A report on Sushi

President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe at Sukiyabashi Jiro
Sushi by Hiroshige
Sushi platter in takeway
Chirashizushi with raw ingredients
Three pieces of inarizushi
Funa-zushi (narezushi made from nigorobuna)
Nigirizushi
Several types of nigirizushi, rice hand-pressed with various seafood, including tuna, eel, and sea urchin roe gunkanmaki
Japanese cutlassfish oshizushi at a restaurant in Minamata City, Kumamoto Prefecture
Oshi-zushi (Pressed sushi)
Norway roll (ノルウェー巻き). A Norwegian businessman introduced the use of salmon as a sushi ingredient to Japan in the 1980s.
Uramakizushi rolls
Rainbow roll, uramaki with multiple fillings including shrimp tempura, salmon, avocado, mango, with rice mixed with tobiko
Sushi chef preparing nigirizushi, Kyoto, Japan
Sheets of nori
Sushi made of meats other than fish (whether raw or cooked) is a variation often seen in Japan.
Yaki anago-ippon-nigiri (焼きアナゴ一本握り) – a roasted and sweet-sauced whole conger eel
Ebifurai-maki (エビフライ巻き) – fried-shrimp roll
Sushi in shops are usually sold in plastic trays.
Sushi served on a wooden platter at a sushi restaurant in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan
Sushi in restaurant in Vienna, Austria
Meat sushi
{{transl|ja|Makizushi}} topped with {{transl|ja|tobiko}}
{{transl|ja|Makizushi}} in preparation
{{transl|ja|Futomaki}}
{{transl|ja|Kappamaki}}
{{transl|ja|Nattōmaki}}
{{transl|ja|Tekkamaki}}
{{transl|ja|Ehōmaki}}
{{nihongo3|fatty tuna belly|鮪とろ握り|Toro nigiri}}
{{nihongo|Salmon roll|巻き鮭}}
{{nihongo3|persimmon leaf|柿の葉寿司|Kakinoha}} sushi
{{nihongo||茶巾寿司|Chakin-zushi}}, wrapped in thin omelette
{{nihongo|Sushi plate|盛り合わせ}}
{{nihongo||イクラ軍艦巻き|Ikura gunkan-maki}}
{{nihongo3|bamboo leaf|笹寿司|Sasa}} sushi
{{nihongo3|teriyaki-roasted freshwater eel|鰻寿司|Unagi}} sushi
{{transl|ja|Nigirizushi}} for sale at a supermarket in Tokyo
{{nihongo|Assorted sushi|盛り合わせ}}
{{nihongo|Assorted Western sushi|盛り合わせ}}
Western California roll and tuna roll {{transl|ja|uramaki}} ({{lang|ja|カリフォルニア巻き}})
{{nihongo|Western spicy tuna hand roll|スパイシーツナロール}}
{{nihongo|Western spicy shrimp roll|スパイシー海老ロール}}
{{transl|ja|Gari}} (ginger)
Wasabi
thumb|right|{{transl|ja|Tamago}} sushi

Japanese dish of prepared vinegared rice (鮨飯), usually with some sugar and salt, accompanied by a variety of ingredients (ねた), such as seafood, often raw, and vegetables.

- Sushi

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Osechi, new year special dishes

Japanese cuisine

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Japanese cuisine encompasses the regional and traditional foods of Japan, which have developed through centuries of political, economic, and social changes.

Japanese cuisine encompasses the regional and traditional foods of Japan, which have developed through centuries of political, economic, and social changes.

Osechi, new year special dishes
A Japanese meal including tempura, sashimi, and miso soup
Breakfast at a ryokan (Japanese inn), featuring grilled mackerel, Kansai-style dashimaki egg, tofu in kaminabe (paper pot)
Osechi, new year dishes
Kaiseki appetizers on a wooden plate
Yakiniku
The use of soy sauce is prevalent in Japanese cuisine
Japanese boiled spinach salad (Ohitashi)
Tempura battered and deep fried seafood and vegetables
Yakitori grilled chicken
Western cuisine in kaiseki style
Nattō, Japanese soybean-based vegetarian food
Gyūdon beef rice bowl (right) and niku shoyu ramen beef noodle (left).
Udon noodles
Soba noodles
Curry is so widely consumed that it can be called a national dish.
Japanese pancake, Okonomiyaki
Tonkatsu pork cutlet
California roll, a fusion makizushi created outside of Japan.
A branch of Kokoro in Sutton High Street, Sutton, Greater London
Chicken teriyaki bento set, including salmon sashimi, gyoza, salad and miso soup, served in a Japanese restaurant in Jakarta.
Okonomiyaki and takoyaki served in a festival of 2018 Asian Games in Jakarta
Whale meat sashimi, one of the most controversial Japanese dishes

Seafood is common, often grilled, but also served raw as sashimi or in sushi.

Sashimi combo served on a wooden plate, consists of slices of assorted fish flesh

Sashimi

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Japanese delicacy consisting of fresh raw fish or meat sliced into thin pieces and often eaten with soy sauce.

Japanese delicacy consisting of fresh raw fish or meat sliced into thin pieces and often eaten with soy sauce.

Sashimi combo served on a wooden plate, consists of slices of assorted fish flesh
Assorted sashimi: tuna, cuttlefish, and seabream
Plate of fugu sashimi (thinly sliced puffer fish)
Sashimi bōchō kitchen knives for sashimi
alt=Goat meat served raw as sashimi.|Goat meat served raw as sashimi
alt=Thinly sliced mimiga and chiraga served as sashimi.|Thinly sliced "mimigā" (near) and "chiragā" (far).
A plate of dolphin sashimi
A plate of horse sashimi (basashi)
thumb|Beef sashimi
Chicken sashimi served lightly braised as tataki
thumb|Beef liver sashimi served with sesame seed oil and salt{{Efn|Japanese regulation has banned providing or selling raw beef liver for sashimi at restaurants or stores, due to the risk of Hepatitis E and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, since July 2012.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/seisakunitsuite/bunya/kenkou_iryou/shokuhin/syouhisya/110720/index.html|title=Japanese regulation document|archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20150724035815/http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/seisakunitsuite/bunya/kenkou_iryou/shokuhin/syouhisya/110720/index.html|archive-date= 24 July 2015}}</ref>|name=bliver2012|group=}}|alt=1

Many non-Japanese use the terms sashimi and sushi interchangeably, but the two dishes are distinct and separate.

A bowl of soy sauce

Soy sauce

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Liquid condiment of Chinese origin, traditionally made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds.

Liquid condiment of Chinese origin, traditionally made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds.

A bowl of soy sauce
Shoyu ramen
Soy sauce is made from soybeans
Soy and wheat with Aspergillus sojae cultures to brew soy sauce
A bottle of commercially made light soy sauce
Toyomansi, a typical Filipino dipping sauce composed of soy sauce and calamansi spiced with siling labuyo
Left, ABC brand Kecap manis sweet Indonesian soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses; right, Kecap asin
Japanese supermarket soy sauce corner
Traditional Korean soy sauce
Soft serve usually topped with Thai sweet soy sauce served at Yaowarat, Bangkok, Thailand

It is often eaten with rice, noodles, and sushi or sashimi, or can also be mixed with ground wasabi for dipping.

California roll sushi with roe

California roll

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California roll sushi with roe
California roll sushi with roe

A California roll or California maki is a makizushi sushi roll that is usually rolled inside-out, and containing cucumber, crab or imitation crab, and avocado.

Sushi plate (盛り合わせ) with sashimi to the left and a Western-style inside-out roll (rice outside) to the right.

List of sushi and sashimi ingredients

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Sushi plate (盛り合わせ) with sashimi to the left and a Western-style inside-out roll (rice outside) to the right.
Packaged nigirizushi for sale at a Tokyo supermarket
California roll is a contemporary style maki-zushi (roll) containing cucumber, cooked crab meat or an imitation, and avocado that is made inside-out (Uramaki) with rice on the outside and an outer layer of tobiko or sesame seeds, shown here with a similar maki-zushi with raw tuna, which is darker
Tamagoyaki, also referred to as tamago
Engawa (meat close to the fin of a flounder) nigirizushi
Various cuts of tuna including akami, otoro and chutoro prepared as sashimi
Unagi nigiri sushi
Sea cucumber (Namako)
Ikura gunkan maki sushi
Shirako (cod sperm) gunkanmaki-zushi
Raw abalone meat
Salmon nigiri
Soft-shell crab on ice
A dish of tsukemono

There are many sushi and sashimi ingredients, some traditional and some contemporary.

Raw meat is found in Ethiopian cuisine.

Raw meat

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Animal used for food.

Animal used for food.

Raw meat is found in Ethiopian cuisine.
Steak tartare

While the majority of meat is cooked before eating, some traditional dishes such as crudos, steak tartare, Mett, kibbeh nayyeh, sushi/sashimi, raw oysters, or other delicacies can call for uncooked meat.

Salmon roe (left) and sturgeon roe (caviar) (right)

Roe

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Fully ripe internal egg masses in the ovaries, or the released external egg masses, of fish and certain marine animals such as shrimp, scallop, sea urchins and squid.

Fully ripe internal egg masses in the ovaries, or the released external egg masses, of fish and certain marine animals such as shrimp, scallop, sea urchins and squid.

Salmon roe (left) and sturgeon roe (caviar) (right)
Toast Skagen topped with cold-smoked salmon roe, on bread
Photograph of men harvesting and fertilizing salmon eggs from a female at a hatchery in Alaska by John Nathan Cobb (early 20th century)
Fried roe dish with vegetables
Sushi topped with salmon roe
Ikuradon, a bowl of rice topped with salmon roe
Uncooked noodle made from shrimp roe
Sea urchin roe
Taramasalata, salad made with taramá
Romanian roe salad decorated with black olives
Open sandwich (butterbrot) with pollock roe
Smörgåskaviar as a condiment on a cottage cheese sandwich

A variety of roe types are used in Japanese cuisine, including the following which are used raw in sushi:

A block of raw silken tofu from Japan

Tofu

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Food prepared by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into solid white blocks of varying softness; it can be silken, soft, firm, extra firm or super firm.

Food prepared by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into solid white blocks of varying softness; it can be silken, soft, firm, extra firm or super firm.

A block of raw silken tofu from Japan
Shichijyu-ichi ban Shokunin Utaawase [七十一番職人歌合] 37, Tofu seller (1500).
Sun-dubu (extra soft tofu)
Soft tofu
Firm tofu
Dòugān (extra firm tofu)
Pickled tofu
Thawed and sliced frozen tofu
Koya-dofu after soaking in water
Tofu skin
Chinese soft tofu dish, pidan doufu
Prepared dried tofu threads ({{lang|zh|干絲}}, gānsī
Chòudòufu is a very pungent type of tofu
Sichuan-style (málà chòudòufu) numbing spicy stinky tofu
Tofu and potatoes grilled at a street stall in Yuanyang, Yunnan province, China
Douhua ({{lang|zh|豆花}}), is a soft tofu dish. The fresh tofu is served warm and dressed with sweet syrup.
A dish prepared from Sichuan style tofu
Japanese-style silken tofu with soy sauce and a decorative carrot slice
Atsuage, thick fried tofu
Goma tofu, made from sesame seeds and kudzu starch
Yudofu, or tofu in hot water
Inarizushi, tofu skin with various fillings
Tofu in miso soup
Ganmodoki ({{lang|ja|がんもどき}})
Local specialty komo-dofu on sale in a market in Takayama
Pan-fried tofu served with seasoned soy sauce for dipping
Dubu-kimchi (blanched tofu served with stir-fried kimchi)
Boiled sun-dubu (extra soft tofu) served in ttukbaegi
Sundubu-jjigae (spicy soft tofu stew)
Dallae-doenjang-guk (soybean paste soup with wild chives and tofu)
Chilled tofu served with soy sauce seasonings
Crumbled tofu and mashed broccoli salad
Tahu putih (firm white tofu)
Tahu goreng (fried tofu) has its brown skin
Tahu sumedang with bird's eye chili
Tahu gejrot with thin light spicy sauce
Yellow tofu (tofu colored with turmeric) on top of laksa
Tahu bacem, tofu simmered in palm sugar and spices
Kembang tahu, served in sweet ginger syrup
Perkedel tahu goreng (Dutch-Indonesian food based on tofu and Dutch cooking technique) Frikadeller
Tahu isi, Indonesian fried tofu filled with vegetable, shrimp, or chicken served with bird eye chili and sweet shrimp paste
Tahu telor or Tahu tek, omelette tofu served with vegetable, krupuk, peanut sauce, shrimp paste, sweet soy sauce, and sambal
Kupat tahu, tofu served with rice cake, noodle and sweet soy sauce
Tahu campur, tofu soup with beef and tendon served in broth, soy sauce, shrimp paste, vegetable, krupuk and sambal
Tahu bakso or batagor, literally bakso (meatball), tahu (tofu), goreng (fried). Fried tofu filled with fish, tapioca starch, or meat.
Tahu tuna. fried tofu filled with grounded tuna. a delicacy from pacitan, East java.
Tahu gimbal. a tofu-dish with peanut sauce and gimbal (shrimp fritter) from Semarang.
Tahu petis. fried tofu filled with petis (black colored shrimp paste sauce). Originated from Semarang, Central Java.
Tahu aci. fried tofu stuffed with tapioca starch. Originated from Tegal, Central Java.
A cup of taho.
Bún đậu mắm tôm

The thinner variety, called aburaage (油揚げ), develops a tofu pouch often used for inarizushi.

Tuna

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Saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a subgrouping of the Scombridae family.

Saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a subgrouping of the Scombridae family.

Relative sizes of various tunas, with the Atlantic bluefin tuna (top) at about 8 ft in this sample
Bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus showing finlets and keels. Finlets are found between the last dorsal and/or anal fin and the caudal fin. They are rayless and non-retractable. Drawing by Dr Tony Ayling.
Maximum reported sizes of tuna species
A grilled tuna steak
275x275px
400px
Tuna being weighed on Greek quay-side
Tuna at Tsukiji fish market, Tokyo
Tuna cut in half for processing at Tsukuji fish market
<center>Sushi</center>
<center>Tuna salad</center>
<center>Tuna steak served in a French bistro</center>
<center>Tekkadon</center>
<center>Katsuobushi shavings</center>
<center>Mojama</center>

Various species of tuna are often served raw in Japanese cuisine as sushi or sashimi.

A mixture of brown, white, and red indica rice, also containing wild rice, Zizania species

Rice

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Seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or less commonly Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

Seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or less commonly Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

A mixture of brown, white, and red indica rice, also containing wild rice, Zizania species
Oryza sativa with small wind-pollinated flowers
Cooked brown rice from Bhutan
Jumli Marshi, brown rice from Nepal
Rice can come in many shapes, colors and sizes.
Single grain of rice under handmade microscope
Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice
Unmilled to milled Japanese rice, from left to right, brown rice, rice with germ, white rice
Tteumul, water from the washing of rice
-Rice processing- A: Rice with chaff B: Brown rice C: Rice with germ D: White rice with bran residue E: Musenmai (Japanese: 無洗米), "Polished and ready to boil rice", literally, non-wash rice (1): Chaff (2): Bran (3): Bran residue (4): Cereal germ (5): Endosperm
Worldwide rice production
Production of rice (2019)
Burning of rice residues after harvest, to quickly prepare the land for wheat planting, around Sangrur, Punjab, India.
Rice combine harvester Katori-city, Chiba Prefecture, Japan
After the harvest, rice straw is gathered in the traditional way from small paddy fields in Mae Wang District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
Drying rice in Peravoor, India
Work by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture to measure the greenhouse gas emissions of rice production.
Chinese rice grasshopper (Oxya chinensis) Borneo, Malaysia
Chloroxylon is used for pest management in organic rice cultivation in Chhattisgarh, India.
Rice seed collection from IRRI
Ancient statue of Dewi Sri from Java (c. 9th century)
Hainanese chicken rice in Singapore
Annual per capita rice supply (2019)

A stickier short-grain rice is used for sushi; the stickiness allows rice to hold its shape when cooked.