Surname

family nameoccupational surnamelast namesurnameshabitational nameoccupational namecompound surnamefamily namesoccupationallast names
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion (in some cultures) of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).wikipedia
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Matrilineality

matrilinealmatrilineallymatrilinear
For a discussion of matrilineal ('mother-line') surnames, passing from mothers to daughters, see matrilineal surname.
This matrilineal descent pattern is in contrast to the more common pattern of patrilineal descent from which a family name is usually derived.

T–V distinction

informaltufamiliar "Du
This practice also differs between cultures; see T–V distinction.
English speakers today often employ semantic analogues to convey the mentioned attitudes towards the addressee, such as whether to address someone by given or surname, or whether to use sir/ma'am.

Japanese name

Japanese given nameiminaJapanese
The latter is often called the Eastern order because Europeans are most familiar with the examples from the East Asian cultural sphere, specifically Japan, China (mainland and Taiwan), Korea (Republic of Korea and Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and Vietnam.
Japanese names in modern times usually consist of a family name (surname), followed by a given name.

Korean name

surnamefamily nameKorean
The latter is often called the Eastern order because Europeans are most familiar with the examples from the East Asian cultural sphere, specifically Japan, China (mainland and Taiwan), Korea (Republic of Korea and Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and Vietnam.
A Korean name consists of a family name followed by a given name, as used by the Korean people in both South Korea and North Korea.

Vietnamese name

given nameVietnameseVietnamese surname
The latter is often called the Eastern order because Europeans are most familiar with the examples from the East Asian cultural sphere, specifically Japan, China (mainland and Taiwan), Korea (Republic of Korea and Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and Vietnam.
Vietnamese personal names generally consist of three parts: one patrilineal family name, one or more middle name(s) (one of which may be taken from the mother's family name), and one given name, used in that order.

One-name study

one-name studiesOne Name Study
A one-name study is a collection of vital and other biographical data about all persons worldwide sharing a particular surname.
A one-name study is a project researching a specific surname, as opposed to a particular pedigree (ancestors of one person) or descendancy (descendants of one person or couple).

Surname law

introduced the use of surnameslaw
Surname laws vary around the world.
Surname law can refer to any law regulating the use of surnames.

Personal name

birth namefull namepersonal names
The latter is often called the Eastern order because Europeans are most familiar with the examples from the East Asian cultural sphere, specifically Japan, China (mainland and Taiwan), Korea (Republic of Korea and Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and Vietnam. A surname, family name, or last name is the portion (in some cultures) of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).
In Western culture, nearly all individuals possess at least one given name (also known as a first name, forename, or Christian name), together with a surname (also known as a last name or family name)—respectively, the Abraham and Lincoln in Abraham Lincoln—the latter to indicate that the individual belongs to a family, a tribe, or a clan.

Mononymous person

mononymmononymouslymononymous
In many cultures, it is common for people to have one name or mononym, with some cultures not using family names.
It was an anagram for a Latinized version of his family surname, "Arouet, l[e] j[eune]"; it reversed the syllables of the name of a family château, Airvault; and it has implications of speed and daring through similarity to French expressions such as "voltige", "volte-face" and "volatile".

Smith (surname)

SmithSmith (English)Smythe
The study found that over 90% of the 45,602 surnames in the dictionary are native to Britain and Ireland, with the most common in the UK being Smith, Jones, Williams, Brown, Taylor, Johnson, and Lee.
Smith is a surname originating in England.

Taylor (surname)

TaylorTaylorssurname Taylor
The study found that over 90% of the 45,602 surnames in the dictionary are native to Britain and Ireland, with the most common in the UK being Smith, Jones, Williams, Brown, Taylor, Johnson, and Lee.
Taylor is a surname used in the British Isles of French and Latin origin which originated as a Norman occupational surname (meaning tailor) in France It is derived from the Old French tailleur ("cutter"), which is in turn derived from the Late Latin taliator, from taliare ("to cut").

Brown (surname)

Brown
The study found that over 90% of the 45,602 surnames in the dictionary are native to Britain and Ireland, with the most common in the UK being Smith, Jones, Williams, Brown, Taylor, Johnson, and Lee.
Brown is an English-language surname in origin chiefly descriptive of a person with brown hair, complexion or clothing.

Lee (English surname)

LeeEnglish surname Lee
The study found that over 90% of the 45,602 surnames in the dictionary are native to Britain and Ireland, with the most common in the UK being Smith, Jones, Williams, Brown, Taylor, Johnson, and Lee.
Lee is a common surname in English-speaking countries.

Johnson

Johnson Master
The study found that over 90% of the 45,602 surnames in the dictionary are native to Britain and Ireland, with the most common in the UK being Smith, Jones, Williams, Brown, Taylor, Johnson, and Lee.
Johnson is a surname of English, Scottish and Italian origin.

Scottish surnames

Scottishsurnamecommon family names of Scotland
By 1400, most English and some Scottish people used surnames, but many Scottish and Welsh people did not adopt surnames until the 17th century, or later.
Scottish surnames are surnames currently found in Scotland, or surnames that have a historical connection with the country.

Given name

néefirst name
Generally the given name, first name, forename, or personal name is the one used by friends, family, and other intimates to address an individual.
It identifies a specific person, and differentiates that person from the other members of a group (typically a family or clan) who have a common surname.

Maiden and married names

néemaiden namemarried name
It is common for women in the entertainment industry (like Celebrities) to keep their maiden name after they get married, especially if they achieved their fame before marriage.
When a person (traditionally the wife in many cultures) assumes the family name of his or her spouse, that name replaces the person's birth surname, which in the case of the wife is called the maiden name (birth name is also used as a gender-neutral or masculine substitute for maiden name), whereas a married name is a family name or surname adopted by a person upon marriage.

Albanian name

Albania and KosovoAlbanian masculine given nameAlbanian personal names
This is also the case in Hungary, Romania, Bavaria, Austria, Albania and Kosovo, parts of South India, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar.
In Albania a complete name usually consists of a given name (emri); the given name of the individual's father (atësia), which is seldom included except in official documents; and a (most commonly patrilineal) family name or surname (mbiemri).

Roman naming conventions

nomenfiliationgentilicum
(See Roman naming conventions.) The nomen, which was the gens name, was inherited much like last names are, but their purposes were quite different.
Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean, consisting of a combination of personal and family names.

Double-barrelled name

double-barrelled surnamedouble-barrelledhyphenated
As an alternative, both spouses may adopt a double-barrelled name.
In the Western tradition of surnames, there are several types of double surname (also double-barrelled surname The term "double-barrelled surname" was in origin used for British double names indicative of (partially) aristocratic background; so in Thomas Innes of Learney, The Clans, Septs and Regiments of the Scottish Highlands (1970), p. 186.

English name

EnglishEnglish surnameAnglo-Saxon system
By 1400, most English and some Scottish people used surnames, but many Scottish and Welsh people did not adopt surnames until the 17th century, or later.
In England as elsewhere in the English-speaking world, a complete name usually consists of a given name, commonly referred to as a first name or Christian name, and a (most commonly patrilineal) family name or surname, also referred to as a last name.

Hansen (surname)

Hansen
Many common family names in other Scandinavian countries are a result of this naming practice, such as Hansen (son of Hans), Johansen (son of Johan) and Olsen (son of Ole/Ola), the three most common surnames in Norway.
As of 2008, it is the third most common surname in Denmark, shared by 4.3% of the population.

Matriname

matrilineal surnamematernal line surnamematrilineal surnames
For a discussion of matrilineal ('mother-line') surnames, passing from mothers to daughters, see matrilineal surname.
A matrilineal surname or matriname is a family name inherited from one's mother, and maternal grandmother, etc. whose line of descent is called a matriline.

Andersen

They may be a first name such as "Wilhelm", a patronymic such as "Andersen", a matronymic such as "Beaton", or a clan name such as "O'Brien".
Andersen is a Danish-Norwegian patronymic surname meaning "son of Anders" (itself derived from the Greek name "Ανδρέας/Andreas", cf. English Andrew).

Beaton (surname)

Beaton
They may be a first name such as "Wilhelm", a patronymic such as "Andersen", a matronymic such as "Beaton", or a clan name such as "O'Brien".
Beaton is a Scottish surname in the English language, which has multiple origins.