Surrealism

surrealistsurrealSurrealistssurrealisticSurrealist movementsurrealist artsurrealist painterBlack Surrealismsurrealist poetsurrealist poetry
Surrealism is a cultural movement that started in 1917, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.wikipedia
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André Breton

Andre BretonBretonA. Breton
Its aim was, according to Breton, to "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality", or surreality.
He is known best as the co-founder, leader, principal theorist and chief apologist of Surrealism.

Guillaume Apollinaire

ApollinaireAppolinaireG. Apollinaire
The word 'surrealism' was first coined in March 1917 by Guillaume Apollinaire.
Apollinaire is considered one of the foremost poets of the early 20th century, as well as one of the most impassioned defenders of Cubism and a forefather of Surrealism.

Arthur Rimbaud

RimbaudRimbaud, ArthurArthur Rimbaud's
Later Breton wrote, "In literature, I was successively taken with Rimbaud, with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with Nouveau, with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most."
Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (, ; 20 October 1854 – 10 November 1891) was a French poet known for his influence on modern literature and arts, which prefigured surrealism.

The Breasts of Tiresias

Les Mamelles de TirésiasLes Mamelles de Tirésias: Drame surréalistethe eponymous play
The term was taken up again by Apollinaire, both as subtitle and in the preface to his play Les Mamelles de Tirésias: Drame surréaliste, which was written in 1903 and first performed in 1917.
The Breasts of Tiresias (Les mamelles de Tirésias) is a surrealist play by Guillaume Apollinaire.

Louis Aragon

AragonAragon, Poet of the ResistanceLouis Andrieux
Back in Paris, Breton joined in Dada activities and started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault.
Louis Aragon (, 3 October 1897 – 24 December 1982) was a French poet who was one of the leading voices of the surrealist movement in France.

Tristan Tzara

Tzara
One group, led by Yvan Goll consisted of Pierre Albert-Birot, Paul Dermée, Céline Arnauld, Francis Picabia, Tristan Tzara, Giuseppe Ungaretti, Pierre Reverdy, Marcel Arland, Joseph Delteil, Jean Painlevé and Robert Delaunay, among others The group lead by Andre Breton claimed that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than those of Dada, as lead by Tzara, who was now among their rivals.
After moving to Paris in 1919, Tzara, by then one of the "presidents of Dada", joined the staff of Littérature magazine, which marked the first step in the movement's evolution toward Surrealism.

Pierre Reverdy

ReverdyReverdy, Pierre
One group, led by Yvan Goll consisted of Pierre Albert-Birot, Paul Dermée, Céline Arnauld, Francis Picabia, Tristan Tzara, Giuseppe Ungaretti, Pierre Reverdy, Marcel Arland, Joseph Delteil, Jean Painlevé and Robert Delaunay, among others The group lead by Andre Breton claimed that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than those of Dada, as lead by Tzara, who was now among their rivals.
Pierre Reverdy (13 September 1889 – 17 June 1960) was a French poet whose works were inspired by and subsequently proceeded to influence the provocative art movements of the day, Surrealism, Dadaism and Cubism.

Surrealist Manifesto

Manifeste du SurréalismeManifesto of Surrealism Second Surrealist Manifesto
By October 1924 two rival Surrealist groups had formed to publish a Surrealist Manifesto.
Andre Breton wrote a second manifesto for his Surrealist group that was published in 1929, and he wrote a third manifesto that was not issued in his lifetime.

Paul Éluard

Paul EluardÉluardEluard
Breton's group grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, and Yves Tanguy.
Paul Éluard, born Eugène Émile Paul Grindel (14 December 1895 – 18 November 1952), was a French poet and one of the founders of the surrealist movement.

Robert Desnos

DesnosRobert-Desnos
Breton's group grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, and Yves Tanguy.
Robert Desnos (4 July 1900 – 8 June 1945) was a French surrealist poet who played a key role in the Surrealist movement of his day.

Littérature (magazine)

Littératurebelles-lettresLittérature'' magazine
Back in Paris, Breton joined in Dada activities and started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault.
Littérature was a literary and surrealistic magazine edited by André Breton, Philippe Soupault, and Louis Aragon.

Salvador Dalí

DalíDaliSalvador Dali
Breton's group grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, and Yves Tanguy.
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marquis of Dalí de Púbol (, ; 11 May 1904 – 23 January 1989) was a Spanish Surrealist artist, born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain.

Francis Picabia

PicabiaFrancis Picabia’sPicabia, Francis
One group, led by Yvan Goll consisted of Pierre Albert-Birot, Paul Dermée, Céline Arnauld, Francis Picabia, Tristan Tzara, Giuseppe Ungaretti, Pierre Reverdy, Marcel Arland, Joseph Delteil, Jean Painlevé and Robert Delaunay, among others The group lead by Andre Breton claimed that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than those of Dada, as lead by Tzara, who was now among their rivals.
He was later briefly associated with Surrealism, but would soon turn his back on the art establishment.

Pierre Naville

Breton's group grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, and Yves Tanguy.
Pierre Naville (1903 – 23 April 1993) was a French Surrealist writer and sociologist.

Jacques Vaché

Jacques VacheLettres de guerre
Meeting the young writer Jacques Vaché, Breton felt that Vaché was the spiritual son of writer and pataphysics founder Alfred Jarry.
Jacques Vaché (7 September 1895 – 6 January 1919) was a friend of André Breton, the founder of surrealism.

René Crevel

Rene CrevelRené Crével
Breton's group grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, and Yves Tanguy.
René Crevel (10 August 1900 – 18 June 1935) was a French writer involved with the surrealist movement.

Luis Buñuel

BuñuelBunuelLuis '''Buñuel
Breton's group grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, and Yves Tanguy.
When Buñuel died at age 83, his obituary in The New York Times called him "an iconoclast, moralist, and revolutionary who was a leader of avant-garde surrealism in his youth and a dominant international movie director half a century later".

Roger Vitrac

Vitrac
Breton's group grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, and Yves Tanguy.
Roger Vitrac (17 November 1899 – 22 January 1952) was a French surrealist playwright and poet.

Alfred Jarry

JarryA. JarryA.Jarry
Meeting the young writer Jacques Vaché, Breton felt that Vaché was the spiritual son of writer and pataphysics founder Alfred Jarry.
His play Ubu Roi is often cited as a forerunner of Dada and the Surrealist and Futurist movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

Max Ernst

ErnstMax ErnestErnst, Max
Breton's group grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, and Yves Tanguy.
A prolific artist, Ernst was a primary pioneer of the Dada movement and surrealism.

Man Ray

May RayRay, Man
Breton's group grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, and Yves Tanguy.
He was a significant contributor to the Dada and Surrealist movements, although his ties to each were informal.

Benjamin Péret

Benjamin PeretBenjamin Perét
Breton's group grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, and Yves Tanguy.
Benjamin Péret (4 July 1899 – 18 September 1959) was a French poet, Parisian Dadaist and a founder and central member of the French Surrealist movement with his avid use of Surrealist automatism.

Gala Dalí

GalaGala ÉluardGala Dali
Breton's group grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, and Yves Tanguy.
Gala Dalí, Marquis of Dalí de Púbol (7 September 1894 – 10 June 1982), usually known simply as Gala, was the Russian wife of poet Paul Éluard and later of artist Salvador Dalí, who were both prominent in surrealism.

Surrealist music

surrealismsurrealistsurrealistic
From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy, and social theory.
Anne cites automatism, including improvisation, and collage as the primary techniques of musical surrealism.

Yves Tanguy

TanguyMama, Papa is Wounded!
Breton's group grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, and Yves Tanguy.
Raymond Georges Yves Tanguy (January 5, 1900 – January 15, 1955), known as just Yves Tanguy, was a French surrealist painter.