Surname DNA project

surname projectsurname study groups
A surname DNA project is a genetic genealogy project which uses genealogical DNA tests to trace male lineage.wikipedia
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Genetic genealogy

genetic ancestryGeneticgenetic genealogist
A surname DNA project is a genetic genealogy project which uses genealogical DNA tests to trace male lineage.
The tests have been promoted by amateur groups, such as surname study groups, or regional genealogical groups, as well as research projects such as the genographic project.

Genealogical DNA test

DNA testautosomal DNADNA testing
A surname DNA project is a genetic genealogy project which uses genealogical DNA tests to trace male lineage.
A surname project is where many individuals whose Y-chromosomes match collaborate to find their common ancestry.

Modal haplotype

modal
When a surname project has enough participants' test results, it can group similar test results together and determine a modal haplotype for each such group of similar test results.
However, a specific modal haplotype may be determined for any genealogical DNA test-based surname project or other test group.

One-name study

one-name studiesOne Name Study
Increasingly one-namers are becoming involved in Surname DNA projects, using Y-DNA testing to analyse relationships among different lineages bearing the same surname (or suspected spelling variants).

Matrilineality

matrilinealmatrilinematrilineally
In most cultures, there are few or no matrilineal surnames, or matrinames, so there are still few or no matrilineal surname projects.

Matriname

matrilineal surnamematernal line surnamematrilineal surnames
In most cultures, there are few or no matrilineal surnames, or matrinames, so there are still few or no matrilineal surname projects.

Surname

family nameoccupational surnamelast name
Because surnames are passed down from father to son in many cultures (patrilineal), and Y-chromosomes (Y-DNA) are passed from father to son with a predictable rate of mutation, people with the same surname can use genealogical DNA testing to determine if they share a common ancestor within recent history.

Y chromosome

Y-chromosomeY-DNAY
Because surnames are passed down from father to son in many cultures (patrilineal), and Y-chromosomes (Y-DNA) are passed from father to son with a predictable rate of mutation, people with the same surname can use genealogical DNA testing to determine if they share a common ancestor within recent history.

Most recent common ancestor

last common ancestorcommon ancestorrecent common ancestor
Because surnames are passed down from father to son in many cultures (patrilineal), and Y-chromosomes (Y-DNA) are passed from father to son with a predictable rate of mutation, people with the same surname can use genealogical DNA testing to determine if they share a common ancestor within recent history.

List of Y-STR markers

markerDYS391DYS455
For example, at DYS455, the results will normally show 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 repeats. The Y chromosome has been studied intensely and variations have been divided into Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, based upon the results of the number of alleles in certain positions called markers.

Haplotype

haplotypeshaplotypinghaploblock structure
The specific test results for a given individual are referred to as a haplotype.

Family Tree DNA

FamilyTreeDNAFTDNAFamilyTree DNA
By far the largest collection of Y-DNA test results is maintained by Family Tree DNA, including many surname projects that make direct use of those results.

Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup

human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroupsY-DNAY-chromosome DNA haplogroup
The Y chromosome has been studied intensely and variations have been divided into Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, based upon the results of the number of alleles in certain positions called markers.

Allele

allelesallelicmultiple alleles
The Y chromosome has been studied intensely and variations have been divided into Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, based upon the results of the number of alleles in certain positions called markers. Test results tell how many repeats a given subject has at a particular marker; the variations of repeats are known as alleles.

Y-STR

YsearchList of Y-chromosome databasesSTRs
This had allowed Y-STR database websites such as Ybase and Ysearch (both now defunct) to convert scores from several companies and find matches within their database for submitted results.

International Society of Genetic Genealogy

ISOGGThe International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG)
It was founded by a group of surname DNA project administrators in 2005 to promote DNA testing for genealogy.

Bennett Greenspan

Greenspan is also the project administrator of several surname DNA projects, and regularly lectures on the use of genetics in genealogy and on genomics.