Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme CourtUS Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme Court JusticeU. S. Supreme CourtUnited States Supreme Court JusticeSupreme Court JusticeSCOTUSU.S Supreme Court
The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.wikipedia
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Procedures of the Supreme Court of the United States

certioraridiscretionarydiscretionary basis
It has ultimate (and largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal and state court cases that involve a point of federal law, and original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, specifically "all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party".
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.

State court (United States)

state courtstate courtsstate
It has ultimate (and largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal and state court cases that involve a point of federal law, and original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, specifically "all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party".
In matters that involve issues of federal law, the final decision of the state's highest court (including refusals to hear final appeals) may be appealed to the United States Supreme Court (which also has the discretion to refuse to hear them).

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

Associate JusticeJusticeAssociate Justice of the Supreme Court
As later set by the Judiciary Act of 1869, the Court consists of the chief justice of the United States and eight associate justices.
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is the title of all members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the chief justice of the United States.

Supreme court

court of last resorthighest courtsupreme
The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.
Some countries with a federal system of government may have both a federal supreme court (such as the Supreme Court of the United States), and supreme courts for each member state (such as the Supreme Court of Nevada), with the former having jurisdiction over the latter only to the extent that the federal constitution extends federal law over state law.

Chief Justice of the United States

Chief JusticeChief Justice of the United States Supreme CourtChief Justice of the Supreme Court
As later set by the Judiciary Act of 1869, the Court consists of the chief justice of the United States and eight associate justices.
The chief justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, and as such the highest-ranking officer of the federal judiciary.

Appointment and confirmation to the Supreme Court of the United States

confirmedAppointment andfinal year as presidentconfirmation
When a vacancy occurs, the president, with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoints a new justice.
The appointment and confirmation of Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States involves several steps set forth by the United States Constitution, which have been further refined and developed by decades of tradition.

Judiciary Act of 1789

Judiciary Act61789
Established by Article III of the Constitution, the composition and procedures of the Supreme Court were initially established by the 1st Congress through the Judiciary Act of 1789.
Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution prescribed that the "judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and such inferior Courts" as Congress saw fit to establish.

Washington, D.C.

Washington, DCWashington D.C.District of Columbia
The Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C. Its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court Police.
All three branches of the U.S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress (legislative), the president (executive), and the Supreme Court (judicial).

John Rutledge

JohnRutledge, John
court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, and John Blair Jr. as associate justices. Under Chief Justices Jay, Rutledge, and Ellsworth (1789–1801), the Court heard few cases; its first decision was West v. Barnes (1791), a case involving procedure.
John Rutledge (September 17, 1739 – July 23, 1800) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and also its second Chief Justice.

Judicial review

judicial oversightreviewjudicially reviewed
The Court holds the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the U.S. Constitution.
In American legal language, "judicial review" refers primarily to the adjudication of constitutionality of statutes, especially by the Supreme Court of the United States.

William Cushing

Cushing
court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, and John Blair Jr. as associate justices.
William Cushing (March 1, 1732 – September 13, 1810) was one of the original five associate justices of the United States Supreme Court; confirmed by the United States Senate on September 26, 1789, he served until his death.

James Iredell

IredellIredell, Jamesyoungest appointee
In his place, Washington later nominated James Iredell.
James Iredell (October 5, 1751 – October 20, 1799) was one of the first Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States.

John Marshall

Chief Justice MarshallMarshallChief Justice John Marshall
The court's power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court (1801–1835).
Marshall remains the longest-serving chief justice and fourth-longest serving justice in Supreme Court history, and he is widely regarded as one of the most influential justices to ever sit on the Supreme Court.

West v. Barnes

Under Chief Justices Jay, Rutledge, and Ellsworth (1789–1801), the Court heard few cases; its first decision was West v. Barnes (1791), a case involving procedure.
West v. Barnes, was the first United States Supreme Court decision and the earliest case calling for oral argument.

Marbury v. Madison

Marbury v Madisonjudicial precedentjudicial review
Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution (Marbury v. Madison) and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states (notably, Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden).
Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803), was a U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in the United States, meaning that American courts have the power to strike down laws, statutes, and some government actions that violate the Constitution of the United States.

Justiciability

justiciablenonjusticiablenon-justiciable
The Court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide non-justiciable political questions.
Justiciability is one of several criteria that the United States Supreme Court uses to make a judgment granting writ of certiorari ("cert.").

Chisholm v. Georgia

Chisholm v. State of Georgia
The court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia (1793), which was reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment.
Chisholm v. Georgia, 2 U.S. (2 Dall.) 419 (1793), is considered the first United States Supreme Court case of significance and impact.

McCulloch v. Maryland

McCulloch v MarylandbanksM'Culloch v. Maryland
Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution (Marbury v. Madison) and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states (notably, Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden).
McCulloch v. Maryland, 17 U.S. (4 Wheat.) 316 (1819), was a U.S. Supreme Court decision that defined the scope of the U.S. Congress's legislative power and how it relates to the powers of American state legislatures.

Martin v. Hunter's Lessee

Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution (Marbury v. Madison) and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states (notably, Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden).
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 304 (1816), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case decided on March 20, 1816.

James Wilson

Fort Wilson RiotWilson
court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, and John Blair Jr. as associate justices.
A leading legal theorist, he was one of the six original justices appointed by George Washington to the Supreme Court of the United States.

Dred Scott v. Sandford

Dred Scott decisionDred ScottDred Scott case
Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War.
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. (19 How.) 393 (1857), was a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court held that the Constitution of the United States was not meant to include American citizenship for black people, regardless of whether they were enslaved or free, and therefore the rights and privileges it confers upon American citizens could not apply to them.

Judiciary Act of 1869

9Circuit Judges Act of 18691869
As later set by the Judiciary Act of 1869, the Court consists of the chief justice of the United States and eight associate justices.
The Judiciary Act of 1869, sometimes called the Circuit Judges Act of 1869, a United States statute, provided that the Supreme Court of the United States would consist of the chief justice of the United States and eight associate justices, established separate judgeships for the U.S. circuit courts, and for the first time included a provision allowing federal judges to retire without losing their salary.

Federal judiciary of the United States

federal courtfederal courtsUnited States federal court
The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.
The Supreme Court of the United States is the court of last resort.

Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution

Eleventh Amendment11th AmendmentU.S. Const. amend. XI
The court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia (1793), which was reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment.
The Eleventh Amendment was adopted to overrule the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Chisholm v. Georgia (1793).

Lochner v. New York

LochnerLochner v New YorkLochner'' ruling
In the Reconstruction era, the Chase, Waite, and Fuller Courts (1864–1910) interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution and developed the doctrine of substantive due process (Lochner v. New York; Adair v. United States).
Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45 (1905), was a landmark U.S. labor law case in the US Supreme Court, holding that limits to working time violated the Fourteenth Amendment.