zwicky

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The word supernova was coined by Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky in 1931.
In 1934 he and Baade coined the term "supernova" and hypothesized that supernovae were the transition of normal stars into neutron stars, as well as the origin of cosmic rays.