Supreme court

court of last resorthighest courtsupremeapex courtthe Supreme Courtfinal court of appealhigh courtcourts of last resortSupreme Court justiceSupreme Court of Justice
The supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.wikipedia
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Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
Some countries with a federal system of government may have both a federal supreme court (such as the Supreme Court of the United States), and supreme courts for each member state (such as the Supreme Court of Nevada), with the former having jurisdiction over the latter only to the extent that the federal constitution extends federal law over state law.
The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.

Constitutional court

List of constitutional courtsFederal Constitutional Court of Germanyconstitutional
A number of jurisdictions also maintain a separate constitutional court (first developed in the Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920), such as Austria, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Portugal, Russia, Spain and South Africa.
A constitutional court is a high court that deals primarily with constitutional law.

Judicial Committee of the Privy Council

Privy CouncilJudicial CommitteeJudicial Committee of the British Privy Council
Within the former British Empire, the highest court within a colony was often called the "Supreme Court", even though appeals could be made from that court to the United Kingdom's Privy Council (based in London).
Established on 13 August 1833 to hear appeals formerly heard by the King-in-Council, the Privy Council formerly acted as the court of last resort for the entire British Empire (other than for the United Kingdom itself), and continues to act as the highest court of appeal for several independent Commonwealth nations, the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories.

Civil law (legal system)

civil lawcivilcivil law system
Civil law states tend not to have a single highest court.
While the typical French-speaking supreme court decision is short, concise and devoid of explanation or justification, in Germanic Europe, the supreme courts can and do tend to write more verbose opinions, supported by legal reasoning.

Court of Final Appeal (Hong Kong)

Court of Final AppealHong Kong Court of Final AppealCourt of Final Appeal of Hong Kong
Now the power of final adjudication is vested in the Court of Final Appeal created in 1997.
The Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal (HKCFA or CFA; ) is the final appellate court of Hong Kong.

Standing Committee of the National People's Congress

National People's Congress Standing CommitteeStanding CommitteeNPC Standing Committee
On the other hand, the power of interpretation of the Basic Law itself is vested in the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) in Beijing (without retroactive effect), and the courts are authorised to interpret the Basic Law when trying cases, in accordance with Article 158 of the Basic Law.
In contrast to other countries in which stare decisis gives the power of both final interpretation and adjudication to a supreme court, within Mainland China constitutional and legal interpretation is considered to be a legislative activity rather than a judicial one, and the functions are split so that the NPCSC provides legal interpretations while the Supreme People's Court actually decides cases.

Supreme Court of Israel

Israeli Supreme CourtSupreme CourtHigh Court of Justice
Israel's Supreme Court is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel.
The Supreme Court (, Beit HaMishpat HaElyon) is the highest court in Israel.

Precedent

stare decisislegal precedentbinding precedent
In jurisdictions using a common law system, the doctrine of stare decisis applies, whereby the principles applied by the supreme court in its decisions are binding upon all lower courts; this is intended to apply a uniform interpretation and implementation of the law.
Usually, only an appeal accepted by the court of last resort will resolve such differences, and for many reasons, such appeals are often not granted.

Appellate court

Court of AppealCourt of Appealsappeals court
Supreme courts typically function primarily as appellate courts, hearing appeals from decisions of lower trial courts, or from intermediate-level appellate courts.
In most jurisdictions, the court system is divided into at least three levels: the trial court, which initially hears cases and reviews evidence and testimony to determine the facts of the case; at least one intermediate appellate court; and a supreme court (or court of last resort) which primarily reviews the decisions of the intermediate courts.

Supreme Court of Nauru

Supreme CourtChief Justice of NauruChief Justice
The Supreme Court has final jurisdiction on constitutional matters, but any other case may be appealed further to the Appellate Court.
The Supreme Court of Nauru is the highest court in the judicial system of the Republic of Nauru.

Supreme Court of Pakistan

Supreme CourtPakistan Supreme CourtPakistani Supreme Court
The Supreme Court has been the apex court for Pakistan since the declaration of the republic in 1956 (previously the Privy Council had that function).
The Supreme Court of Pakistan (undefined; Adālat-e-Uzma Pākistān) is the apex court in the of Pakistan.

Supreme Court of New Zealand

Supreme CourtNew Zealand Supreme CourtHigh Court
The new Supreme Court of New Zealand was officially established at the beginning of 2004, although it did not come into operation until July.
The Supreme Court of New Zealand (in Māori: Te Kōti Mana Nui) is the highest court and the court of last resort of New Zealand.

Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

Supreme CourtUK Supreme CourtUnited Kingdom Supreme Court
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the ultimate court for criminal and civil matters in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and for civil matters in Scotland.
The Supreme Court (Y Goruchaf Lys; An Àrd Chùirt; The Supreme Coort; An Chúirt Uachtarach; sometimes colloquially referred to by the initialism UKSC or the acronym SCOTUK) is the final court of appeal in the United Kingdom for civil cases, and for criminal cases from England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Judicial functions of the House of Lords

House of LordsAppellate Committee of the House of LordsLaw Lords
(The supreme court for criminal matters in Scotland is the High Court of Justiciary.) The Supreme Court was established by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 with effect from 1 October 2009, replacing and assuming the judicial functions of the House of Lords.
It functioned as a court of first instance for the trials of peers, for impeachment cases, and as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom.

European Court of Justice

Court of JusticeECJEuropean Court
In respect of Community Law the Supreme Court is subject to the decisions of the European Court of Justice.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.

Oklahoma Supreme Court

Supreme Court of OklahomaChief Justice of OklahomaChief Justice of the Oklahoma Supreme Court
Two states, Oklahoma and Texas, each have two separate highest courts that hear criminal and civil appellate matters.
The Supreme Court of Oklahoma is one of the two highest judicial bodies in the U.S. state of Oklahoma and leads the judiciary of Oklahoma, the judicial branch of the government of Oklahoma.

State supreme court

highest courtsupreme courtstate supreme courts
Each U.S. state has its own state supreme court, which is the highest authority interpreting that state's law and administering that state's judiciary.
In the United States, a state supreme court (known by other names in some states) is the ultimate judicial tribunal in the court system of a particular state (i.e., that state's court of last resort).

Supreme Court of Texas

Texas Supreme CourtSupreme CourtState Supreme Court litigator
Two states, Oklahoma and Texas, each have two separate highest courts that hear criminal and civil appellate matters. In Texas, the state's Court of Criminal Appeals hears criminal appeals and has sole authority to grant the writ of habeas corpus to a person who has been convicted of a felony, but the Texas Supreme Court also hears appeals in juvenile delinquency matters in additional to civil cases as conventionally defined.
The Supreme Court of Texas ("SCOTX") is the court of last resort for civil appeals (including juvenile delinquency cases, which are categorized as civil under the Texas Family Code) in the U.S. state of Texas.

Texas Court of Criminal Appeals

Court of Criminal AppealsCourt of Criminal Appeals of TexasCriminal Appellate
In Texas, the state's Court of Criminal Appeals hears criminal appeals and has sole authority to grant the writ of habeas corpus to a person who has been convicted of a felony, but the Texas Supreme Court also hears appeals in juvenile delinquency matters in additional to civil cases as conventionally defined.
The Texas Court of Criminal Appeals (CCA) is the court of last resort for all criminal matters in the State of Texas, United States.

Supreme Federal Court

Supreme CourtBrazilian Supreme CourtSupreme Court of Brazil
In Brazil, the Supreme Federal Tribunal (Supremo Tribunal Federal) is the highest court.
The Supreme Federal Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, abbreviated STF) is the supreme court (court of last resort) of Brazil, serving primarily as the Constitutional Court of the country.

Supreme Court of Justice (Austria)

Supreme Court of JusticeAustrian Supreme CourtSupreme Court
The Supreme Court (Oberste Gerichtshof (OGH)), stands at the top of Austria's system of "ordinary courts" (ordentliche Gerichte) as the final instance in issues of private law and criminal law.
The Supreme Court of Justice (Oberster Gerichtshof or OGH) in Austria is the final court of appeal for criminal and civil lawsuits other than administrative.

Appellate jurisdiction

appellateappellate civil and criminal jurisdictionAppellate side
It has both original and appellate jurisdiction, the power of judicial review over laws passed by the Parliament of Australia and the parliaments of the states, and the ability to interpret the Constitution of Australia and thereby shape the development of federalism in Australia.

Court of Cassation (France)

Court of CassationCour de cassationFrench Supreme Court
The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation; ) is one of the four courts of last resort in France.

Conseil d'État (France)

Conseil d'ÉtatCouncil of StateConseil d'Etat
In France, the Council of State (Conseil d'État ) is a body of the French national government that acts both as legal advisor of the executive branch and as the supreme court for administrative justice.

Federal Constitutional Court

Federal Constitutional Court of GermanyBundesverfassungsgerichtGerman Constitutional Court
Final interpretation of and recommendations for amendments to the German Constitution, the Grundgesetz, is the task of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court), which is the de facto highest German court, as it can declare both federal and state legislation ineffective.
The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law (Grundgesetz) of Germany.