Surveillance

electronic surveillancestakeoutmonitoringgovernment surveillancesurveillance systemcovert surveillanceelectronic eavesdroppingpolice surveillancesurveillance technologyaerial surveillance
In espionage and counterintelligence, surveillance ( or ) is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.wikipedia
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Closed-circuit television

CCTVsecurity cameravideo surveillance
This can include observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment (such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras) or interception of electronically transmitted information (such as Internet traffic or phone calls).
Though almost all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most often applied to those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks, stores, and other areas where security is needed.

ECHELON

FORNSATEchelon IIEchelon program
Billions of dollars per year are spent by agencies, such as the NSA, the FBI and the now-defunct Information Awareness Office, to develop, purchase, implement, and operate systems such as Carnivore, NarusInsight, and ECHELON to intercept and analyze all of this data to only extract the information which is useful to law enforcement and intelligence agencies.
ECHELON, originally a secret government code name, is a surveillance program (signals intelligence/SIGINT collection and analysis network) operated by the US with the aid of four other signatory nations to the UKUSA Security Agreement: Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, also known as the Five Eyes.

Espionage

spysecret agentspies
In espionage and counterintelligence, surveillance ( or ) is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.
Surveillance

Verint Systems

VerintVerint Systems Inc.
Speech-to-text software creates machine-readable text from intercepted audio, which is then processed by automated call-analysis programs, such as those developed by agencies such as the Information Awareness Office, or companies such as Verint, and Narus, which search for certain words or phrases, to decide whether to dedicate a human agent to the call.
The company sells software and hardware products for customer engagement management, security, surveillance, and business intelligence.

Information Awareness Office

Total Information AwarenessInformation Awareness Office FutureMap ProjectGenisys
Billions of dollars per year are spent by agencies, such as the NSA, the FBI and the now-defunct Information Awareness Office, to develop, purchase, implement, and operate systems such as Carnivore, NarusInsight, and ECHELON to intercept and analyze all of this data to only extract the information which is useful to law enforcement and intelligence agencies. Speech-to-text software creates machine-readable text from intercepted audio, which is then processed by automated call-analysis programs, such as those developed by agencies such as the Information Awareness Office, or companies such as Verint, and Narus, which search for certain words or phrases, to decide whether to dedicate a human agent to the call. Cameras and recording equipment used to be relatively expensive and required human personnel to monitor camera footage, but analysis of footage has been made easier by automated software that organizes digital video footage into a searchable database, and by video analysis software (such as VIRAT and HumanID).
The Information Awareness Office (IAO) was established by the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in January 2002 to bring together several DARPA projects focused on applying surveillance and information technology to track and monitor terrorists and other asymmetric threats to U.S. national security by achieving "Total Information Awareness" (TIA).

VIRAT

Cameras and recording equipment used to be relatively expensive and required human personnel to monitor camera footage, but analysis of footage has been made easier by automated software that organizes digital video footage into a searchable database, and by video analysis software (such as VIRAT and HumanID).
The Video and Image Retrieval and Analysis Tool (VIRAT) program is a video surveillance project funded by the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

Homeland Security Grant Program

U.S. Department of Homeland Security GrantUrban Area Security Initiative (UASI)
In the United States, the Department of Homeland Security awards billions of dollars per year in Homeland Security grants for local, state, and federal agencies to install modern video surveillance equipment.
The purpose of the grants is to purchase surveillance equipment, weapons, and advanced training for law enforcement personnel in order to heighten security.

Golden Shield Project

Great Firewall of Chinacensorship by the Chinese governmentChina's Golden Shield Project
As part of China's Golden Shield Project, several U.S. corporations, including IBM, General Electric, and Honeywell, have been working closely with the Chinese government to install millions of surveillance cameras throughout China, along with advanced video analytics and facial recognition software, which will identify and track individuals everywhere they go. They will be connected to a centralized database and monitoring station, which will, upon completion of the project, contain a picture of the face of every person in China: over 1.3 billion people.
The Golden Shield Project also manages the Bureau of Public Information and Network Security Supervision (公共信息网络安全监察局, or 网监局 for short), which is a bureau that is widely believed, though not officially claimed, to operate a subproject called the Great Firewall of China (GFW, ), which is a censorship and surveillance project that blocks politically inconvenient incoming data from foreign countries.

Biometrics

biometricbiometric authenticationbiometric data
The development of centralized networks of CCTV cameras watching public areas – linked to computer databases of people's pictures and identity (biometric data), able to track people's movements throughout the city, and identify whom they have been with – has been argued by some to present a risk to civil liberties.
It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.

Postal interception

interception of mail
It can also include simple no- or relatively low-technology methods such as human intelligence agent and postal interception.
Surveillance

Surveillance aircraft

reconnaissanceaerial surveillancesurveillance
Aerial surveillance is the gathering of surveillance, usually visual imagery or video, from an airborne vehicle—such as an unmanned aerial vehicle, helicopter, or spy plane.
A surveillance aircraft is an aircraft used for surveillance—collecting information over time.

DARPA

ARPADefense Advanced Research Projects AgencyAdvanced Research Projects Agency
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is funding a research project called Combat Zones That See that will link up cameras across a city to a centralized monitoring station, identify and track individuals and vehicles as they move through the city, and report "suspicious" activity (such as waving arms, looking side-to-side, standing in a group, etc.). Programs such as the Heterogeneous Aerial Reconnaissance Team program developed by DARPA have automated much of the aerial surveillance process.
The DEFENDER and AGILE programs formed the foundation of DARPA sensor, surveillance, and directed energy R&D, particularly in the study of radar, infrared sensing, and x-ray/gamma ray detection.

Government database

databasenew databaseaggregated
However, when many such transactions are aggregated they can be used to assemble a detailed profile revealing the actions, habits, beliefs, locations frequented, social connections, and preferences of the individual.
A government database collects information for various reasons, including climate monitoring, securities law compliance, geological surveys, patent applications and grants, surveillance, national security, border control, law enforcement, public health, voter registration, vehicle registration, social security, and statistics.

Operation Virtual Shield

For example, the city of Chicago, Illinois, recently used a $5.1 million Homeland Security grant to install an additional 250 surveillance cameras, and connect them to a centralized monitoring center, along with its preexisting network of over 2000 cameras, in a program known as Operation Virtual Shield.
Operation Virtual Shield is a program implemented by Chicago, IL mayor Richard M. Daley, which created the most extensive video surveillance network in the United States by linking more than 3000 surveillance cameras to a centralized monitoring system, which captures and processes camera feeds in real time.

Heterogeneous Aerial Reconnaissance Team

HART
Programs such as the Heterogeneous Aerial Reconnaissance Team program developed by DARPA have automated much of the aerial surveillance process.
The Heterogeneous Aerial Reconnaissance Team (HART)—formerly known as the "Heterogeneous Urban RSTA Team (HURT)"—program was an aerial surveillance project funded by the Information Processing Technology Office (which was merged into the Information Innovation Office) of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency with program managers John Bay and Michael Pagels.

Verizon Communications

VerizonBell AtlanticGTE
Two major telecommunications companies in the U.S.—AT&T Inc. and Verizon—have contracts with the FBI, requiring them to keep their phone call records easily searchable and accessible for Federal agencies, in return for $1.8 million per year.
The publication attracted controversy after it was reported that its writers were forbidden from publishing articles related to net neutrality or domestic surveillance.

Internet of things

IoTInternet of Things (IoT)Internet-of-Things
"In the future, intelligence services might use the internet of things for identification, surveillance, monitoring, location tracking, and targeting for recruitment, or to gain access to networks or user credentials," Clapper said.
The Internet of Things Council compared the increased prevalence of digital surveillance due to the Internet of things to the conceptual panopticon described by Jeremy Bentham in the 18th Century.

Carnivore (software)

CarnivoreDCS1000FBI Carnivore program
Billions of dollars per year are spent by agencies, such as the NSA, the FBI and the now-defunct Information Awareness Office, to develop, purchase, implement, and operate systems such as Carnivore, NarusInsight, and ECHELON to intercept and analyze all of this data to only extract the information which is useful to law enforcement and intelligence agencies.
Surveillance

Covert listening device

buggedbugbugging
Covert listening devices and video devices, or "bugs", are hidden electronic devices which are used to capture, record, and/or transmit data to a receiving party such as a law enforcement agency.
The use of bugs, called bugging, is a common technique in surveillance, espionage and police investigations.

Stingray phone tracker

StingRayStingraysStingray device
The StingRay tracker is an example of one of these tools used to monitor cell phone usage in the United States and the United Kingdom.
Critics have expressed concern about the export of surveillance technology to countries with poor human rights records and histories of abusing surveillance technology.

Reconnaissance aircraft

reconnaissancereconnaissance planereconnaissance planes
On May 25, 2007 the U.S. Director of National Intelligence Michael McConnell authorized the National Applications Office (NAO) of the Department of Homeland Security to allow local, state, and domestic Federal agencies to access imagery from military intelligence Reconnaissance satellites and Reconnaissance aircraft sensors which can now be used to observe the activities of U.S. citizens.
In addition to general intelligence gathering, modern technology has also enabled some aircraft and UAVs to carry out real-time surveillance.

Nothing to hide argument

If you aren't doing something wrong then you don't have anything to fearNothing to hide, nothing to fearwe have nothing to hide
Another common argument is: "If you aren't doing something wrong then you don't have anything to fear."
The nothing to hide argument states that government surveillance programs do not threaten privacy unless they uncover illegal activities, and that if they do uncover illegal activities, the person committing these activities does not have the right to keep them private.

Mass surveillance

surveillance statesurveillance societysurveillance
Many civil rights and privacy groups, such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and American Civil Liberties Union, have expressed concern that by allowing continual increases in government surveillance of citizens we will end up in a mass surveillance society, with extremely limited, or non-existent political and/or personal freedoms.
Mass surveillance is the intricate surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population in order to monitor that group of citizens.

Combat Zones That See

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is funding a research project called Combat Zones That See that will link up cameras across a city to a centralized monitoring station, identify and track individuals and vehicles as they move through the city, and report "suspicious" activity (such as waving arms, looking side-to-side, standing in a group, etc.).
Surveillance

Privacy

privacy rightsprivateright of privacy
Many civil rights and privacy groups, such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and American Civil Liberties Union, have expressed concern that by allowing continual increases in government surveillance of citizens we will end up in a mass surveillance society, with extremely limited, or non-existent political and/or personal freedoms. Surveillance can be viewed as a violation of privacy, and as such is often opposed by various civil liberties groups and activists.
Surveillance