Surname

First/given/forename, middle, and last/family/surname with John Fitzgerald Kennedy as example. This shows a structure typical for Anglophonic cultures (and some others). Other cultures use other structures for full names.
A family tree showing the Icelandic patronymic naming system.
Rank and frequency of some US surnames

Portion of one's personal name that indicates one's family, tribe or community.

- Surname

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Matrilineality

Tracing of kinship through the female line.

A multi-generational extended family in Chaghcharan, Ghor Province, Afghanistan.

This ancient matrilineal descent pattern is in contrast to the currently more popular pattern of patrilineal descent from which a family name is usually derived.

Nisba (onomastics)

Adjective indicating the person's place of origin, tribal affiliation, or ancestry, used at the end of the name and occasionally ending in the suffix -iyy(ah).

The Namara inscription, an Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of "Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nimreh in the Hauran (Southern Syria).

The nisba can at times become a surname.

Patronymic

Component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather , or an earlier male ancestor.

First/given, middle and last/family/surname with John Fitzgerald Kennedy as example. This shows a structure typical for the Anglosphere, among others. Other cultures use other structures for full names.

In many areas around the world, patronyms predate the use of family names.

Roman naming conventions

Fresco in the François Tomb, Vulci, with examples of Etruscan naming conventions. From left to right: Caile Vipinas (Caile Vibenna), Macstrna (Mastarna), Larth Ultes, Laris Papathnas Velznach, Pesna Aremsnas Sveamach, Rasce, Venthi Caules Plsachs and Aule Vipienas (Aule Vibenna). Right: Marce Camitlnas et Cnaeve Tarchunies Rumach.
The Shepherd Faustulus Bringing Romulus and Remus to His Wife Nicolas Mignard, 1606–1668
A Roman child. In the Peristyle (1874) by John William Waterhouse (1849–1917).
Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, surnamed "Cunctator". Maximus was the branch of the Fabia gens to which he belonged; Verrucosus was a personal cognomen referring to a wart above his upper lip; Cunctator a cognomen ex virtute referring to his delaying strategy against Hannibal. Statue at Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna
"Dedicated by the emperor Caesar, son of the divine Marcus Antoninus Pius, brother of the divine Commodus, grandson of the divine Antoninus Pius, great-grandson of the divine Hadrian, great-great-grandson of the divine Trajan, conqueror of Parthia, great-great-great-grandson of the divine Nerva, Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax Augustus Arabicus Adiabenicus, father of his country, Pontifex Maximus, holding the tribunician power for the fourth year, in the eighth year of his imperium, consul for the second time; and Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Caesar"
A Roman woman, attired as a Priestess of Vesta, performing sacred rites. Invocation Frederic Leighton (1830–1896)
Aulia Secunda, daughter of Lucius

Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea, consisting of a combination of personal and family names.

Cognomen

The third name of a citizen of ancient Rome, under Roman naming conventions.

Territories of the Roman civilization:

Hereditary cognomina were used to augment the second name, the gens (the family name, or clan name), in order to identify a particular branch within a family or family within a clan.

Epithet

Byname, or a descriptive term , accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.

Orcinus orca, the orca or the killer whale

In England bynames were used during the period when the use of surnames had not been extensively adopted.

English name

English names are names used in, or originating in, England.

In England as elsewhere in the English-speaking world, a complete name usually consists of a given name, commonly referred to as a first name, and a (most commonly patrilineal) family name or surname, also referred to as a last name.

Toponymic surname

First/given/forename, middle, and last/family/surname with John Fitzgerald Kennedy as example. This shows a structure typical for Anglophonic cultures (and some others). Other cultures use other structures for full names.

A toponymic surname or topographic surname is a surname derived from a place name.

Japanese name

Yamada Tarō (山田太郎), a Japanese placeholder name (male), equivalent to John Smith in English. The equivalent of Jane Smith would be Yamada Hanako (山田花子).
Akishino-dera in Nara, from which Prince Akishino took his name
Haruko Momoi at the Anime Expo 2007 in Los Angeles; her name card features a spelling of her name ("Halko Momoi") written surname last. In Japanese, her name is Momoi Haruko (桃井はるこ)
The nameplate of Fumiko Orikasa is presented family name first in Japanese, while it is presented given name first in English

Japanese names (日本人の氏名、日本人の姓名、日本人の名前) in modern times consist of a family name (surname) followed by a given name, in that order.

Maiden and married names

First/given/forename, middle, and last/family/surname with John Fitzgerald Kennedy as example. This shows a structure typical for Anglophonic cultures (and some others). Other cultures use other structures for full names.

When a person (traditionally the wife in many cultures) assumes the family name of their spouse, in some countries that name replaces the person's previous surname, which in the case of the wife is called the maiden name ("birth name" is also used as a gender-neutral or masculine substitute for maiden name), whereas a married name is a family name or surname adopted by a person upon marriage.