Surfactant

surfactantswetting agentbiosurfactantanionic surfactantnonionic surfactantcationic surfactantbiosurfactantssurface activesurface-active substancewetting agents
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.wikipedia
722 Related Articles

Detergent

detergentshousehold cleanerdetergency
Surfactants may act as detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, and dispersants.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleansing properties in dilute solutions.

Foaming agent

foamingfoam boosterfoaming agents
Surfactants may act as detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, and dispersants.
A foaming agent is a material that facilitates formation of foam such as a surfactant or a blowing agent.

Pulmonary surfactant

lung surfactantsurfactantpulmonary surfactants
The United States National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) vocabulary reserves surfactant for the meaning "pulmonary surfactant".
The proteins and lipids that make up the surfactant have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.

Dispersant

dispersantsdispersing agentbio-dispersant
Surfactants may act as detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, and dispersants.
A dispersant or a dispersing agent or a plasticizer or a superplasticizer is either a non-surface active polymer or a surface-active substance added to a suspension, usually a colloid, to improve the separation of particles and to prevent settling or clumping.

Soap

soapssoapmakingsoap making
World production of surfactants is estimated at 15 Mton/y, of which about half are soaps.
Household uses for soaps include washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping, where soaps act as surfactants, emulsifying oils to enable them to be carried away by water.

Alkylbenzene sulfonates

sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonatealkylbenzenesulfonateLinear alkylbenzene sulfonate
Other surfactants produced on a particularly large scale are linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (1700 kton/y), lignin sulfonates (600 kton/y), fatty alcohol ethoxylates (700 ktons/y), and alkylphenol ethoxylates (500 kton/y).
Alkylbenzene sulfonates are a class of anionic surfactants, consisting of a hydrophilic sulfonate head-group and a hydrophobic alkylbenzene tail-group.

Surface tension

interfacial tensioninterfacial tensionsinterfacial water
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid. A measure of this is the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB).Surfactants reduce the surface tension of water by adsorbing at the liquid-air interface.
Surface tension is visible in other common phenomena, especially when surfactants are used to decrease it:

Micelle

micellesmicellarmicellization
In the bulk aqueous phase, surfactants form aggregates, such as micelles, where the hydrophobic tails form the core of the aggregate and the hydrophilic heads are in contact with the surrounding liquid.
A micelle or micella (plural micelles or micellae, respectively) is an aggregate (or supramolecular assembly) of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid.

Ethoxylation

ethoxylatedethoxylatealcohol ethoxylates
Other surfactants produced on a particularly large scale are linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (1700 kton/y), lignin sulfonates (600 kton/y), fatty alcohol ethoxylates (700 ktons/y), and alkylphenol ethoxylates (500 kton/y).
Alcohol ethoxylates and ethoxysulfates are surfactants, used widely in cosmetic and other commercial products.

Sodium dodecyl sulfate

sodium lauryl sulfateSDSsodium lauryl sulphate
Popular surfactants in the biochemistry laboratory are sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Prominent alkyl sulfates include ammonium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SLS, or SDS), and the related alkyl-ether sulfates sodium laureth sulfate (sodium lauryl ether sulfate or SLES), and sodium myreth sulfate.
It is an anionic surfactant used in many cleaning and hygiene products.

Triton X-100

octoxynolTritondetergent
Detergents are key reagents to extract protein by lysis of the cells and tissues: They disorganize the membrane's lipidic bilayer (SDS, Triton X-100, X-114, CHAPS, DOC, and NP-40), and solubilize proteins.
Triton X-100 ( n ) is a nonionic surfactant that has a hydrophilic polyethylene oxide chain (on average it has 9.5 ethylene oxide units) and an aromatic hydrocarbon lipophilic or hydrophobic group.

Maximum bubble pressure method

Bubble pressure methodmaximum bubble pressure apparatusmaximum capillary pressure
surface tension as a function of time, can be obtained by the maximum bubble pressure apparatus
In physics, the maximum bubble pressure method, or in short bubble pressure method, is a technique to measure the surface tension of a liquid, with surfactants.

Octyl glucoside

n-octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside
Milder detergents such as octyl thioglucoside, octyl glucoside or dodecyl maltoside are used to solubilize membrane proteins such as enzymes and receptors without denaturing them.
Octyl glucoside (n-octyl-β--glucoside) is a nonionic surfactant frequently used to solubilise integral membrane proteins for studies in biochemistry.

CHAPS detergent

CHAPS
Detergents are key reagents to extract protein by lysis of the cells and tissues: They disorganize the membrane's lipidic bilayer (SDS, Triton X-100, X-114, CHAPS, DOC, and NP-40), and solubilize proteins.
CHAPS is a zwitterionic surfactant used in the laboratory to solubilize biological macromolecules such as proteins.

Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance

HLBHLB ratio
A measure of this is the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB).Surfactants reduce the surface tension of water by adsorbing at the liquid-air interface.
The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of a surfactant is a measure of the degree to which it is hydrophilic or lipophilic, determined by calculating values for the different regions of the molecule, as described by Griffin in 1949 and 1954.

Gibbs isotherm

Gibbs Adsorption IsothermGibbs ideal interface
The relation that links the surface tension and the surface excess is known as the Gibbs isotherm.
For example, if water is mixed with a tiny amount of surfactants (for example, hand soap), the bulk water may be 99% water molecules and 1% soap molecules, but the topmost surface of the water may be 50% water molecules and 50% soap molecules.

Fluorosurfactant

Perfluorinated alkylated substancesPFASfluorinated surfactant
Fluorosurfactants have fluorocarbon chains.
As surfactants, they are more effective at lowering the surface tension of water than comparable hydrocarbon surfactants.

Ammonium lauryl sulfate

lauryl sulphate
Prominent alkyl sulfates include ammonium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SLS, or SDS), and the related alkyl-ether sulfates sodium laureth sulfate (sodium lauryl ether sulfate or SLES), and sodium myreth sulfate.
The molecule consists of a long nonpolar hydrocarbon chain and a polar sulfate end group, the combination of which make the material a surfactant.

Surface rheology

interfacial rheology
The surface rheology of surfactant layers, including the elasticity and viscosity of the layer, play an important role in the stability of foams and emulsions.

Fatty alcohol

fatty alcoholslong-chain alcoholalcohols
Other surfactants produced on a particularly large scale are linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (1700 kton/y), lignin sulfonates (600 kton/y), fatty alcohol ethoxylates (700 ktons/y), and alkylphenol ethoxylates (500 kton/y).
Due to their amphipathic nature, fatty alcohols behave as nonionic surfactants.

Sodium laureth sulfate

sodium laureth sulphateSodium lauryl ether sulfate
Prominent alkyl sulfates include ammonium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SLS, or SDS), and the related alkyl-ether sulfates sodium laureth sulfate (sodium lauryl ether sulfate or SLES), and sodium myreth sulfate.
Sodium laureth sulfate (SLES), an accepted contraction of sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), is an anionic detergent and surfactant found in many personal care products (soaps, shampoos, toothpaste, etc.).

Perfluorooctanoic acid

PFOAperfluorooctanoateperfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)
More specialized species include sodium lauroyl sarcosinate and carboxylate-based fluorosurfactants such as perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA or PFO).
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (conjugate base perfluorooctanoate)—also known as C8—is a perfluorinated carboxylic acid produced and used worldwide as an industrial surfactant in chemical processes and as a material feedstock, and is a health concern and subject to regulatory action and voluntary industrial phase-outs.

Cetrimonium bromide

cetyltrimethylammonium bromideCetyl trimethylammonium bromideCTAB
Popular surfactants in the biochemistry laboratory are sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Permanently charged quaternary ammonium salts: cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BZT), dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride, and dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB).
Cetrimonium bromide ([(C 16 H 33 )N(CH 3 ) 3 ]Br; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; CTAB) is a quaternary ammonium surfactant.

Octenidine dihydrochloride

octenidine
pH-dependent primary, secondary, or tertiary amines; primary and secondary amines become positively charged at pH < 10: octenidine dihydrochloride.
Octenidine dihydrochloride is a cationic surfactant, with a gemini-surfactant structure, derived from pyridine.

Benzalkonium chloride

BenzalkoniumAlkyl (C12-C16) dimethylbenzylammonium chlorideAlkyl (C12-C18) dimethylbenzylammonium chloride
Permanently charged quaternary ammonium salts: cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BZT), dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride, and dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB).
Benzalkonium chloride, also known as BZK, BKC, BAC, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride and ADBAC, is a type of cationic surfactant.