Portion of one's personal name that indicates one's family, tribe or community.- Surname
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Tracing of kinship through the female line.
This ancient matrilineal descent pattern is in contrast to the currently more popular pattern of patrilineal descent from which a family name is usually derived.
Adjective indicating the person's place of origin, tribal affiliation, or ancestry, used at the end of the name and occasionally ending in the suffix -iyy(ah).
The nisba can at times become a surname.
Component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather , or an earlier male ancestor.
In many areas around the world, patronyms predate the use of family names.
Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea, consisting of a combination of personal and family names.
The third name of a citizen of ancient Rome, under Roman naming conventions.
Hereditary cognomina were used to augment the second name, the gens (the family name, or clan name), in order to identify a particular branch within a family or family within a clan.
Byname, or a descriptive term , accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.
In England bynames were used during the period when the use of surnames had not been extensively adopted.
English names are names used in, or originating in, England.
In England as elsewhere in the English-speaking world, a complete name usually consists of a given name, commonly referred to as a first name, and a (most commonly patrilineal) family name or surname, also referred to as a last name.
A toponymic surname or topographic surname is a surname derived from a place name.
Japanese names (日本人の氏名、日本人の姓名、日本人の名前) in modern times consist of a family name (surname) followed by a given name, in that order.
When a person (traditionally the wife in many cultures) assumes the family name of their spouse, in some countries that name replaces the person's previous surname, which in the case of the wife is called the maiden name ("birth name" is also used as a gender-neutral or masculine substitute for maiden name), whereas a married name is a family name or surname adopted by a person upon marriage.