Taft in 1909
The Court lacked its own building until 1935; from 1791 to 1801, it met in Philadelphia's City Hall.
Yale College photograph of Taft
The Royal Exchange, New York City, the first meeting place of the Supreme Court
Sultan Jamalul Kiram II with William Howard Taft of the Philippine Commission in Jolo, Sulu (March 27, 1901)
Chief Justice Marshall (1801–1835)
Roosevelt introduces Taft as his crown prince: Puck magazine cover cartoon, 1906.
The U.S. Supreme Court Building, current home of the Supreme Court, which opened in 1935.
One of a series of candid photographs known as the Evolution of a Smile, taken just after a formal portrait session, as Taft learns by telephone from Roosevelt of his nomination for president.
The Hughes Court in 1937, photographed by Erich Salomon. Members include Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes (center), Louis Brandeis, Benjamin N. Cardozo, Harlan Stone, Owen Roberts, and the "Four Horsemen" Pierce Butler, James Clark McReynolds, George Sutherland, and Willis Van Devanter, who opposed New Deal policies.
1908 Taft/Sherman poster
Justices of the Supreme Court with President George W. Bush (center-right) in October 2005. The justices (left to right) are: Ruth Bader Ginsburg, David Souter, Antonin Scalia, John Paul Stevens, John Roberts, Sandra Day O'Connor, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Stephen Breyer
1908 electoral vote results
John Roberts giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 2005 hearings on his nomination to be chief justice
1909 inauguration
Ruth Bader Ginsburg giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 1993 hearings on her nomination to be an associate justice
Newton McConnell cartoon showing Canadian suspicions that Taft and others were only interested in Canada when prosperous.
The interior of the United States Supreme Court
Taft and Porfirio Díaz, Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, 1909
The first four female justices: O'Connor, Sotomayor, Ginsburg, and Kagan.
Official White House portrait of Taft by Anders Zorn, c. 1911
The current Roberts Court justices (since October 2020): Front row (left to right): Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, Chief Justice John Roberts, Stephen Breyer, and Sonia Sotomayor. Back row (left to right): Brett Kavanaugh, Elena Kagan, Neil Gorsuch, and Amy Coney Barrett.
Taft promoted Associate Justice Edward Douglass White to be Chief Justice of the United States.
Percentage of cases decided unanimously and by a one-vote margin from 1971 to 2016
1909 Puck magazine cover: Roosevelt departs, entrusting his policies to Taft
The present U.S. Supreme Court building as viewed from the front
Taft with Archibald Butt (second from right)
From the 1860s until the 1930s, the court sat in the Old Senate Chamber of the U.S. Capitol.
Taft and Roosevelt – political enemies in 1912
Seth P. Waxman at oral argument presents his case and answers questions from the justices.
Campaign advertisement arguing Taft deserved a second term
Inscription on the wall of the Supreme Court Building from Marbury v. Madison, in which Chief Justice John Marshall outlined the concept of judicial review
Electoral vote by state, 1912. States won by Taft are in red.
Taft (left) with President Warren G. Harding and Robert Lincoln at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial, May 30, 1922
Chief Justice Taft, c. 1921
The U.S. Supreme Court in 1925. Taft is seated in the bottom row, middle.
Time cover, June 30, 1924
Taft insisted that Charles Evans Hughes succeed him as chief justice.
Taft's headstone at Arlington National Cemetery
Four-cent stamp issued for Taft (1930)

Despite his personal ambition to become chief justice, Taft declined repeated offers of appointment to the Supreme Court of the United States, believing his political work to be more important.

- William Howard Taft

Under the White and Taft Courts (1910–1930), the court held that the Fourteenth Amendment had incorporated some guarantees of the Bill of Rights against the states (Gitlow v. New York), grappled with the new antitrust statutes (Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States), upheld the constitutionality of military conscription (Selective Draft Law Cases), and brought the substantive due process doctrine to its first apogee (Adkins v. Children's Hospital).

- Supreme Court of the United States

16 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.

Constitution of the United States

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Supreme law of the United States of America.

Supreme law of the United States of America.

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.
Signing of the Constitution, September 17, 1787 (1940 by Howard Chandler Christy)
Dates the 13 states ratified the Constitution
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"We the People" in an original edition
Closing endorsement section of the United States Constitution
United States Bill of Rights
Currently housed in the National Archives.
John Jay, 1789–1795
John Marshall, 1801–1835
Salmon P. Chase {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Chase Court, 1864–1873, in 1865 were Salmon P. Chase (chief Justice); Hon. Nathan Clifford, Maine; Stephen J. Field, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Hon. Samuel F. Miller, U.S. Supreme Court; Hon. Noah H. Swayne, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Judge Morrison R. Waite}}
William Howard Taft {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Taft Court, 1921–1930, in 1925 were James Clark McReynolds, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., William Howard Taft (chief justice), Willis Van Devanter, Louis Brandeis. Edward Sanford, George Sutherland, Pierce Butler, Harlan Fiske Stone}}
Earl Warren {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Warren Court, 1953–1969, in 1963 were Felix Frankfurter; Hugo Black; Earl Warren (chief justice); Stanley Reed; William O. Douglas. Tom Clark; Robert H. Jackson; Harold Burton; Sherman Minton}}
William Rehnquist {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Rehnquist Court, 1986–2005.}}
José Rizal
Sun Yat-sen

Its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress (Article I); the executive, consisting of the president and subordinate officers (Article II); and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts (Article III).

William Howard Taft was a Harding appointment to chief justice from 1921 to 1930.

President of the United States

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Head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

Head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

George Washington, the first president of the United States
President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers a radio address, 1933
President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the 1964 Civil Rights Act as Martin Luther King Jr. and others look on
President Donald Trump delivers his 2018 State of the Union Address, with Vice President Mike Pence and Speaker of the House Paul Ryan
President George H. W. Bush and Russian President Gorbachev sign the 1990 Chemical Weapons Accord in the White House.
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, successfully preserved the Union during the American Civil War.
President Barack Obama with his Supreme Court appointee Justice Sotomayor, 2009
President Ronald Reagan reviews honor guards during a state visit to China, 1984
President Woodrow Wilson throws out the ceremonial first ball on Opening Day, 1916
President Jimmy Carter (left) debates Republican nominee Ronald Reagan on October 28, 1980.
Map of the United States showing the number of electoral votes allocated following the 2010 census to each state and the District of Columbia for the 2012, 2016 and 2020 presidential elections; it also notes that Maine and Nebraska distribute electors by way of the congressional district method. 270 electoral votes are required for a majority out of 538 votes possible.
Franklin D. Roosevelt won a record four presidential elections (1932, 1936, 1940 and 1944), leading to the adoption of a two-term limit.
President William McKinley and his successor, Theodore Roosevelt
President Reagan surrounded by Secret Service
From left: George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter. Photo taken in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009; Obama formally took office thirteen days later.
Presidents Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George H.W. Bush, and Jimmy Carter at the dedication of the George W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum in Dallas, 2013
White House, the official residence
Camp David, the official retreat
Blair House, the official guest house
The presidential limousine, dubbed "The Beast"
The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is on board
Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard

Historians believe Roosevelt permanently changed the political system by strengthening the presidency, with some key accomplishments including breaking up trusts, conservationism, labor reforms, making personal character as important as the issues, and hand-picking his successor, William Howard Taft.

In Clinton v. City of New York,, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled such a legislative alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional.

Official campaign portrait, 1944

Franklin D. Roosevelt

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American politician and attorney who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

American politician and attorney who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

Official campaign portrait, 1944
Eleanor and Franklin with their first two children, 1908
Roosevelt in 1944
Roosevelt supported Governor Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential election.
Theodore Roosevelt was Franklin Roosevelt's distant cousin and an important influence on his career.
Roosevelt as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1913
Cox and Roosevelt in Ohio, 1920
Rare photograph of Roosevelt in a wheelchair, with Fala and Ruthie Bie, the daughter of caretakers at his Hyde Park estate. Photo taken by his cousin Margaret Suckley (February 1941).
Gov. Roosevelt with his predecessor Al Smith, 1930
Results of the 1930 gubernatorial election in New York
Roosevelt in the early 1930s
1932 electoral vote results
Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act into law, August 14, 1935
1936 re-election handbill for Roosevelt promoting his economic policy
1936 electoral vote results
Roosevelt with Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas and other dignitaries in Brazil, 1936
The Roosevelts with King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, sailing from Washington, D.C., to Mount Vernon, Virginia, on the USS Potomac during the first U.S. visit of a reigning British monarch (June 9, 1939)
Foreign trips of Roosevelt during his presidency
1940 electoral vote results
Roosevelt and Winston Churchill aboard HMS Prince of Wales for 1941 Atlantic Charter meeting
Territory controlled by the Allies (blue and red) and the Axis Powers (black) in June 1942
The Allies (blue and red) and the Axis Powers (black) in December 1944
1944 electoral vote results
Official portrait of President Roosevelt by Frank O. Salisbury, c. 1947
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Following his re-election, Roosevelt sought to counter this by lobbying for the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937 (or "court packing plan"), which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court.

The election became a three-way contest when Theodore Roosevelt left the Republican Party to launch a third party campaign against Wilson and sitting Republican President William Howard Taft.

Justice Rufus Peckham, the author of the majority opinion in Lochner

Lochner v. New York

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Justice Rufus Peckham, the author of the majority opinion in Lochner
Justice John Marshall Harlan, who authored the first dissent in Lochner.
Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., who wrote the second dissent in Lochner.

Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45 (1905), was a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court ruled that a New York state law setting maximum working hours for bakers violated the bakers' right to freedom of contract under the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

Similarly, in Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923), the Supreme Court held that minimum wage laws violated the due process clause, but Chief Justice William Howard Taft strongly dissented and suggested that the Court instead should have overruled Lochner.

Chief Justice Taft

Adkins v. Children's Hospital

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Chief Justice Taft

Adkins v. Children's Hospital, 261 U.S. 525 (1923), is a United States Supreme Court opinion that federal minimum wage legislation for women was an unconstitutional infringement of liberty of contract, as protected by the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment.

Chief Justice Taft, dissenting, argued that there was no distinction between minimum wage laws and maximum hour laws since both were essentially restrictions on contract.

Edward Douglass White

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American politician and jurist from Louisiana.

American politician and jurist from Louisiana.

Edward White as a U.S. Senator
White as he appeared in Harper's Magazine in 1910

White was a U.S. Supreme Court justice for 27 years, first as an associate justice from 1894 to 1910, then as the ninth chief justice from 1910 until his death in 1921.

In 1910, President William Howard Taft elevated him to the position of chief justice.

Map of the boundaries of the United States courts of appeals and United States district courts

United States courts of appeals

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The United States courts of appeals are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal judiciary.

The United States courts of appeals are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal judiciary.

Map of the boundaries of the United States courts of appeals and United States district courts

Appeals from decisions of the courts of appeals can be taken to the U.S. Supreme Court.

Passage of this law was urged by Chief Justice William Howard Taft.

The Sixteenth Amendment in the National Archives

Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

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Income tax without apportioning it among the states on the basis of population.

Income tax without apportioning it among the states on the basis of population.

The Sixteenth Amendment in the National Archives

It was passed by Congress in 1909 in response to the 1895 Supreme Court case of Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. The Sixteenth Amendment was ratified by the requisite number of states on February 3, 1913, and effectively overruled the Supreme Court's ruling in Pollock.

On June 16, 1909, President William Howard Taft, in an address to the Sixty-first Congress, proposed a two percent federal income tax on corporations by way of an excise tax and a constitutional amendment to allow the previously enacted income tax.

Fuller in 1908

Melville Fuller

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American politician, lawyer, and jurist who served as the eighth chief justice of the United States from 1888 until his death in 1910.

American politician, lawyer, and jurist who served as the eighth chief justice of the United States from 1888 until his death in 1910.

Fuller in 1908
Advertisement for Fuller's law practice, printed in the Chicago Tribune, May 4, 1860
Fuller's chief justice nomination
Chief Justice Fuller (left) administering the oath to William McKinley (center) as president on March 4, 1897. Outgoing president Grover Cleveland stands to the right.
In this 1895 political cartoon, Fuller is depicted placing a dunce cap with the words "INCOME TAX DECISION" on President Cleveland, who had signed the tax into law. The cartoon appeared in the Judge magazine; it was accompanied by a quotation from Senator David B. Hill praising the Court's decision.
Fuller in his Supreme Court chambers, circa 1899
The Fuller Court in 1899
Fuller's grave at Graceland Cemetery
A bust of Fuller, displayed at the U.S. Supreme Court

Staunch conservatism marked his tenure on the Supreme Court, exhibited by his tendency to support unfettered free enterprise and to oppose broad federal power.

President William Howard Taft nominated Associate Justice Edward Douglass White to replace him.

Justice Holmes c. 1930

Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.

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American jurist and legal scholar who served as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932.

American jurist and legal scholar who served as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932.

Justice Holmes c. 1930
Holmes in his uniform, 1861
Holmes about 1872, aged 31
In the year of his to the US Supreme Court
Stamp issued by the U.S. Post Office, 1978
Holmes's gravesite

He is one of the most widely cited U.S. Supreme Court justices and most influential American common law judges in history, noted for his long service, concise, and pithy opinions—particularly for opinions on civil liberties and American constitutional democracy—and deference to the decisions of elected legislatures.

From the departure of William Howard Taft on February 3, 1930 until Charles Evans Hughes took office on February 24, 1930, Holmes briefly acted as the Chief Justice and presided over court sessions.