Supreme Court of the United States

The Court lacked its own building until 1935; from 1791 to 1801, it met in Philadelphia's City Hall.
The Royal Exchange, New York City, the first meeting place of the Supreme Court
Chief Justice Marshall (1801–1835)
The U.S. Supreme Court Building, current home of the Supreme Court, which opened in 1935.
The Hughes Court in 1937, photographed by Erich Salomon. Members include Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes (center), Louis Brandeis, Benjamin N. Cardozo, Harlan Stone, Owen Roberts, and the "Four Horsemen" Pierce Butler, James Clark McReynolds, George Sutherland, and Willis Van Devanter, who opposed New Deal policies.
Justices of the Supreme Court with President George W. Bush (center-right) in October 2005. The justices (left to right) are: Ruth Bader Ginsburg, David Souter, Antonin Scalia, John Paul Stevens, John Roberts, Sandra Day O'Connor, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Stephen Breyer
John Roberts giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 2005 hearings on his nomination to be chief justice
Ruth Bader Ginsburg giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 1993 hearings on her nomination to be an associate justice
The interior of the United States Supreme Court
The first four female justices: O'Connor, Sotomayor, Ginsburg, and Kagan.
The current Roberts Court justices (since October 2020): Front row (left to right): Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, Chief Justice John Roberts, Stephen Breyer, and Sonia Sotomayor. Back row (left to right): Brett Kavanaugh, Elena Kagan, Neil Gorsuch, and Amy Coney Barrett.
Percentage of cases decided unanimously and by a one-vote margin from 1971 to 2016
The present U.S. Supreme Court building as viewed from the front
From the 1860s until the 1930s, the court sat in the Old Senate Chamber of the U.S. Capitol.
Seth P. Waxman at oral argument presents his case and answers questions from the justices.
Inscription on the wall of the Supreme Court Building from Marbury v. Madison, in which Chief Justice John Marshall outlined the concept of judicial review

Highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.

- Supreme Court of the United States

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State court (United States)

In the United States, a state court has jurisdiction over disputes with some connection to a U.S. state.

In matters that involve issues of federal law, the final decision of the state's highest court (including refusals to hear final appeals) may be appealed to the United States Supreme Court (which also has the discretion to refuse to hear them).

Judiciary Act of 1789

The Judiciary Act of 1789 (ch.

The first page of the Judiciary Act of 1789
John Jay Chief Justice Commissioned: Sept. 26, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/jay-john|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Jay, John|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
John Rutledge Associate Justice Commissioned: Sept. 26, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/rutledge-john|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Rutledge, John|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
William Cushing Associate Justice Commissioned: Sept. 27, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/cushing-william|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Cushing, William|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
James Wilson Associate Justice Commissioned: Sept. 29, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/wilson-james|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Wilson, James|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
John Blair Associate Justice Commissioned: Sept. 30, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/blair-john-jr|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Blair, John, Jr.|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
James Iredell Associate Justice Commissioned: Feb. 10, 1790<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/iredell-james|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Iredell, James|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>

Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution prescribed that the "judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and such inferior Courts" as Congress saw fit to establish.

Federal judiciary of the United States

One of the three branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.

Coat of arms

The Supreme Court of the United States is the court of last resort.

Constitution of the United States

Supreme law of the United States of America.

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.
Signing of the Constitution, September 17, 1787 (1940 by Howard Chandler Christy)
Dates the 13 states ratified the Constitution
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"We the People" in an original edition
Closing endorsement section of the United States Constitution
United States Bill of Rights
Currently housed in the National Archives.
John Jay, 1789–1795
John Marshall, 1801–1835
Salmon P. Chase {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Chase Court, 1864–1873, in 1865 were Salmon P. Chase (chief Justice); Hon. Nathan Clifford, Maine; Stephen J. Field, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Hon. Samuel F. Miller, U.S. Supreme Court; Hon. Noah H. Swayne, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Judge Morrison R. Waite}}
William Howard Taft {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Taft Court, 1921–1930, in 1925 were James Clark McReynolds, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., William Howard Taft (chief justice), Willis Van Devanter, Louis Brandeis. Edward Sanford, George Sutherland, Pierce Butler, Harlan Fiske Stone}}
Earl Warren {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Warren Court, 1953–1969, in 1963 were Felix Frankfurter; Hugo Black; Earl Warren (chief justice); Stanley Reed; William O. Douglas. Tom Clark; Robert H. Jackson; Harold Burton; Sherman Minton}}
William Rehnquist {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Rehnquist Court, 1986–2005.}}
José Rizal
Sun Yat-sen

Its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress (Article I); the executive, consisting of the president and subordinate officers (Article II); and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts (Article III).

Justiciability

Justiciability concerns the limits upon legal issues over which a court can exercise its judicial authority.

A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermann's Microcosm of London (1808–11).

Justiciability is one of several criteria that the United States Supreme Court uses to make a judgment granting writ of certiorari ("cert.").

United States Supreme Court Building

West Façade
Interior of the Supreme Court Building.
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West façade and plaza
United States Supreme Court in 2021
Supreme Court Building from United States Capitol dome

The Supreme Court Building houses the Supreme Court of the United States.

Judicial review in the United States

Legal power of a court to determine if a statute, treaty, or administrative regulation contradicts or violates the provisions of existing law, a State Constitution, or ultimately the United States Constitution.

U.S. Supreme Court building.

Two landmark decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court served to confirm the inferred constitutional authority for judicial review in the United States.

Federal tribunals in the United States

Federal tribunals in the United States are those tribunals established by the federal government of the United States for the purpose of resolving disputes involving or arising under federal laws, including questions about the constitutionality of such laws.

Andrew Birrell (after Henry Fuseli), Caractacus at the Tribunal of Claudius at Rome (1792)

The use of the term "tribunal" in this context as a blanket term to encompass both courts and other adjudicative entities comes from section 8 of Article I of the Constitution, which expressly grants Congress the power to constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court of the United States.

Majority opinion

Judicial opinion agreed to by more than half of the members of a court.

Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.

In some courts, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the majority opinion may be broken down into numbered or lettered sections.

John Marshall

American politician and lawyer who served as the fourth chief justice of the United States from 1801 until his death in 1835.

Portrait by Henry Inman, 1832
Marshall's birthplace monument in Germantown, Virginia
Coat of arms of Marshall
The Hollow House
John Marshall's House in Richmond, Virginia
Marshall's Chief Justice nomination
Steel engraving of John Marshall by Alonzo Chappel
The text of the McCulloch v. Maryland decision, handed down March 6, 1819, as recorded in the minutes of the US Supreme Court
Marshall's grave
John Marshall and George Wythe
Oak Hill
Chief Justice John Marshall by William Wetmore Story, at John Marshall Park in Washington, D.C.
Marshall was the subject of a 2005 commemorative silver dollar.
Marshall on the 1890 $20 Treasury Note, one of 53 people depicted on United States banknotes
John Marshall on a Postal Issue of 1894

Marshall remains the longest-serving chief justice and fourth-longest serving justice in U.S. Supreme Court history, and he is widely regarded as one of the most influential justices to ever sit on the Supreme Court.